Texas Radiation Online - Glossary

Texas Radiation Online's Radioactive Materials Dictionary
Compiled by Tristan Mendoza, March 2002- October 2003
Version 2.0 - Over 7,300 defined terms and acronyms!

How to use this dictionary:
Sources for the definitions is found in square brackets [ ]. This glossary was made from 8 glossaries from DOE publications, two EPA glossaries, 2 TNRCC glossaries, an IEER glossary, and finally, 2 listings found at the NRC's website. Additions were then made using 10 other glossaries from other sources found on the internet. IMPORTANT- Some definitions have an addition with the label "TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code." This definition is the authoritative legal definition of that particular term in the State of Texas. New definitions added during and after the 78th Regular Session of the Texas State Legislature will be added when time permits.

Some definitions appear in the form of "reactor, pressurized" or alternately, "pressurized reactor." In instances that both forms were found in glossaries I used, an attempt was made to merge them into one single defining term, so that there would be no duplication. Due to the multiple origins of the definitions, and the limited manpower on the project, there are sure to be items which were not merged, or which utilized either one form opposed to the other. If you are unable to find a multiple word term in the dictionary, please check to see if the other form is used to verify that the term you seek to define is here. Better yet, use Ctrl-F (Cmd-F on Apple Computers), to enter a term to find on the page.

One word on acronyms and such- these are often found in separated documents from the definitions themselves, and were previously neglected in the process for this reason. I just added (Oct 2003) over 6000 acronyms from the NRC's NUREG-0544, which is dedicated to acronyms. These are at the top of each alphabetical category. There are previously existing other acronyms mixed in with the definitions which will be later consolidated so that all acronyms will be grouped, listed at the beginning of the alphabetical category. This will happen when time permits since there are between five and ten concurrent ongoing projects being worked on at one time here.

Origin codes found in square brackets:
Some origin code are missing from a few of the definitions, these were either formulated in priori or were simply missed in the mechanical work of accumulation. DOE Publications: "From Closure to Stewardship [DOE/EM-0466], "Linking Legacies" [DOE/EM-0319], "Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom" - [DOE/EM-0266], "Directions In LLW Management" - [DOE/LLW-103], "Accelerating Cleanup- Paths To Closure" - [DOE/EM-0342], Low-Level Waste Disposal Capacity Report, Revision 2 [DOELLWRpt], DOE 1996 Integrated Data Base Report [DOE-IDB97], EA-DOE Sale of Surplus Natural and Low Enriched Uranium - [DOE/EA-1172], "Licensing an Assured Isolation Facility for Low-Level Radioactive Waste" - [DOE/LLW-250a], Lawrence Berkeley Nat'l Labs online glossary [LBNL].
TNRCC's Texas Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generation Trends and Management Alternatives Study [TNRCC]. Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control website glossary [TDHBRC]. IEER nuclear glossary [IEER]. EPA Mixed Waste glossary [EPA-MW]. EPA Guide to DOE LLRW glossary [EPALLRW]. Connecticut Yankee website glossary [CY]. Arrow-Tech Inc dictionary [AT]. Nat'l Safety Council Environmental Health Center's WIPP dictionary [NSCEHC]. DOE Office of Environmental Management internal-use glossary [EM-INT] (with permission). Nuclear Regulatory Commission website glossary [NRC]. NRC Collection of Abbreviations, Rev. 4 [NUREG-0544]. Waste Isolation Pilot Project EA Dictionary [WIPPEA]. DOE Environmental Management (website) Glossary [DOEEMGMT]. AtomicArchive.com's glossary [ATARC].

10 CFR Part 61: Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 61, "Licensing Requirements of Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste." [TNRCC]

11e(2) byproduct material: The tailings or waste produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from any ore processed primarily for its source material (i.e., uranium or thorium) content. 11e(2) byproduct material is defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.. [DOE/EM-0319] See also: Byproduct Material

|------------------------ A ------------------------|

A-106 Compliance Category: A compliance category, as determined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that applies to an A-106 project. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Date: The date that an A-l06 project number was reported to the Office of Environmental Safety and Health (EH). [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Environmental Category: An environmental category within a law or regulation that is applicable to an A-106 project. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Environmental Regulation: An environmental law or regulation that is applicable to an A-106 project. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Funding: The percentage of an ADS's funding that is applicable to an A-106 project. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Priority Rating: A ranking of an A-106 project in comparison to other A-106 projects. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Program Area: The program area category of the Federal Agency Pollution Plan (OMB Circular A-106) project. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Project: A pollution prevention or abatement activity that is required for compliance with Federal environmental regulations that are applicable to the Federal Agency Pollution Plan (OMB Circular A-106). [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Project Number: The number by which work required by the Federal Agency Pollution Abatement Plan (OMB Circular A-106) is reported to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to Congress. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Project Title: The name by which work required by the Federal Agency Pollution Abatement Plan (OMB Circular A-106) is reported to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to Congress. [DOEEMGMT]

A-106 Status Category: A category, as determined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that describes an A-106 project's state of execution. [DOEEMGMT]

AA: access authorization [NUREG-0544]

AAA: Agency Allegations Advisor [NUREG-0544]

AAAC: Affirmative Action Advisory Committee [NUREG-0544]

AAC: Alternate AC [NUREG-0544]

AACC: American Association for Contamination Control [NUREG-0544]

AAEC: Australian Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

AAECS: auxiliary area environmental control system [NUREG-0544]

AAEGTS: auxiliary area emergency gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

AAHP: American Academy of Health Physics [NUREG-0544]

AAM: airborne activity monitor [NUREG-0544]

AAPM: American Association of Physicists in Medicine [NUREG-0544]

AAR: Aktiebolaget Atomenergi Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

AARR: Argonne Advanced Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials [NUREG-0544]

AATN: Asociaci—n Argentina de Tecnolog’a Nuclear (Argentina) [NUREG-0544]

AB: auxiliary boiler [NUREG-0544]

ABACC: Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material [NUREG-0544]

ABB-CE: Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

ABCC: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission [NUREG-0544]

ABET: Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology [NUREG-0544]

ABFS: auxiliary building filter system [NUREG-0544]

ABGTS: auxiliary building gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

ABHP: American Board of Health Physics [NUREG-0544]

ABHX: air blast heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

ABI: auxiliary building isolation [NUREG-0544]

ABLE: activity balance line evaluation [NUREG-0544]

ABMA: American Boiler Manufacturers Association and Affiliated Industries [NUREG-0544]

ABNP: Alan R. Barton Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

ABR: as-built reconciliation [NUREG-0544]

ABRR: as-built reverification record [NUREG-0544]

ABST: auxiliary building sump tank [NUREG-0544]

ABSVS: auxiliary building special ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

ABT: automatic bus transfer [NUREG-0544]

ABV: auxiliary building ventilation [NUREG-0544]

ABWR: advanced boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

ABWRP: American Boiling Water Reactor Program [NUREG-0544]

AC: acid concentrator [NUREG-0544]

A&C: adequacy and compatibility [NUREG-0544]

AC: administrative control, advisory committee, air conditioning, allegations coordinator [NUREG-0544]

AC: alternating current [NUREG-0544]

A/C: air conditioning [NUREG-0544]

A-C: Allis-Chalmers Corp. or Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company [NUREG-0544]

ACA: Arms Control Association [NUREG-0544]

ACAD: air containment atmosphere dilution [NUREG-0544]

ACB: air-operated circuit breaker, Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne (France) [NUREG-0544]

ACC: accumulator, air-cooled condenser [NUREG-0544]

ACCWS: auxiliary component cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

ACDA: Arms Control and Disarmament Agency [NUREG-0544]

ACEC: Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi, S.A. (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

ACF: acid concentrator feed, ampacity correction factor, automatic control feature, acfm, actual cubic foot/feet per minute [NUREG-0544]

ACHP: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation [NUREG-0544]

ACI: American Concrete Institute, automatic closure and interlock [NUREG-0544]

ACIWA: ac-independent water addition [NUREG-0544]

ACL: access control list, alternate concentration limit [NUREG-0544]

ACLP: above-core load pad, above-core load plane [NUREG-0544]

ACM: alternate contact mode, auxiliary cooling method [NUREG-0544]

ACMUI: Advisory Committee on the Medical Uses of Isotopes (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ACNFS: Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (DOE) [NUREG-0544]

ACNP: American College of Nuclear Physicians [NUREG-0544]

ACNS: Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

ACNW: Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ACORN: Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now [NUREG-0544]

ACOT: analog channel operational test [NUREG-0544]

ACP: auxiliary control panel [NUREG-0544]

ACPDS: Advisory Committee on Personal Dosimetry Services (NSF) [NUREG-0544]

ACPR: advanced core performance reactor, advanced core pulsed reactor, annular core pulsed reactor [NUREG-0544]

ACR: advanced converter reactor, attribute coverage report [NUREG-0544]

ACRE: advanced compact reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

ACRG: Advanced Code Review Group (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ACRI: Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute [NUREG-0544]

ACRR: annular core research reactor [NUREG-0544]

ACRS: Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ACS: Advanced Computer System, alternate core spray, American Chemical Society, auxiliary cooling system [NUREG-0544]

ACSNI: Advisory Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (U.K.) [NUREG-0544]

ACTIVITIES: automated commitment tracking system [NUREG-0544]

ACU: air cleanup unit [NUREG-0544]

AD: assistant director [NUREG-0544]

A/D: analog to digital [NUREG-0544]

ADAMS: Agencywide Documents Access and Management System [NUREG-0544]

ADAS: automatic data acquisition and storage [NUREG-0544]

ADC: authorized derivative classifier [NUREG-0544]

ADDS: applied digital data system [NUREG-0544]

ADEA: Association Belge pour le DŽveloppement Pacifique de l'Energie Atomique, (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

ADFCER: Assistant Director for Fuel Cycle and Environmental Research [NUREG-0544]

ADI: Applied Dynamics International [NUREG-0544]

ADM: Administration, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

AND: apparent discrepancy notification [NUREG-0544]

ADP: automated data processing, automatic data processing [NUREG-0544]

ADPE: automatic data processing equipment [NUREG-0544]

ADR: audit discrepancy report [NUREG-0544]

ADRS: automated data retrieval system [NUREG-0544]

ADS: automated data system, automatic depressurization system, automatic dispatch system [NUREG-0544]

ADT: aerated drain tank [NUREG-0544]

ADU: ammonium diuranate [NUREG-0544]

ADV: atmospheric dump valve [NUREG-0544]

AE: acoustic emission, air ejector, architect-engineer [NUREG-0544]

A/E: architect-engineer [NUREG-0544]

A-E: architect-engineer [NUREG-0544]

AEA: Atomic Energy Act of 1954, Atomic Energy Authority [NUREG-0544]

AEB: Atomic Energy Bureau (Korea), auxiliary equipment building [NUREG-0544]

AEC: Alternative Energy Coalition, Atomic Energy Commission, U.S. (Became ERDA and NRC) [NUREG-0544]

AECB: Atomic Energy Control Board (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

AECC: Aerojet Energy Conversion Co. [NUREG-0544]

AECL: AECL Technologies, Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. [NUREG-0544]

AECLT: Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Technologies [NUREG-0544]

AECM: Atomic Energy Commission Manual [NUREG-0544]

AECPR: Atomic Energy Commission Procurement Regulation [NUREG-0544]

AEDE: annual effective dose equivalent [NUREG-0544]

AEE: Atomic Energy Establishment (Libya) [NUREG-0544]

AEEN: Agenzia Europea per l'Energia Nucleare, Agence EuropŽenne pour l'Energie NuclŽaire [NUREG-0544]

AEEW: Atomic Energy Establishment of Winfrith (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

AEF: Argonne Experimental Facility [NUREG-0544]

AEGTS: annulus exhaust gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

AEI: Associated Electric Industries Ltd. (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

AEN: Agence pour l'Energie NuclŽaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

AENJ: Atlantic Electric of New Jersey [NUREG-0544]

AEO: Atomic Energy Organization (Iran) [NUREG-0544]

AEOD: Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, Office for (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

AEOF: alternate emergency operations facility [NUREG-0544]

AEOI: Atomic Energy Organization of Iran [NUREG-0544]

AEOR: Annual Environmental Operating Report [NUREG-0544]

AEP: American Electric Power Co., Inc. [NUREG-0544]

AEPSC: American Electric Power Service Corp. [NUREG-0544]

AERCW: auxiliary essential raw cooling water [NUREG-0544]

AERE: Atomic Energy Research Establishment (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

AERO: Association for Excellence in Reactor Operations [NUREG-0544]

AES: aerospace and electronic systems [NUREG-0544]

AESJ: Atomic Energy Society of Japan [NUREG-0544]

AETR: advanced engineering test reactor, advanced epithermal thorium reactor [NUREG-0544]

AF: alternating field, auxiliary feed, auxiliary feedwater [NUREG-0544]

AF/AL: as found, as left [NUREG-0544]

AFAS: auxiliary feedwater actuating system [NUREG-0544]

AFB: Air Force base [NUREG-0544]

AFBMA: Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

AFC: automatic flow control [NUREG-0544]

AFD: acid fractionator distillate, axial flux difference [NUREG-0544]

AFDC: auxiliary feedwater discharge cross-connection [NUREG-0544]

AFDS: automatic fire detection system [NUREG-0544]

AFI: Air Filter Institute [NUREG-0544]

AFL: active fuel length [NUREG-0544]

AFNE: Americans for Nuclear Energy [NUREG-0544]

AF: NETFAir Force Nuclear Engineering Test Facility [NUREG-0544]

AFO: auxiliary fuel oil [NUREG-0544]

AFOS: auxiliary fuel oil system [NUREG-0544]

AFP: auxiliary feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

AFR: acid fractionation recycle, acid fractionator recycle, away from reactor [NUREG-0544]

AFRRI: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

AFS: auxiliary feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

AFSR: Argonne Fast-Source Reactor [NUREG-0544]

AFW: auxiliary feedwater [NUREG-0544]

AFWAS: auxiliary feedwater actuation system [NUREG-0544]

AFWC: auxiliary feedwater control [NUREG-0544]

AFWS: auxiliary feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

AG: Aerojet-General Corp. [NUREG-0544]

AGA: automatic gas analyzer [NUREG-0544]

AGC: advanced gas centrifuge [NUREG-0544]

AGCR: advanced gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

AGC: Aerojet-General Corp. [NUREG-0544]

AGL: above-ground level [NUREG-0544]

AGMA: American Gear Manufacturers Association [NUREG-0544]

AGN: Aerojet-General Nucleonics [NUREG-0544]

AGNS: Allied-General Nuclear Services [NUREG-0544]

AGR: advanced gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

AGS: alternating gradient synchrotron, annular gas system [NUREG-0544]

AGU: American Geophysical Union [NUREG-0544]

AGVC: automatic governing valve control, automatic governor valve control [NUREG-0544]

AGW: accident-generated water [NUREG-0544]

AGZ: actual ground zero [NUREG-0544]

A/H: air handling [NUREG-0544]

AHFR: Argonne High-Flux Reactor [NUREG-0544]

AHJ: authority housing jurisdiction [NUREG-0544]

AHM: auxiliary handling machine [NUREG-0544]

AHPA: Archeological and Historic Preservation Act [NUREG-0544]

AHR: aqueous homogeneous reactor [NUREG-0544]

AHTG: ad hoc task group [NUREG-0544]

AHU: air-handling unit [NUREG-0544]

AI: artificial intelligence, Atomics International, authorized inspector [NUREG-0544]

AIA: authorized inspection agency [NUREG-0544]

AICE: American Institute of Chemical Engineers [NUREG-0544]

AID: accident identification display, Agency for International Development, air inlet damper [NUREG-0544]

AIEE: American Institute of Electrical Engineers [NUREG-0544]

AIF: Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (now NEI) [NUREG-0544]

AIG: antitrust and indemnity group [NUREG-0544]

AIGS: auxiliary inerting gas subsystem [NUREG-0544]

AIHA: American Industrial Hygiene Association [NUREG-0544]

AIHX: auxiliary intermediate heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

AIMME: American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers [NUREG-0544]

AIMMPE: American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers [NUREG-0544]

AIMS: automated information management system, automatic isotopic measurement system [NUREG-0544]

AINSE: Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (now ANSTO) [NUREG-0544]

AI&O: annual inspection and overhaul [NUREG-0544]

AIP: American Institute of Physics, approval in principle [NUREG-0544]

AIRI: Atomic Industry Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

AIRP: air intake, recirculation, and purification [NUREG-0544]

AIRS: Advanced Incident Reporting System (IAEA/NEA), advanced instrumentation for reflood studies, Automated Inspection Report System [NUREG-0544]

AIS: accumulator injection system, advanced isotope separation, automated information system [NUREG-0544]

AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction [NUREG-0544]

AISE: Association of Iron and Steel Engineers [NUREG-0544]

AISI: American Iron and Steel Institute [NUREG-0544]

AISS: automated information systems security [NUREG-0544]

AISSP: automated information system security plan [NUREG-0544]

AIT: American Industrial Technologies, American Institute in Taiwan, augmented inspection team [NUREG-0544]

AITS: action item tracking system [NUREG-0544]

AIX: after ion exchanger [NUREG-0544]

AKK: Atomkraftdonsortiet Krangede Ad & Co. (Sweden) [NUREG-0544]

AL: action level, analytical laboratory, analytical limit [NUREG-0544]

ALAP: as low as possible, as low as practicable, as low as practical [NUREG-0544]

ALARA: as low as reasonably achievable [NUREG-0544]

ALARP: as low as reasonably practicable [NUREG-0544]

ALATA: as low as technically achievable [NUREG-0544]

ALCP: area local control panel [NUREG-0544]

ALD: acoustic leak detection [NUREG-0544]

ALI: annual level of intake [NUREG-0544]

ALIP: annular linear induction pump [NUREG-0544]

ALJ: administrative law judge [NUREG-0544]

ALKEM: Alpha Chemie und Metallurgie, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

ALMPC: Agency Labor-Management Partnership Committee [NUREG-0544]

ALMR: advanced liquid metal reactor [NUREG-0544]

ALMS: auxiliary liquid metal system [NUREG-0544]

ALP: assembly language preprocessor [NUREG-0544]

ALPHGR: average linear planar heat generation rate [NUREG-0544]

ALPR: Argonne Low Power Reactor, Army low-power reactor [NUREG-0544]

ALRR: Ames Laboratory Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ALRS: Apache Leap Research Site [NUREG-0544]

ALSI: aluminum silicon alloy [NUREG-0544]

ALUPA: Association Luxembourgeoise pour l'Utilisation Pacifique de l'Energie Atomique (Luxembourg) [NUREG-0544]

ALWR: advanced light-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

AMAD: activity median aerodynamic diameter [NUREG-0544]

AMASS: automated material accounting statistics system [NUREG-0544]

AMCA: Air Moving and Conditioning Association [NUREG-0544]

AMCF: alkali metal-cleaning facility [NUREG-0544]

AMCO: Aerojet Manufacturing Company [NUREG-0544]

AMD: alpha activity median diameter [NUREG-0544]

AMDEL: Australian Mineral Development Laboratories [NUREG-0544]

AMF: automated materials frisker [NUREG-0544]

AMI: automatic motion inhibit [NUREG-0544]

AMIC: Arkwright Mutual Insurance Co. [NUREG-0544]

AMN: Ansaldo Meccanico Nucleare, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

AMPERE: Atomes et Molecules pour Etudes Radio-Electriques (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

AMRR: Army Materiels Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

AMS: aerial monitoring system, Allegations Management System, Army Map Service [NUREG-0544]

AMSAC: ATWS (anticipated transient without scram) mitigating system actuation, circuitry [NUREG-0544]

AMU: aqueous makeup, atomic mass unit [NUREG-0544]

A/N: alphanumeric, as needed [NUREG-0544]

ANC: advanced nodal code, Aerojet Nuclear Company [NUREG-0544]

ANCC: Associazione Nazionale per il Controllo della Combustione (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ANDIN: Associazione Nazionale di Ingegneria Nucleare (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ANEC: American Nuclear Energy Council [NUREG-0544]

ANF: actinide nitride fuel, actinide nitride fueled, Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation [NUREG-0544]

ANFO: ammonium nitrate and fuel oil [NUREG-0544]

ANGRY: Anti-Nuclear Group Representing York [NUREG-0544]

ANI: American Nuclear Industries, American Nuclear Insurers, authorized nuclear inspector [NUREG-0544]

ANIM: Association of Nuclear Instrument Manufacturers [NUREG-0544]

ANL: Argonne National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

ANMC: American National Metric Council [NUREG-0544]

ANN: artificial neural network [NUREG-0544]

ANO: Arkansas Nuclear One [NUREG-0544]

ANOVA: analysis of variance [NUREG-0544]

ANP: aircraft nuclear propulsion [NUREG-0544]

ANPR: advance notice of proposed rulemaking [NUREG-0544]

ANPRM: advance notice of proposed rulemaking [NUREG-0544]

ANR: Association of Neutron Radiographers [NUREG-0544]

ANRA: Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority [NUREG-0544]

ANRE: Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

ANS: American Nuclear Society, aquatic nuisance species, autodial network system [NUREG-0544]

ANSI: American National Standards Institute [NUREG-0544]

ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (formerly AINSE) [NUREG-0544]

AO: abnormal occurrence, air operator, auxiliary operator, axial offset [NUREG-0544]

AOA: axial offset anomaly [NUREG-0544]

AOC: action office contact, augmented operator capability [NUREG-0544]

AOG: acid fractionator off-gas, acid off-gas, augmented off-gas [NUREG-0544]

AOI: abnormal operating instruction, advance ordering information [NUREG-0544]

AOO: anticipated operational occurrence [NUREG-0544]

AOP: abnormal operating procedure [NUREG-0544]

AOR: abnormal occurrence report [NUREG-0544]

AOT: action outage time, allowable outage time, allowed outage time [NUREG-0544]

AOTA: absorber open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

AOV: air-operated valve [NUREG-0544]

AP: access permit, access permittee, administrative procedure, alkaline permanganate, annulus pressurization, antennas and propagation [NUREG-0544]

APA: Administrative Procedure Act [NUREG-0544]

APC: administration and project control, agency program coordinator, argon purge cart, Atomic Power Construction Ltd. (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

APCA: Air Pollution Control Association [NUREG-0544]

APCEF: Advanced Power Conversion Experimental Facility [NUREG-0544]

APCO: Alabama Power Company [NUREG-0544]

APD: axial power distribution [NUREG-0544]

APDA: Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

APDMS: auxiliary power distribution monitoring system, axial power distribution monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

APET: accident progression event tree [NUREG-0544]

APEX: Advanced Plant Experiment [NUREG-0544]

APFA: accelerator pulsed fast critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

APHA: American Public Health Association [NUREG-0544]

API: absolute position indication, American Petroleum Institute, antecedent precipitation index [NUREG-0544]

APL: Applied Physics Laboratory (University of Chicago), Arkansas Power & Light Co., authorized possession limit [NUREG-0544]

AP&L: Arizona Power & Light Company [NUREG-0544]

APLHGR: average planar linear heat generation rate [NUREG-0544]

APM: air particulate monitor, aluminum powder metallurgy [NUREG-0544]

APP: advance procurement plan [NUREG-0544]

APPA: American Public Power Association [NUREG-0544]

APPR: Army Package Power Reactor [NUREG-0544]

APR: advance production release, Army Power Reactor, automatic pressure relief [NUREG-0544]

APRF: Aberdeen Pulsed Reactor Facility [NUREG-0544]

APRM: average power range monitor [NUREG-0544]

APS: accident-prone situation, American Physics Society, Arizona Public Service Co., atomic power station, auxiliary power system, AP600, Advanced Plant, 600 MWe [NUREG-0544]

APSR: axial power shaping rod [NUREG-0544]

APSRA: axial power shaping rod assembly [NUREG-0544]

APT: accelerator-produced tritium, Applied Physical Technology Incorporated [NUREG-0544]

APTR: advanced pressure tube reactor [NUREG-0544]

APU: auxiliary power unit [NUREG-0544]

APWG: action plan work group [NUREG-0544]

APWR: advanced pressurized-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

AQL: acceptable quality level [NUREG-0544]

AR: activity ratio [NUREG-0544]

ARAC: atmospheric release advisory capability [NUREG-0544]

ARACOR: Advanced Research and Applications Corp. [NUREG-0544]

ARAVS: auxiliary and radwaste area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

ARB: Allegation Review Board [NUREG-0544]

ARBOR: Argonne Boiling Water Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ARC: alarm response card, Alliance Research Center, alternate repair criteria, alternative repair criteria, auxiliary relay cabinet [NUREG-0544]

ARDA: Atomic Research and Development Authority [NUREG-0544]

ARDM: age-related degradation mechanism [NUREG-0544]

ARDUTLR: aging-related degradation unique to license renewal [NUREG-0544]

ARE: aircraft reactor equipment [NUREG-0544]

AREA: American Railway Engineering Association, Army Reactor Area [NUREG-0544]

ARG: Accident Review Group (NRC), Argonaut, Argonne nuclear assembly for university training [NUREG-0544]

ARHCO: Atlantic Richfield Hanford Co. [NUREG-0544]

ARI: alternate rod insertion [NUREG-0544]

ATWS: (anticipated transient without scram) rod injection [NUREG-0544]

ARIS: automated reactor inspection system [NUREG-0544]

ARM: area radiation monitor [NUREG-0544]

ARMF: Advanced Reactivity Measurement Facility [NUREG-0544]

ARMS: aerial radiological measurement and survey, aerial radiological measurements system, area radiation monitoring system, area radiological monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

ARO: all rods out [NUREG-0544]

ARP: accelerated requalification program, alarm response procedure, annunciator response procedure [NUREG-0544]

ARPA: Archeological Resources Protection Act [NUREG-0544]

ARPI: absolute rod position indication [NUREG-0544]

ARR: Armour Research Reactor, Association for Radiation Research (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

ARRS: airborne radioactivity removal system [NUREG-0544]

ARS: acute radiation syndrome, advance record system, air return system, amplified response spectrum/spectra [NUREG-0544]

ART: aerosol release and transport, anticipatory reactor trip [NUREG-0544]

ARTS: anticipatory reactor trip system [NUREG-0544]

AS: action statement, Agreement State, air supply, auto sequential, auxiliary steam [NUREG-0544]

A/S: air supply [NUREG-0544]

ASA: American Standards Association (now ANSI) [NUREG-0544]

ASADA: Atomic Space and Development Authority [NUREG-0544]

ASC: Administrative Services Center [NUREG-0544]

ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASCEG: Association of South Carolina Electric and Gas Investors [NUREG-0544]

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange [NUREG-0544]

ASCO: American Switch Co. [NUREG-0544]

ASCS: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service [NUREG-0544]

ASD: adjustable speed drive, atmospheric steam dump [NUREG-0544]

ASDP: alternative shutdown procedure [NUREG-0544]

ASEE: American Society of Electrical Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASEP: accident sequence evaluation program [NUREG-0544]

ASG: auxiliary steam generator [NUREG-0544]

ASGT: asymmetric steam generator transient [NUREG-0544]

ASGTPTF: asymmetric steam generator transient protective trip function [NUREG-0544]

ASHAE: American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASI: adverse system interaction, axial shape index [NUREG-0544]

ASIS: American Society for Industrial Security [NUREG-0544]

ASL: approved suppliers list [NUREG-0544]

ASLAB: Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ASLAP: Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ASLB: Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ASLBP: Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ASM: American Society for Metals (now ASM International) [NUREG-0544]

ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASME: CodeAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code [NUREG-0544]

ASNT: American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Australian School of Nuclear Technology [NUREG-0544]

ASP: accident sequence precursor, administrative site procedure, auxiliary shutdown panel [NUREG-0544]

ASPEA: Association Suisse pour l'Energie Atomique (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

ASQC: American Society for Quality Control [NUREG-0544]

ASR: automatic send and receive [NUREG-0544]

ASS: auxiliary steam system [NUREG-0544]

ASSE: American Society of Safety Engineers [NUREG-0544]

ASSP: acoustics, speech, and signal processing [NUREG-0544]

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials [NUREG-0544]

ASTPO: Accident Source Term Program Office [NUREG-0544]

ASTR: Aerospace Systems Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ASW: auxiliary saltwater, auxiliary service water [NUREG-0544]

AT: acceptable test, acceptance tag, acceptance test [NUREG-0544]

ATC: adiabatic toroidal compressor [NUREG-0544]

ATEL: Aare Tessin Aktiengesellschaft fźr ElektrizitŠt (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

ATEN: Association Technique de l'Energie NuclŽaire (France), Association Technique pour la Production et l'Utilisation de l'Energie NuclŽaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

ATF: acceptance test facility, Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Bureau of (U.S. Department of Treasury) [NUREG-0544]

ATH: artificial time history [NUREG-0544]

ATOG: abnormal transient operational guideline, anticipated transient operating guideline [NUREG-0544]

ATP: acceptance test plan, acceptance test procedure [NUREG-0544]

A&TP: assembly and test pit [NUREG-0544]

ATR: advanced test reactor [NUREG-0544]

ATRCE: advanced test reactor critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

ATS: agency training system, Arkwright Technical Services, Inc., Atomtekniska SŠllskapet i Finland (Finland) [NUREG-0544]

ATSR: Argonne Thermal Source Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ATT: aerosol transport test, automatic turbine tester [NUREG-0544]

ATTU: ATWS (anticipated transient without scram) transmitter trip unit [NUREG-0544]

ATU: analog trip unit [NUREG-0544]

ATWS: anticipated transient without scram [NUREG-0544]

ATWS-RPT: anticipated transient without scram--recirculation pump trip [NUREG-0544]

ATWT: anticipated transient without trip [NUREG-0544]

AU: authorized user [NUREG-0544]

AUDIT: automatic unattended detection inspection transmitter [NUREG-0544]

AUEA: auxiliary utility equipment area [NUREG-0544]

AUO: auxiliary unit operator [NUREG-0544]

AUT: automated ultrasonic test [NUREG-0544]

AUTODIN: automated digital network [NUREG-0544]

AUTOS: agency upgrade of technology for office systems [NUREG-0544]

AUXI-ATOME: SociŽtŽ Auxiliaire pour l'Energie Atomique (France) [NUREG-0544]

AVB: antivibration bar [NUREG-0544]

AVIS: atomic vapor isotope separation [NUREG-0544]

AVLIS: atomic vapor laser isotope separation [NUREG-0544]

AVMS: annulus vacuum maintenance system [NUREG-0544]

AVR: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor, G.m.b.H. (Germany), automatic volume recognition [NUREG-0544]

AVSS: automated vendor selection system [NUREG-0544]

AVT: all-volatile treatment [NUREG-0544]

AVV: atmospheric vent valve [NUREG-0544]

AW: acid waste [NUREG-0544]

AWCC: active well coincidence counter [NUREG-0544]

AWG: American wire gauge [NUREG-0544]

AWNS: ABB Westinghouse Nuclear Services [NUREG-0544]

AWP: automatic withdrawal prohibit [NUREG-0544]

AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

AWS: American Welding Society [NUREG-0544]

AWSF: alpha waste storage facility [NUREG-0544]

AWWA: American Water Works Association [NUREG-0544]

AZPS: Arizona Public Service Co. [NUREG-0544]

aboveground storage - Any one or combination of tanks which is used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances and is situated above the surface of the earth. [EM-INT]

Aboveground vault: A disposal method that involves placing contained waste in reinforced concrete buildings or containers that isolate the waste above the surface. The walls are two to three feet thick and have a sloping roof to aid water runoff. [EPALLRW]

absorbed dose: The amount of energy deposited in a unit weight of biological tissue. The units of absorbed dose are rad and gray. [IEER]

Absorber: Any material that stops ionizing radiation. Lead, concrete, and steel attenuate gamma rays. A thin sheet of paper or metal will stop or absorb alpha particles and most beta particles. [LBNL]

Absorption: The process by which the number of particles or photons entering a body of matter is reduced by interaction with matter. Also the process in which energy is absorbed from the particles or photons even if the number is not reduced. [TDHBRC]

Academic Partnerships: Agreements between the Department of Energy (DOE) and colleges and universities to support the development and modification of curricula relevant to DOE's environmental problems. [DOEEMGMT]

Accelerator: A device used to increase the energy of particles, which then collide with other particles. The major types are linear accelerators and circular accelerators. The name refers to the path taken by the accelerated particle. [EPALLRW]

Accelerator produced: Any material made radioactive by the normal operation of a particle accelerator. [DOE/EM-0319]

access drift - A tunnel or shaft providing access to a desired part of a geological formation. [EM-INT]

Access hatch: An airtight door system that preserves the pressure integrity of a reactor containment structure while allowing access to personnel and equipment. [NRC]

Access/Institutional Control and In-situ Treatment and Containment: Environmental restoration activities manage a significant portion of its contaminated media without physically removing or excavating them, thus generating no LLW or MLLW for disposal. If the degree of contamination is relatively low and the volumes relatively large, an appropriate response may be access/institutional control. Public access to the area of contamination is restricted either through land deeds or a barrier such as a fence and posted warnings. The type and degree of contamination may also warrant an in-situ response. These remediation strategies will allow the environmental restoration activities to address these elements in place and thus minimize or eliminate the generation of LLW and MLLW. [DOELLWRpt]

Account Structure: A formal organization of accounting codes used to collect costs for control account work, which provides information, categorized as necessary, for reporting costs. [DOEEMGMT]

Acid/ Pueblo Canyon - Completed FUSRAP site located on the grounds of the Los Alamos National Laboratory [EM-INT]

ACM: Asbestos Containing Material

ACRS: Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards [IEER]

ACRs: Adverse Condition Reports (Now Listed As CRs) [CYankee]

Actinide : Any of a series of chemically similar, mostly synthetic, radioactive elements with atomic numbers ranging from actinium-89 through lawrencium-103. This group of alpha-emitting radionuclides is also known as actinoid elements. [EM-INT]

Activated: Describes non-fissile material that has become radioactive as a result of neutron irradiation. [DOE/EM-0319]

Activation: The process of making a radioisotope by bombarding a stable element with neutrons or protons. [DOE/EM-0342]

Activation production : A radioactive material produced by bombardment with neutrons, protons, or their nuclear particles. [EM-INT]

Active Facility: A facility that is being used to conduct DOE missions and has not yet been transferred to the Office of Environmental Management (EM) for management and/or cleanup. [DOECID]

Active fuel length: The end-to-end dimension of fuel material within a fuel element.[NRC]

Active inventory : Containers of mixed waste which have not been treated, and/or shipped off-site for treatment and disposal. [EM-INT]

Active Stewardship: The direct performance of continuous or periodic custodial activities such as controlling access to a site by means other than passive institutional controls; controlling or cleaning up releases from a site; perforrning maintenance operations on remediated areas at a site; or monitoring performance parameters at a disposal or release site. [DOE/EM-0466]

Activities Completed To Date/Current Year Description: A description of the current status of activities related to an ADS record, including any major milestones completed in previous years and any additional activities planned for the current year.

Activity: The rate at which radioactive material emits radiation, stated in terms of the number of nuclear disintegrations occurring in a unit of time; the common unit of radioactivity is the curie (Ci). [DOE/EM-0466]

Activity Description: A description of the work related to the ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP): The cost incurred, including accrued cost, and recorded in the accounting system for accomplishing the work performed within a specific time period. [DOEEMGMT]

Actual Quantities: Quantities of waste/media/spent nuclear fuel for fiscal years that have been completed, where quantities are reported for activities that took place during the reported year.[DOECID]

ADCR: Automated Document Control Register

Additional Impacts Description: A description of potential impacts that may affect an activity, in addition to the budget impacts description. [DOEEMGMT]

Additions: A category of management activities for waste/media/spent nuclear fuel that includes new waste/media/spent nuclear fuel generated, waste/media/spent nuclear fuel generated during treatment processes, and waste/media/spent nuclear fuel received from off site.[DOECID]

administrative record : A collection of documents established in compliance with the requirements set forth in section 113(k) of CERCLA, as amended, consisting of information upon which the CERCLA lead agency bases its decision on the selection of response actions. The Administrative Record file should be established at or near the facility at issue and made available to the public. [EM-INT]

administrative record file : A body of documents collected throughout the investigative and decision-making process for each response action. [EM-INT]

ADS : Acronym for Activity Data Sheet. Data prepared at the installation level to show specific plans, milestones, funding, compliance requirements, human resources and other pertinent information for a five-year period of a program. [EM-INT]

ADS : Summary technical, cost, and schedule information at a specified level of the programmatic WBS. As a planning document, ADS reflect program planning (cost, schedule, and technical performance). As a budgeting document, ADSs reflect the funding requirements for the program. Expended funds, prior year funds, current year funds, and budget year plus one through five funds, and the remaining year funds are shown. As a baseline document, ADSs reflect program baseline in terms of cost, schedule, and technical performance for the approved program. [DOEEMGMT]

ADS Inactive Year: The year an ADS becomes unfunded. The ADS Inactive Year is determined separately for the formulation phase and execution phase of the budget process. [DOEEMGMT]

ADS Number: A unique identifier for an ADS. It consists of a Department of Energy (DOE) Operations/Field Office code and a data sheet identification number. [DOEEMGMT]

ADS Title: The descriptive title of an ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

ADS/TTP Manager: The name of the Operations/Field Office Program or Project Manager responsible for the work encompassed by the ADS or TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Advice of Allotment: The means by which the Department assigns responsibility under the administrative control of funds provision of 31 U.S.C. 1514. It provides the actual authority to incur obligations and establishes the obligational limit that may not be exceeded. [DOEEMGMT]

advisory committee : Any committee, board, commission, council, conference, panel, task force, or other similar group, or any subcommittee or other subgroup thereof, established by statute, or established or utilized by the President or any agency official for the purpose of obtaining advice or recommendations on issues or policies which are within the scope of his/her responsibilities. [EM-INT]

Afterwinds: Wind currents set up in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion directed toward the burst center, resulting from the updraft accompanying the rise of the fireball. [ATARC]

Agreement-in-Principle: An agreement between the Department of Energy and a state that describes commitments by the Department to fund certain activities, generally environmental oversight, monitoring, site access, and emergency response initiatives, performed by the state at a facility. [EPALLRW]

Agreement State: A state that has signed an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under which the state regulates the use of by-product, source and small quantities of special nuclear material within that state. [NRC]

Agricultural land use: Unfenced areas where subsistence or commercial agriculture predominates without any restrictions on surface or groundwater use. [DOE/EM-0466]

AHERA: Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act

AI: Assured Isolation [TNRCC]

AIF: Assured Isolation facility [TNRCC]

Air : A colorless, odorless, tasteless gaseous mixture, approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen with lesser amounts of other gasses including argon, helium, carbon dioxide and neon. [EM-INT]

Air Burst: The explosion of a nuclear weapon at such a height that the expanding fireball does not touch the earth's surface when the luminosity is a maximum. [ATARC]

Air sampling: The collection of samples of air to measure the radioactivity or to detect the presence of radioactive material, particulate matter, or chemical pollutants in the air. [NRC]

air sparging : A technology that injects air into the lower of two horizontal wells. Contaminants are forced into the uppermost well where they are removed. Especially effective in difficult to reach areas such as beneath buildings, ponds, or lagoons. Also called vapor extraction. [EM-INT]

air stripping : A technology that involves the mass transfer of volatile contaminants from water to air. Typically conducted in a packed tower or aeration tank, a spray nozzle distributes contaminated water over packing in a column; a fan forces air against the water flow; and a sump at the bottom of the tower collects the decontaminated water. [EM-INT]

ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable, or keeping radiation emissions and exposures to levels set as far below regulatory limits as is reasonably possible in order to protect public health and the environment. [CYankee] This means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as practical consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest. [TDHBRC]

Albany Metallurgical Research Center : Largest field organization within the DOE since the establishment of the AEC. AL’s primary role has been the field management of the nations nuclear weapons stockpile. [EM-INT]

ALCM: Air Launched Cruise Missile [ATARC]

Allotment: The authority delegaeted to the Department of Energy (DOE) employees to incur obligations within a specified amount pursuant to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) apportionment. [DOEEMGMT]

Alluvium: Sedimentary material deposited by flowing water. [DOELL]

Alpha decay: The emission of a nucleus of a helium atom from the nucleus of an element, generally of a heavy element, in the process of its radioactive decay. [IEER]

Alpha particle: A positively charged particle ejected spontaneously from the nuclei of some radioactive elements. It has low penetrating power and a short range. The most energetic alpha particle will generally fail to penetrate the dead layers of cells covering the skin. Alphas are hazardous when an alpha-emitting isotope is inside the body. [TDHBRC] A particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons (identical to a helium nucleus, mass number of 4 and an electrostatic charge of +2), given off by the decay of many elements, including uranium, plutonium, and radon. Alpha particles cannot penetrate a sheet of paper; however, alpha-emitting isotopes in the body can be very damaging. [DOE/EM-0319] The nuclei of a helium atom (with two neutrons and two protons each) that are discharged by radioactive decay of many heavy elements, such as uranium-238 and plutonium-239. [IEER]

Alpha radiation: Radiation consisting of helium nuclei that are discharged by radioactive disintegration of some heavy elements, including uranium-238, radium-226, and plutonium-239. [IEER] The most energetic but least penetrating form of radiation. It can be stopped by a sheet of paper and cannot penetrate human skin. However, if an alpha-emitting isotope is inhaled or ingested, it will cause highly concentrated local damage. [CY]

Alternative Cases: Cases that reflect ways the Base Case could change if various policy decisions were made. They examine three areas likely to affect total costs: (1) land use, (2) program and project scheduling, and (3) "minimal action" scenario. [DOELL]

am: activated metal [DOELLWRpt]

Ambrosia Lake : 150 Acre reservation, located 85 miles Northwest of Albuquerque and managed by the Albuquerque Operations Office. This inactive uranium processing site was designated for remedial action under UMTRCA provisions. This is one of 24 UMTRA projects to eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to radioactive materials. [EM-INT]

Amchitka Island Test Site : An island in the Aleutian chain in Alaska. This was the location of three high-yield underground nuclear detonations between ‘65 and ‘71. The past 25 years following the tests have been spent extensively monitoring and sampling the site for contaminants. [EM-INT]

Americium: A manmade transuranic element; the next element following plutonium on the periodic table. [DOE/EM-0266]

Ames Laboratory : Formally established in ‘47 by the AEC as a result of “Ames” project performed by a group comprised of several industries and universities success with developing the most efficient process to produce high-purity uranium in large quantities for atomic energy. Today Ames Lab pursues a broad range of priorities in chemicals, engineering, environmental, mathematical and physical sciences. [EM-INT]

analysis of removal alternatives : The documented study and comparison of the alternative approaches (involving principally the alternative end condition criteria that are to be achieved) of completing a decommissioning project (removal action). If the action is being performed in accordance with CERCLA requirements, the analysis satisfies the requirement of 40 CFR 300.415(b)(4)(I) of the NCP. If the decommissioning is being conducted as a non-CERCLA action, the analysis is prepared to support the environmental review of the action required under NEPA. [EM-INT]

Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) : One of the web-based systems used to collect data for the EM Corporate database. AVS collects stream-level data, TSD system information, and programmatic risk information. In addition, AVS contains a dynamic map-drawing tool that is used to create disposition maps - pictures that show the movement of streams through treatment and disposal processes. [DOECID]

Anion: A negatively charged ion. [NRC]

Annual limit on intake (ALI): The derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems(0.05 sievert) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to any individual organ or tissue. (see 10 CFR 20.1003.) [NRC]

Annual Quantity: Quantity of waste/media/spent nuclear fuel that is reported for a specific fiscal year or fiscal year range (see life cycle definition). Annual quantities are often shown for specific management activities. Annual quantities are either actual quantities or projected quantities. [DOECID]

Anti-Satellite Weapon (ASAT): A system designed to destroy or disable an enemy satellite in orbit. [ATARC]

ANSI: American National Standards Institute

Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) : (1)Those cleanup standards, standards of control, and other substantive requirements, criteria, or limitations promulgated under federal environmental, state environmental, or facility siting laws that specifically address a hazardous substance, pollutant, contamination, remedial action, location, or other circumstances found at a CERCLA site. Only those state standards that are identified by a state in a timely manner and that are more stringent than federal requirement may be applicable (see NCP section 300.5). (2)Requirements promulgated under Federal or State law that specifically address the circumstances at a Superfund site. (3)A requirement that environmental laws other than those under CERCLA, may be either “applicable” or “relevant and appropriate”, but not both. Identification of ARARs must be done on a site-specific basis and involves a two-part analysis: first, a determination whether a given requirement is applicable; then, if it is not applicable, a determination whether it is nevertheless both relevant and appropriate. [EM-INT]

Applied Costs: The value (purchase price) of goods and services used, consumed, given away, lost, or destroyed by a federal agency within a given period of time regardless of when they were ordered, received, or paid for. [DOEEMGMT]

Apportionment: The distribution made to a federal agency by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) of amounts available for obligation in an appropriation. [DOEEMGMT]

Appropriation: An act of Congress that allows Federal agencies to incur obligations and make payments from the U.S. Department of Treasury for specific purposes. An appropriation is the most common means of providing budget authority and usually follows the passage of an authorization. [DOEEMGMT]

Appropriation Account: An account established in the Treasury to record amounts available to a federal agency for obligation and outlay. [DOEEMGMT]

Appropriation Committees: The standing committees of the House and Senate with jurisdiction over legislation that permits the obligation of funds. [DOEEMGMT]

Approved Funding Program (AFP): An internal Department of Energy (DOE) document issued to operating activities setting forth the funds available for obligation and expenditure in each appropriation account. The AFP specifies funding ceilings for each program. [DOEEMGMT]

Approved Volume: The portion of a stream quantity resulting from remedial action or deactivation and decommission activities that is being or will be managed as a result of decisions described in by one or more approved decision documents.[DOECID]

Approved Work Scope: The balance for work that has been clearly defined in task or work authorizations or program direction letters. Such work must have a specific work scope, clearly defined milestones, and tangible deliverables where possible. This category may not at yearend include any costs for which funds are appropriated in the subsequent fiscal year (for example, level-of-effort for research and development activities or to maintain capability in Defense Programs). Any balances in this category resulting from delays and slippages are prime candidates for reversion to the remaining unencumbered category (see below), absent convincing justification for retention. [DOEEMGMT]

Aquifer : A geologic formation or structure capable of yielding water in usable quantities. [EM-INT]

ARARs: - Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements.  A comprehensive set of laws and regulations that are relevant to guide the selection of cleanup or decommissioning activities at a particular site. [CY]

Argonne National Laboratory- east : 1,500 acre, wooded site chartered in ‘46 as the DOE’s first National Laboratory. After the war, Argonne was given the mission of developing reactors for peaceful purposes. Argonne in 25 miles southwest of Chicago, IL. Chicago Operations Office is located at this site. [EM-INT]

Argonne National Laboratory- west : 90 acre reservation, 50 miles west of Idaho Falls, ID in the Snake River Valley. 800 employees work here and it is home to most of Argonne’s major nuclear reactor test facilities. [EM-INT]

Arms Control: Arms control, a term popularized in the early 1960s, refers to the voluntary limitation or reduction of weapons and their means of delivery, between and among countries, through negotiation. It is distinct from disarmament, which seeks to eliminate, also by international agreement, the means by which countries wage war. While arms control compiled a mixed record during the post-World War II era, revolutionary changes in international politics during the early 1990s‚most especially the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War‚have opened up promising new opportunities for radical reductions in the nuclear and conventional weapons arsenals of the major powers. [ATARC]

Army Corps of Engineers : Branch of the U.S. Department of Defense that has specialized equipment and personnel for maintaining navigation of channels, removing obstructions form channels, performing structural repairs and maintenance to hydro power electric generating equipment. The Corp also provide design services and construction to other Federal agencies. [EM-INT]

As-disposed: LLRW volumes following processing (such as compaction, solidification, or incineration), as they will be managed [TNRCC]

As-generated: LLRW volumes as they are generated, prior to any processing [TNRCC]

ashcrete : The process of mixing materials ashes with concrete to immobilize waste constituents in the material

ASLB: Atomic Safety and Licensing Board [CYankee]

ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers [CYankee]

ASNT: American Society for Non-destructive Testing [TDHBRC]

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials

Assay: The qualitative or quantitative analysis of a substance often used to determine the proportion of isotopes in radioactive materials. [DOELL]

Assessment: A determination of a project’s condition made by reviewing cost, schedule, technical issues, and performance against objectives, regulatory requirements, and baseline project plans. [EM-INT] See Characterization. [DOEEMGMT]

Assured Isolation: An integrated management system for isolating waste, while preserving options for its long-term management, through (a) robust, accessible facilities, (b) planned, preventive maintenance, and (c) sureties adequate to address contingencies or implement future alternatives.[DOE/LLW-250a]

The following definition is given as the "concise definition" in the text of the TNRCC's Texas Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste Generation Trends and Management Alternatives Study, and is considered the most authoritative definition specific to Texas:
"Assured Isolation of LLRW means managing LLRW in an isolation system that uses waste form characteristics; above ground facility design features; active monitoring and maintenance activities; facility operating procedures; natural site characteristics; and institutional controls to inhibit the release of radioactive constituents from LLRW so that concentrations of these materials entering the accessible environment will remain within prescribed limits. Assured Isolation also means preserving the ability to retrieve the managed LLRW for subsequent use, processing, or management; managing LLRW with reliance on engineered features, ongoing active maintenance, and natural site characteristics; not precluding the ability to license the facility for LLRW disposal in the future with consideration of existing site-specific data and information; and providing financial assurances necessary to accomplish all activities associated with such LLRW management, including ultimate disposal." [TNRCC]

Assured Isolation, Cases for AI Evaluation:
Retrieve and Dispose (Case 1): Case defined to assist in evaluating the AI concept as a LLRW management alternative; involves an AI facility developed with the intent to isolate LLRW for hundreds of years and then retrieve it for final disposition at some other facility.
Convert to Disposal (Case 2): Case defined to assist in evaluating the AI concept as a LLRW management alternative; involves an AI facility developed with the intent to isolate LLRW for hundreds of years and then license it for LLRW disposal in compliance with all LLRW disposal licensing requirements at that time. [TNRCC]

Assured Isolation Facility (AIF): Structures and land containing the operational components of a site for Assured Isolation. Includes, but may not be limited to, Assured Isolation Units, support and administrative facilities, roads, and staging areas.[DOE/LLW-250a]

Assured Isolation Site: The entire plot of land on which an AIF is located, including that portion of the earth underlying the facility which is of significance to its structural stability, or is related to the environmental monitoring of the facility. [DOE/LLW-250a]

Assured Isolation Units (or Vaults): In plural form, the array of structures of an AIF in which waste is emplaced for indefinite isolation. In singular form, each cell or room in the array in which waste is housed.[DOE/LLW-250a]

Atmospheric fallout: Radioactive particles resulting from a nuclear explosion that gradually descend to earth. [DOE/EM-0319]

Atmospheric testing: The aboveground or underwater explosion of a nuclear device in order to test it or its effects. [DOE/EM-0319]

ATMX: Atomic Materials Rail Transfer railcar containment system. Also known as OHOX.

Atom: The basic component of all matter. The atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all of the chemical properties of that element. Atoms consist of a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons. [DOE/EM-0319]

Atomic Bomb: A term sometimes applied to a nuclear weapon utilizing fission energy only. The atomic bomb is an explosive device that depends upon the release of energy in a nuclear reaction known as fission, which is the splitting of atomic nuclei. With a release of energy on the order of a million times greater than an equal weight of chemical high-explosive [ATARC]

Atomic Energy Act (AEA) : The federal law that established a program for government control of the possession, use or production of atomic energy and special nuclear material, including highly enriched uranium. [DOE/EA-1172]. The act was passed in 1946, was amended substantially in 1954 and several times since then. This Act created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The AEC later split into the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Energy and Research and Development Administration (ERDA). ERDA then became part of the Deparment of Energy in 1977. This act is the basis of authority for NRC, DOE, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in regulating radioactive materials defined in the AEA. NARM is not defined under this act and is therefore not subject to its requirements. [EPA-MW and DOE/EM-0319]

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC): A five-member commission established by The Atomic Energy Act to supervise nuclear weapons design, development, manufacture, maintenance, modification, and dismantlement.[DOE/EA-1172] The AEC was created by the United States Congress in 1946 as the civilian agency responsible for the production of nuclear weapons. The AEC also researched and regulated atomic energy. When broken up in 1974, its weapons production and research activities were given to the Energy Research and Development Administration(ERDA), while its regulatory responsibilities were given to the new Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ERDA's functions were later transferred to the Department of Energy. (DOE). [DOE/EM-0266 and IEER]

Atomic Mass Unit: A relative mass unit based on the atomic weight of carbon 12, which is taken to be 12; the atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu. The atomic mass unit (amu) is 1.660 -27 kg. [ATARC]

Atomic number (symbolized Z): The atomic number of an element, which indicates its place in the periodic table of elements, is the number of protons (positively charged particles) in the nucleus of one of its atoms. If an atom is electrically neutral, the same number of electrons are present. Atomic number is often symbolized with the letter Z and is shown as a numerical subscript to the left of its chemical symbol. For example, the letter C preceded by a superscript number 12 and a subscript number 6 indicates a carbon atom of atomic mass 12 and atomic number 6, the difference being equal to the number of neutrons present in the nucleus. [ATARC]

Atomic weight (atomic mass) : The nominal atomic weight of an isotope is given by the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in each nucleus. The exact atomic weight differs fractionally from that whole number, because neutrons are slightly heavier than protons and the mass of the nucleus is also affected by the binding energy. [IEER] As a basis of reference, the atomic weight of the common isotope of carbon (carbon-12) is taken to be exactly 12; the atomic weight of hydrogen (the lightest element) is then 1.008. Hence, the atomic weight of any element is approximately the mass of an atom of that element relative to the mass of a hydrogen atom. [ATARC]

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Attenuation: The process by which the number of particles or photons entering a body of matter is reduced by absorption and scattered radiation. [NRC]

Authorization : An act of Congress that establishes or continues a federal program or agency either for a specific period of time or indefinitely; specifies its general goals and conduct; and usually sets a ceiling on the amount of budget authority that can be provided in an annual appropriation. Usually an authorization for an agency or program is required before an appropriation for that same agency or program is passed. [DOEEMGMT]

Auxiliary feedwater: Backup water supply used during nuclear plant startup and shutdown to supply water to the steam generators during accident conditions for removing decay heat from the reactor. [NRC]

Average planar linear heat generation rate (APLGHR): The average value of the linear heat generation rate of all the control rods at any given horizontal plane along a fuel bundle. [NRC]

AVS: see Analysis and Visualization System (AVS)

AWACS: Airborne Warning and Control System, flying command post. AWACS has the capacity to detect hostile radar systems and aircraft and control friendly air forces. [ATARC]

|------------------------ B ------------------------|

BA: biological assessment [NUREG-0544]

B/A: budget authority [NUREG-0544]

BAA: broad agency announcement [NUREG-0544]

BAC: blood alcohol content, boric acid concentrator [NUREG-0544]

BACT: best available control technology [NUREG-0544]

BAF: bioaccumulation factor, bottom of active fuel [NUREG-0544]

BAM: Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

BAMT: boric acid mix tank [NUREG-0544]

BAP: branch arm piping [NUREG-0544]

BAPE: branch arm piping enclosure [NUREG-0544]

BAPL: Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

BAPS: branch arm piping shielding [NUREG-0544]

BARC: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India) [NUREG-0544]

BART: butterfly analysis and review test [NUREG-0544]

BAST: boric acid storage tank [NUREG-0544]

BAT: backup auxiliary transformer, best available technology, boric acid tank, boric acid transfer [NUREG-0544]

BATAN: Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (Indonesia) [NUREG-0544]

BATEA: best available technology economically available [NUREG-0544]

BATF: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (U.S. Department of Treasury) [NUREG-0544]

BAWTR: Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Development Center Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

BBC: Brown Boveri et Cie (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

BBR: Babcock-Brown Boveri Reaktor, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

BBRR: Brookhaven Beam Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

BBS: battery backup system, bulletin board system [NUREG-0544]

BBV: Bayrische Biologische Versuchsanstalt (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

BC: benign contamination, branch chief [NUREG-0544]

BCD: Battelle Columbus Division, binary coded decimal [NUREG-0544]

BCHFT: beyond critical heat flux test [NUREG-0544]

BCL: Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Bechtel client letter [NUREG-0544]

BCMS: boron concentration measurement system [NUREG-0544]

BCS: Boeing Computer Services [NUREG-0544]

BCT: best conventional technology [NUREG-0544]

BD: blowdown [NUREG-0544]

BDAT: best demonstrated available technology [NUREG-0544]

BDBA: beyond-design-basis accident [NUREG-0544]

BDBE: beyond-design-basis event [NUREG-0544]

BDE: beyond demonstrable effect [NUREG-0544]

BD/ECC: blowdown/emergency core cooling [NUREG-0544]

BDHT: blowdown heat transfer [NUREG-0544]

BDPS: boric dilution protection system [NUREG-0544]

BDT: best demonstrated technology [NUREG-0544]

BE: best estimate, binding energy, bounding event [NUREG-0544]

BEA: Bureau of Economic Analysis [NUREG-0544]

BEAR: Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, Committee on the [NUREG-0544]

BEC: beginning-of-equilibrium cycle [NUREG-0544]

BECO: Boston Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

BEEN: Bureau d'Etude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

BEF: best-estimate flow [NUREG-0544]

BEIR: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Committee on the [NUREG-0544]

BEN: Bureau d'Etudes Nucléaires, S.A. (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

BEPO: British Experimental Pile Operation [NUREG-0544]

BFN: Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

BFNP: Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

BFNPP: Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan, Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

BFO: best and final offer [NUREG-0544]

BFY: budget fiscal year [NUREG-0544]

BG&E: Baltimore Gas & Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

BGL: below ground level [NUREG-0544]

BGRR: Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

BGV: below ground vault [NUREG-0544]

BH: Blue Hills Station [NUREG-0544]

BHEC: Bangor Hydro-Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

BHEP: basic human error probability [NUREG-0544]

BHL: bottom of heated length [NUREG-0544]

BHP: biological hazard potential [NUREG-0544]

BHS: Blue Hills Station [NUREG-0544]

BHSP: basic human success probability [NUREG-0544]

BI: background information [NUREG-0544]

BIA: buyers information advisory [NUREG-0544]

BIF: basic inflow [NUREG-0544]

BIFEN: Banque Internationale pour le Financement de l'Energie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

BIOMASS: Biosphere Modeling and Assessments (project) [NUREG-0544]

BIOMOVS : IIBiosphere Model Validation Study, Phase II [NUREG-0544]

BIOS: basic input-output system, biological investigation of space [NUREG-0544]

BIR: boron injection recirculation [NUREG-0544]

BIST: boron injection surge tank [NUREG-0544]

BIT: boron injection tank [NUREG-0544]

BKW: Bernische Kraftwerke, A.G. (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

BLBE: beyond-licensing-basis event [NUREG-0544]

BLIS: baffle/liner interface seal [NUREG-0544]

BLM: Bureau of Land Management [NUREG-0544]

BLP: basket loading pool [NUREG-0544]

BLTC: bottom loading transfer cask [NUREG-0544]

BM: bill of material, boron measurement [NUREG-0544]

BMEP: brake mean effective power, brake mean effective pressure [NUREG-0544]

BMEWS: ballistic missile early warning system [NUREG-0544]

BMFT: Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

BMI: Battelle Memorial Institute [NUREG-0544]

BML: bidders mailing list, bulk material length [NUREG-0544]

BMR: Bureau of Mineral Resources (Australia) [NUREG-0544]

BMRR: Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

BMS: boron management system, boron measurement system [NUREG-0544]

BMT: basement melt-through [NUREG-0544]

BN: Belgonucléaire S. A. (Belgium), board notification, Buestra Neutron (Soviet-designed fast-neutron reactor) [NUREG-0544]

BNC: Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation [NUREG-0544]

BNDC: British Nuclear Design & Construction Ltd. [NUREG-0544]

BNEC: British Nuclear Energy Conference [NUREG-0544]

BNES: British Nuclear Energy Society [NUREG-0544]

BNF: British Nuclear Forum [NUREG-0544]

BNFL: British Nuclear Fuels, Limited [NUREG-0544]

BNFP: Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant [NUREG-0544]

BNI: Bechtel National, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

BNL: Brookhaven National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

BNP: Bellefonte Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

BNWL: Battelle Northwest Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

BO: biological opinion [NUREG-0544]

B/O: budget overlay [NUREG-0544]

B&O: bulletin and order [NUREG-0544]

BOA: basic order agreement, blanket order agreement [NUREG-0544]

BOC: beginning of cycle, Bevitron orbit code, bottom of conduit, budget object classification [NUREG-0544]

BOD: biochemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand [NUREG-0544]

BOEC: beginning-of-equilibrium cycle [NUREG-0544]

BOG: burner off-gas [NUREG-0544]

BOL: beginning of life [NUREG-0544]

BONUS: boiling nuclear superheat reactor [NUREG-0544]

BONUS-CX: boiling nuclear superheat critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

BOP: balance of plant [NUREG-0544]

BOPSSAR: balance-of-plant standard safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

BORAX: boiling-water reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

BORE: beryllium oxide reactor experiment (formerly EBOR) [NUREG-0544]

B&OTF: bulletins and orders task force [NUREG-0544]

B/P: blueprint [NUREG-0544]

BPA: blanket purchase agreement , Bonneville Power Administration [NUREG-0544]

BPC: Bechtel Power Corporation [NUREG-0544]

BPF: blueprint file [NUREG-0544]

BPFM: bypass flow module [NUREG-0544]

BPHA: benzoylphenylhydroxylamine [NUREG-0544]

BPID: book physical inventory difference [NUREG-0544]

BPN: breakdown pulse noise [NUREG-0544]

BPNL: Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

BPR: beryllium physics reactor, burnable poison rod, business process redesign, business process reengineering [NUREG-0544]

BPRA: burnable poison rod assembly [NUREG-0544]

BPV: boiler and pressure vessel, bypass valve [NUREG-0544]

B&PV: boiler and pressure vessel [NUREG-0544]

BPVC: Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee [NUREG-0544]

BPWS: blanked position withdrawal sequence [NUREG-0544]

Bq: becquerel [NUREG-0544]

BR: breeder reactor, breeding ratio [NUREG-0544]

B&R: Brown and Root, Inc., budget and reporting, Burns and Roe, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

BRC: below regulatory concern, Breeder Reactor Corporation, Bureau of Radiation Control (State of Texas) [NUREG-0544]

BREDAT: Breda Termomeccanica, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

BREN: Bare Reactor Experiment Nevada [NUREG-0544]

BREVATOME: Société Française pour la Gestion des Brevets d'Application Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

BRG: budget review group [NUREG-0544]

BRH: Bureau of Radiological Health [NUREG-0544]

BRP: Bureau of Radiation Protection [NUREG-0544]

BRPNP: Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

BRR: Battelle Research Reactor, Brookhaven Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

BRS: Bibliographic Retrieval System, boron recycle system [NUREG-0544]

BRWM: Board on Radioactive Waste Management [NUREG-0544]

BS: Braidwood Station, Byron Station [NUREG-0544]

B/S: bistable [NUREG-0544]

BSEP: Brunswick Steam Electric Plant [NUREG-0544]

BSF: bulk shielding facility [NUREG-0544]

BSI: British Standards Institution [NUREG-0544]

BSL: Bignier Schmid-Laurent (France) [NUREG-0544]

BSR: Board of Standards Review (American National Standards Institute), bulk shielding reactor [NUREG-0544]

BSS: basic safety standard [NUREG-0544]

BST: bleed storage tank, blowdown suppression tank, boron storage tank [NUREG-0544]

BT: boiling transition, broadcast technology [NUREG-0544]

BTFA: benzoyltrifluoroacetone [NUREG-0544]

BTP: backfit test program, branch technical position [NUREG-0544]

BTR: boron thermal regeneration [NUREG-0544]

BTRS: boron thermal regeneration system [NUREG-0544]

BTS: Brazilian thorium sludge [NUREG-0544]

BUSS: backup scram system [NUREG-0544]

B&V: Black & Veatch [NUREG-0544]

BVFA: Bundesversuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Arsenal (Austria) [NUREG-0544]

BVPS: Beaver Valley Power Station [NUREG-0544]

B&W: Babcock & Wilcox Co. (now Framatome) [NUREG-0544]

B&WC: Babcock & Wilcox Canada [NUREG-0544]

BWC: Bingham-Willamette Co. [NUREG-0544]

BWF: building wake factor [NUREG-0544]

B&WFC: Babcock & Wilcox Fuel Co. [NUREG-0544]

BWIP: basalt waste isolation program [NUREG-0544]

B&WNT: Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Technologies [NUREG-0544]

B&WOG: Babcock & Wilcox Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

BWR: boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

BWROG: Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

BWRVIP: Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project [NUREG-0544]

B&WSSAR: Babcock & Wilcox Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

BWST: borated water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

B Plant: The second chemical separation "canyon" built at the Hanford Site in Washington State for the Manhattan Project during World War II, the B plant was built between 1942 and 1945 and was used for plutonium recovery until 1956. Since then, it has had other uses. The code name "B" is arbitrary. [DOE/EM-0266]

B Reactor: The world's first full-scale plutonium production reactor, the B reactor is located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Construction on this reactor for the Manhattan Project started in 1943 and was completed in 1944. B reactor operated from 1944 to 1946 then from 1948 to 1968. The code name "B" is arbitrary. [DOE/EM-0266]

background radiation - The natural radioactivity in the environment. Natural background radiation consists of cosmic rays, filtered through the atmosphere from outer space, and radiation from the naturally radioactive elements in the earth (primarily uranium, thorium, radium and potassium).  The average American receives about 300-360 millirem per year from natural and man-made radiation. [CY, EPALLRW]

Barnwell: Currently active commercial LLRW disposal facility located at Barnwell, South Carolina [TNRCC]

Base Case: The estimate of total program cost (e.g., in the 1995 and 1996 Baseline Environmental Management Reports) that reflects the most likely activities and schedule under current projections. [DOE/EM-0466]

Base Table: A document that displays the budgetary resources available for obligation by fund type at a level of detail consistent with congressional requirements. The base table is the controlling document that is the basis for the Department of Energy (DOE) allotment and the Approved Funding Program (AFP). [DOEEMGMT]

Baseline: A quantitative expression of planned costs, schedule, and technical requirements for a defined project. Baselines should include criteria to serve as a base standard for measuring the status of resources and the progress of a project. [DOE/EM-0342]

Baseline Change Control: A documented process applying technical and management review and approval of changes to technical, schedule, and cost baselines. [DOEEMGMT]

Baseline Document Date: The date the baseline was approved. If the document has not been approved, the date document was submitted. [DOEEMGMT]

Baseline Document Title: The title of the last approved baseline document, which includes all cost, schedule, and technical baseline data.

Baseline Environmental Management Report (Baseline Report): Congressionally mandated report prepared by the Secretary of Energy to estimate the cost and schedule of cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex. [DOE/EM-0466]

basin: A topographic or structurally low area compared to the immediately adjacent areas. [WIPPEA]

becquerel: A unit of radioactivity equal to one disintegration per second. It is an extremely small unit, equal to about 37 picocuries. (3.7 x 10-11 Curie) [IEER]

BEIR: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. (see "biological effects")

Bell Canyon Formation: A sequence of rock strata that forms the topmost unit of the Delaware Mountain Group. [WIPPEA]

Below Regulatory Concern: A definable amount of low-level waste that can be deregulated with minimal risk to the public. (DOE 5820.2A) [obtained from enormous DOE CERCLA glossary available here]

Beryllium: A high-melting, lightweight, corrosion-resistant, rigid, steel-gray metallic element used as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors. [DOELL] Some nuclear weapon parts are made of beryllium. [DOE/EM-0319]

beta decay: The emission of electrons or positrons (particles identical to electrons, but with a positive electrical charge) from the nucleus of an element in the process of radioactive decay of the element. [IEER]

beta particle: Electrons or positrons (positively charged electrons) emitted by many elements in the course of radioactive decay. [IEER] A beta particle is identical with an electron. It has a short range in air and a low ability to penetrate other materials. [DOE/EM-0266] Beta particles are of either positive charge (β+) or negative charge (β-). [LBNL]

beta radiation: Radiation consisting of electrons or positrons emitted in many radioactive disintegrations, at speeds approaching the speed of light. [IEER]
High-energy electrons (beta particles) emitted from certain radioactive material. Can pass through 1 to 2 centimeters of water or human flesh and can be shielded by a thin sheet of aluminum. Beta particles are more deeply penetrating than alpha particles but, because of their smaller size, cause less localized damage. [CY]
Very light particles (about 2,000 times less mass than a proton) and have a charge of -1. Because of their light mass and single charge, beta particles can penetrate more deeply than alpha particles. [AT]

binding energy: The minimum energy that is required to separate the nucleons in a nucleus into separate, free particles. [IEER, NRC]

Bioassay: The determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and in some cases, the locations, of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement (in vivo counting) or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed (in vitro) from the human body. [NRC]

biological effects: The early or delayed results of biological damage caused by nuclear radiation (alpha, beta gamma).[CY]

Biological halflife: The time required for a biological system, such as that of a human, to eliminate, by natural processes, half of the amount of a substance (such as a radioactive material) that has entered it. [NRC]

Biological shield A mass of absorbing material placed around a reactor or radioactive source to reduce the radiation to a level safe for humans. [NRC]

Bioremediation: The process of using microorganisms to degrade or break down hazardous materials. The Department of Energy has used this remediation technique on environmental management projects. [DOELL]

BLM: Bureau of Land Management

Boiling water reactor (BWR): A reactor in which water, used as both coolant and moderator, is allowed to boil in the core. The resulting steam can be used directly to drive a turbine and electrical generator, thereby producing electricity. [NRC]

BOR: Bureau of Reclamation

Bone seeker: A radioisotope that tends to accumulate in the bones when it is introduced into the body. An example is strontium-90, which behaves chemically like calcium. [NRC]

Borosilicate glass: A type of glass containing at least 5 wt % boric oxide. It is used in glassware that resists heat and is a leading candidate for use in high-level waste immobilization and disposal. [DOE-IDB97]

Bounding case: A case that represents the extreme (high or low) boundaries of a possible situation. [DOE/EA-1172]

Branching ratio: In branching radioactive decay, the fraction of nuclei that disintegrates in a specific way. (It is usually expressed as a percentage.) [DOE-IDB97]

BRC: To be interpreted in-context. In Texas, refers to the Bureau of Radiation Control, however, in regulatory jargon, this usually is short for "Below Regulatory Concern." (see 'below regulatory concern' for definition)

breeder reactor: A reactor that is designed to produce more fissile material than it consumes; also sometimes called "fast reactor" since most breeder reactors use fast neutrons for sustaining the nuclear chain reaction. [IEER] A fertile material, such as uranium-238, when bombarded by neutrons, is transformed into a fissile material, such as plutonium-239, which can be used as fuel. [NRC]

Brownfields: Abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. [DOE/EM-0466]

BTU: British thermal unit. The amount of energy gained by a pound of water when its temperature is increased by one degree Fahrenheit. [IEER]

Budget Analyst Comments: The budget analyst's comments made during the budget formulation process or for an Approved Funding Program (AFP) funding action. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget and Reporting (B&R) Classifications: A coding structure that parallels DOE's activities and programs. This structure is used for the formulation of the budget; the reporting of obligations, costs, and revenues; and the controlling and measuring of actual versus budgeted performance. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget and Reporting Code (B&R Code): An alphanumeric code that represents a Budget and Reporting (B&R) classification and a type of funds. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget and Reporting Group: A number that uniquely identifies a grouping of budget and reporting (B&R) codes, commonly called a "B&R Suite."[DOEEMGMT]

Budget at Completion (BAC)
The total of all lower level control account budgets. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget Authority (BA): Authority provided by law for a federal agency to enter into obligations that will result in immediate or future outlays of government funds. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget Impact Description: A description of potential technical, programmatic, legal, and cost effectiveness impacts that may result at the different funding levels depicted for an ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget Obligations: The amount of orders placed, contracts awarded, services received, and similar transactions during a given period that require payments during the same period or a future period. Such amounts include outlays for which obligations have not been previously recorded and reflect adjustments for differences between obligations previously recorded and actual outlays to liquidate those obligations. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget Year: The main fiscal year for which the Office of Environmental Management (EM) formulates a budget. It precedes the planning year and outyears. [DOEEMGMT]

Budget Year Description: A detailed description of the planned work within the scope of an ADS for the current year. [DOEEMGMT]

Budgeted Cost Work Performed (BCWP): The value of completed work expressed in terms of the budget assigned to such work. [DOEEMGMT]

Budgeted Cost Work Scheduled (BCWS): The sum of budgets for all control accounts for work scheduled to be accomplished within a given time period. [DOEEMGMT]

Buffer zone: Land area surrounding LLRW disposal facility to enable environmental monitoring and timely mitigative measures if necessary. [TNRCC]

Burial Grounds: Areas designated for near-surface disposal of containers of low-level radioactive waste and obsolete or worn-out radioactively contaminated equipment. [DOE/EM-0466]

Buried Transuranic Waste (Buried TRU): Transuranic waste that was disposed of (e.g. disposal in shallow burial trenches) prior to 1970. [DOECID]

burn-up: The amount of energy that has been generated from a unit of nuclear fuel; usually measured in megawatt-days per metric ton of initial heavy metal. [IEER]

Burnup, specific: The total energy released per initial unit mass of reactor fuel as a result of the fission process occurring. The unit commonly used for specific burnup is megawatt-days per metric ton of initial heavy metal, MWd/MTIHM. [DOE-IDB97]

By-product Material : There are basically two types of by-product materials. The first are produced by a nuclear reactor and the second are produced by the uranium and thorium mining process. A more precise definition reads: "(1) Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in, or made radioactive by, exposure incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material, For purposes of determining the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 to any radioactive waste, the term "any radioactive material" refers only to the actual radionuclides dispersed or suspended in the waste substance. The nonradioactive hazardous waste component of the waste substance will be subject to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (2) The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "by-product material" within this definition (10 CFR 20.1003)." [EPA-MW and DOE-IDB97]

TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code:
"(3) "By-product material" means: (A) a radioactive material, other than special nuclear material, that is produced in or made radioactive by exposure to radiation incident to the process of producing or using special nuclear material; and (B) tailings or wastes produced by or resulting from the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes."

|------------------------ C ------------------------|

CA: charge amplifier, construction authorization, contract authorization, critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

C/A: corrective action [NUREG-0544]

CAA: Clean Air Act [NUREG-0544]

CAC: carrier access code, containment atmosphere control [NUREG-0544]

CACS: containment air cooling system, core auxiliary cooling system [NUREG-0544]

CACW: core auxiliary cooling water [NUREG-0544]

CACWS: core auxiliary cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

CAD: computer-aided design, construction aid document, containment atmosphere dilution [NUREG-0544]

CAES: compressed air energy storage [NUREG-0544]

CAF: chemical analysis facility [NUREG-0544]

CAFEE: critical assembly fuel element exchange [NUREG-0544]

CAFTA: cutset and fault tree analysis [NUREG-0544]

CAGT: collaborative advanced gas turbine [NUREG-0544]

CAHE: core auxiliary heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

CAI: construction action item, computer-assisted instruction [NUREG-0544]

CAIT: corrective action investigation team [NUREG-0544]

CAL: confirmatory action letter, corrective action letter [NUREG-0544]

CALUTRON: California University Cyclotron [NUREG-0544]

CAM: constant air monitor, containment atmospheric monitoring, continuous air monitor [NUREG-0544]

CAMEL: component and material evaluation loop [NUREG-0544]

CAMEN: Centro Autònomo Militari Energia Nucleare (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CAN: Citizen's Awareness Network [NUREG-0544]

CANDU: Canadian Deuterium-Natural Uranium Reactor, Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor, Canadian Natural-Uranium, Heavy-Water-Moderated and -Cooled Power Reactor [NUREG-0544]

CANE: Connecticut Aircraft Nuclear Experiment [NUREG-0544]

CAOC: constant axial offset control [NUREG-0544]

CAP: codes and paging, continuous audit program, corrective action plan, corrective action program [NUREG-0544]

CAPCG: Central Area Power Coordination Group [NUREG-0544]

CAPES: containment atmosphere purge exhaust system [NUREG-0544]

CAPS: cell atmosphere processing system, construction advanced planning and sequencing [NUREG-0544]

CAQ: condition adverse to quality [NUREG-0544]

CAQR: condition adverse to quality report [NUREG-0544]

CAR: condenser air removal, configuration acceptance review, containment air recirculation, control advisory release, corrective action report [NUREG-0544]

CARA: Compagnie d'Applications et de Recherches Atomiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

CARATOM: Compagnie d'Applications et de Recherches Atomiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

CARC: containment air recirculation and cooling [NUREG-0544]

CARS: condenser air removal system, containment atmosphere release system, containment atmosphere recirculation system [NUREG-0544]

CAS: central alarm station, central alarm system, chemical addition system, circuits and systems , compressed air system [NUREG-0544]

CASE: Citizens Action for Safe Environment, Citizens Association for Sound Energy, consolidated aerospace supplier evaluation, coordinating agency for supplier evaluation [NUREG-0544]

CAT: chemical addition tank, computerized axial tomography, conditionally accepted tag, construction appraisal team, crack arrest technology, crack arrest temperature, crack arrest test [NUREG-0544]

CATD: corrective action tracking document [NUREG-0544]

CAV: crack arrest verification [NUREG-0544]

CAVALIER: Cooperatively Assembled Virginia Low-Intensity Educational Reactor [NUREG-0544]

CB: containment building, control building [NUREG-0544]

CBAST: concentrated boric acid storage tank [NUREG-0544]

CBD: Commerce Business Daily [NUREG-0544]

CBDT: cause-based decision tree (method) [NUREG-0544]

CBE: Citizens for a Better Environment [NUREG-0544]

CBECS: control building environmental control system [NUREG-0544]

CBI: Chesapeake Bay Institute, CBI Industries (formerly Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.) [NUREG-0544]

CB&I: Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. (later CBI Industries) [NUREG-0544]

CBL: Chesapeake Bay Laboratory, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

CBLA: cost-beneficial licensing action [NUREG-0544]

CBM: circuit breaker manufacturer [NUREG-0544]

CBP: condensate booster pump [NUREG-0544]

CBPC: Corn Belt Power Cooperative [NUREG-0544]

CBPT: closed-loop in-reactor assembly backup plug tool [NUREG-0544]

CBR: commercial breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

CBSR: coupled breeding superheating reactor [NUREG-0544]

CBV: containment building ventilation [NUREG-0544]

CC: centrifugal charging, coarse control, component check, component cooling [NUREG-0544]

CCAS: containment cooling actuation signal [NUREG-0544]

CCB: change control board, chemical cleaning building [NUREG-0544]

CCCS: core components cleaning system, core components conditioning station, core components conditioning system [NUREG-0544]

CCD: coarse control damper, counter-current digestion [NUREG-0544]

CCDF: complementary cumulative distribution function [NUREG-0544]

CCDP: conditional core damage probability [NUREG-0544]

CCF: common-cause failure [NUREG-0544]

CCFA: common-cause failure analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

CCFL: counter-current flow limitation [NUREG-0544]

CCFP: conditional containment failure probability [NUREG-0544]

CCGC: containment combustible gas control [NUREG-0544]

CCHEN: Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear (Chile) [NUREG-0544]

CCI: core concrete interaction [NUREG-0544]

CCM : SulzerCompagnie de Construction Mécanique Sulzer (France) [NUREG-0544]

CCN: contract change notice [NUREG-0544]

CCNB: Concerned Citizens for the Nuclear Breeder [NUREG-0544]

CCNPP: Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

CCP: centrifugal charging pump, chemical control procedure, core component pot [NUREG-0544]

CCRC: core component receiving container [NUREG-0544]

CCRS: computerized cable routing system [NUREG-0544]

CCS: Carroll County Station, commitment control system, component cooling system, condensate cleanup system, condensate cooling system, containment cooling system [NUREG-0544]

CCSS: centrifugally cast stainless steel [NUREG-0544]

CCSW: component cooling service water [NUREG-0544]

CCTF: cylindrical core test facility [NUREG-0544]

CCTL: core component test loop [NUREG-0544]

CCTV: closed-circuit television [NUREG-0544]

CCU: containment cooling unit [NUREG-0544]

CCW: closed cooling water, component cooling water, compound cooling water, condenser circulating water, condenser cooling water, counterclockwise [NUREG-0544]

CCWS: closed cooling water system, component cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

CD: civil defense [NUREG-0544]

C/D: cooldown [NUREG-0544]

CDA: containment depressurization actuation, core disruptive accident [NUREG-0544]

CDBA: containment design-basis accident [NUREG-0544]

CDC: Center for Disease Control, computer design code, Control Data Corp. [NUREG-0544]

CDE: condensate demineralization effluent [NUREG-0544]

CDF: core damage frequency, cumulative damage function [NUREG-0544]

CDM: central data management [NUREG-0544]

CDN: corporate data network [NUREG-0544]

CDP: cask decontamination pit [NUREG-0544]

CDPA: Civil Defense Preparedness Agency [NUREG-0544]

CDPr: core damage probability [NUREG-0544]

CDR: conceptual design requirement [NUREG-0544]

CDRG: Catastrophic Disaster Response Group [NUREG-0544]

CD-ROM: compact disk/read-only memory [NUREG-0544]

CDS: cask decontamination station, component disassembly station, computer data screening, conceptual design study, condensate demineralization subsystem, current disposal site [NUREG-0544]

CDV: capacitance discharge vaporization [NUREG-0544]

CE: Combustion Engineering, Inc., Commonwealth Edison Co., conductivity element, Consumer Electronics , Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army [NUREG-0544]

C/E: calculation/experiment [NUREG-0544]

C-E: Combustion Engineering, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

CEA: Cambridge Electron Accelerator, Chesapeake Energy Alliance, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (France), control element assembly, Council of Economic Advisors [NUREG-0544]

CEAC: control element assembly calculator [NUREG-0544]

CEADS: control element assembly drive system [NUREG-0544]

CEAN: Centre d'Etudes pour les Applications de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CEBELCOR: Centre Belge d'Etude de la Corrosion (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CEC: Citizens Energy Council, Claiborne Enrichment Center, Commission of the European Communities [NUREG-0544]

CECO: Commonwealth Edison Co., cost estimate change order [NUREG-0544]

CECS: containment environmental control system [NUREG-0544]

CEDE: committed effective dose equivalent [NUREG-0544]

CEDM: control element drive mechanism [NUREG-0544]

CEDMCS: control element drive mechanism control system [NUREG-0544]

CEDS: control element drive system [NUREG-0544]

CEEA: Comisión Ecuatoriana de Energia Atómica (Ecuador), Communauté Européenne de l'Energie Atomique [NUREG-0544]

CEEN: Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CEER: Center for Energy and Environment Research (Puerto Rico) [NUREG-0544]

CEFILAC: Compagnie du Filage des Métaux et des Joint Curty (France) [NUREG-0544]

CEG: Contractor Engineering Group [NUREG-0544]

CEGB: Central Electricity Generating Board (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

CEHA: contact equipment handling area [NUREG-0544]

CEIC: Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. [NUREG-0544]

CEICO: Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. [NUREG-0544]

CEL: carbon equilibrium loop, coating exempt log [NUREG-0544]

CEM: Compagnie Electro-Mécanique (France) [NUREG-0544]

CEN: Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires (France), Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CENC: Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Cadarache (France) [NUREG-0544]

CENFAR: Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France) [NUREG-0544]

CENG: Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Grenoble (France) [NUREG-0544]

CENS: Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay (France) [NUREG-0544]

CENUSA: Centrales Nucleares, S.A. (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

CENY: Consolidated Edison Co. of New York [NUREG-0544]

CEOG: Combustion Engineering Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

CEPC: Central Electric Power Cooperative, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

CEQ: Council on Environmental Quality [NUREG-0544]

CER: complete engineering release, condition evaluation report, critical experiment reactor [NUREG-0544]

CERC: Coastal Engineering Research Center, U.S. Army [NUREG-0544]

CERCA: Centre de Recherches pour Combustibles Atomiques (France), Compagnie pour l'Etude et la Réalisation de Combustibles Atomiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act [NUREG-0544]

CERES: Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies [NUREG-0544]

CERL: Construction Engineering Research Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

CERMET: ceramic and metal (fuel) [NUREG-0544]

CERT: candidate evaluation, certification, and selection record, constant extension rate test(ing), Council of Energy Resources Tribes [NUREG-0544]

CES: critical experiment station [NUREG-0544]

CESNEF: Centro di Studi Nucleari Enrico Fermi (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CESR: colliding electron-beam storage ring [NUREG-0544]

CESSAR: Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

CET: containment event tree, core exit thermocouple, critical experiment tank [NUREG-0544]

CETR: Consolidated Edison Thorium Reactor [NUREG-0544]

CETS: control element test stand [NUREG-0544]

CEVAR: consumable-electrode vacuum-arc remelt [NUREG-0544]

CF: column feed, confinement factor, continuous flow, core flooding, correction factor [NUREG-0544]

CFAR: component failure analysis report [NUREG-0544]

CFB: C.F. Braun and Co. [NUREG-0544]

CFC: Constructions Férroviaires du Centre, S.A. (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CFCCS: condensate and feedwater chemistry control system [NUREG-0544]

CFCU: containment fan cooler unit [NUREG-0544]

CFD: cell floor drain [NUREG-0544]

CFDT: Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (France) [NUREG-0544]

CFE: clandestine fission explosive, Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Mexico) [NUREG-0544]

CFFTR: Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Project [NUREG-0544]

CFI: core flooding interlock [NUREG-0544]

CFM: containment failure mode [NUREG-0544]

CFO: Chief Financial Officer [NUREG-0544]

CFR: Code of Federal Regulations [NUREG-0544]

CFR: commercial fast reactor, condensate filter demineralizer [NUREG-0544]

CFRE: circulating-fuel reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

CFRMF: coupled fast reactor measurement facility [NUREG-0544]

CFS: cavity fission source, condensate and feedwater system, core flood system, core former structure [NUREG-0544]

CFT: core flood tank, core flooding tank [NUREG-0544]

CFTC: cooler flusher tank cell [NUREG-0544]

CFTE: cooler flusher tank equipment [NUREG-0544]

CFTL: component flow test loop [NUREG-0544]

CFU: cumulative fatigue usage [NUREG-0544]

CFUR: Citizens for Fair Utility Regulation [NUREG-0544]

CFW: condensate and feedwater [NUREG-0544]

CFWS: condensate and feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

CGCS: combustion gas control system [NUREG-0544]

CGE: Canadian General Electric [NUREG-0544]

CGEC: Cincinnati Gas and Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

CGEL: cover gas evaluation loop [NUREG-0544]

CGI: commercial-grade item [NUREG-0544]

CGMS: cover gas monitoring subsystem [NUREG-0544]

cGy: centigray [NUREG-0544]

CHAP: composite HTGR (high-temperature gas reactor) analysis program [NUREG-0544]

CHAT: CLIRA (closed-loop in-reactor assembly) holddown assembly tool [NUREG-0544]

CHCF: component handling and cleaning facility [NUREG-0544]

CHEP: conditional human error probability [NUREG-0544]

CHF: critical heat flux [NUREG-0544]

CHFR: critical heat flux ratio [NUREG-0544]

CHGE: Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corp. [NUREG-0544]

CHLA: candidate high-level action [NUREG-0544]

CHLW: commercial high-level waste [NUREG-0544]

CHMT: components, hybrids, and manufacturing technology [NUREG-0544]

CHN: construction hold notice [NUREG-0544]

CHP: certified health physicist [NUREG-0544]

C&HP: chemistry and health physics [NUREG-0544]

CHR: cooling water/hot water return [NUREG-0544]

CHRS: containment heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

CHU: centigrade heat unit [NUREG-0544]

CHWR: cooling water/hot water return [NUREG-0544]

C/HWR: cooling water/hot water return [NUREG-0544]

C-HWR: cooling water/hot water return [NUREG-0544]

CI: center island, chemical injection, containment integrity, containment isolation [NUREG-0544]

C&I: control and instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

Ci: curie [NUREG-0544]

CIA: Central Intelligence Agency, containment isolation A [NUREG-0544]

CIAS: containment isolation actuation signal [NUREG-0544]

CIB: containment isolation B [NUREG-0544]

CIC: carrier identification code [NUREG-0544]

CICA: Competition in Contracting Act [NUREG-0544]

CICAF: Compagnie Industrielle des Combustibles Atomiques Frittes (France) [NUREG-0544]

CID: component identification [NUREG-0544]

CIEMAT: Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medio Ambientales (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

CIIP: condenser inservice inspection program [NUREG-0544]

CILRT: containment integrated leak rate test [NUREG-0544]

CIMI: Compagnia Italiana Montaggi Industriali, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CINDA: computer index of neutron data [NUREG-0544]

CIO: Chief Information Officer [NUREG-0544]

CIP: containment improvement program [NUREG-0544]

C/IP: construction/inspection procedure [NUREG-0544]

CIPC: Central Iowa Power Cooperative [NUREG-0544]

CIPP: customized inspection program pilot , customized inspection program process, customized inspection planning process (now IPAP) [NUREG-0544]

CIR: Canada-India Reactor (India) [NUREG-0544]

CIREA: Commission Interministérielle des Radioéléments Artificiels (France) [NUREG-0544]

CIRGA: Critical Isotope Reactor, General Atomic Co. [NUREG-0544]

CIRRPC: Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination [NUREG-0544]

CIRS: containment iodine removal system [NUREG-0544]

CIS: chemical injection system, containment isolation signal, containment isolation system, contract information sheet [NUREG-0544]

CISDEN: Centro Italiano di Studi di Diritto dell'Energia Nucleare (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CISE: Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CISF: centralized interim storage facility [NUREG-0544]

CISIP: condenser inservice inspection program [NUREG-0544]

CISSCO: Comprehensive Information Systems Support Consolidation [NUREG-0544]

CIT: conductivity indicator transmitter, corporate investigation team, critical incident technique [NUREG-0544]

CIV: center island vessel, combined intercept valve, combined intermediate valve, containment isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

CIWA: condition identification work authorization [NUREG-0544]

CL: closed loop, containment leakage [NUREG-0544]

CLA: cold-leg accumulator [NUREG-0544]

CLAA: Centre Lyonnais d'Applications Atomiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

CLB: current licensing basis [NUREG-0544]

CLC: closed-loop condensate [NUREG-0544]

CLCGM: closed-loop cover gas monitor [NUREG-0544]

CLCIS: closed-loop control and instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

CLCS: consequence limiting control system [NUREG-0544]

CLCV: cold-leg check valve [NUREG-0544]

CLCW: closed-loop cooling water [NUREG-0544]

CLEI: Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. [NUREG-0544]

CLEM: closed-loop ex-vessel machine [NUREG-0544]

CLEMT: closed-loop ex-vessel machine transporter [NUREG-0544]

CLIRA: closed-loop in-reactor assembly [NUREG-0544]

CLIV: cold-leg isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

CLJA: closed-loop jumper assembly [NUREG-0544]

CLLRW: commercial low-level radioactive waste [NUREG-0544]

CLOF: complete loss of feedwater [NUREG-0544]

CLOFA: complete loss-of-fluid accident [NUREG-0544]

CLOHS: complex loss-of-heat sink [NUREG-0544]

CLP: Connecticut Light and Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

CLR: core lateral restraint [NUREG-0544]

CLRWS: clean liquid radioactive waste system [NUREG-0544]

CLS: cask loading station, closed-loop system, consequence limiting system [NUREG-0544]

CLSD: Central Laboratories Services Dept. (TVA) [NUREG-0544]

CLSMDA: closed-loop-system meltdown accident [NUREG-0544]

CLWR: commercial light-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

CM: coarse mixing, condition monitoring, configuration management, coolant mixing, core melt, corrective maintenance [NUREG-0544]

CMA: classified mail address [NUREG-0544]

CMAA: Crane Manufacturers Association of America [NUREG-0544]

CMC: component modification card, core monitoring computer [NUREG-0544]

CMCI: core-melt/coolant interaction [NUREG-0544]

CMEA: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (U.S.S.R.) [NUREG-0544]

CMEP: Critical Mass Energy Project [NUREG-0544]

CMF: central maintenance facility, common-mode failure, core-melt frequency [NUREG-0544]

CMFA: common-mode failure analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

CMFLPD: core maximum fraction of limiting power density [NUREG-0544]

CMI: care and maintenance instruction [NUREG-0544]

CML: Critical Mass Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

CMM: core mechanical mockup [NUREG-0544]

CMMF: component maintenance and mockup facility [NUREG-0544]

CMOD: crack mouth opening displacement [NUREG-0544]

CMP: CLEM (closed-loop ex-vessel machine) maintenance pit, coastal management program, condition monitoring program, configuration management plan, controlled materials production [NUREG-0544]

CMPC: Central Maine Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

CMRG: Core Melt Review Group [NUREG-0544]

CMT: core makeup tank [NUREG-0544]

CMTR: certified material test report, certified mill test report [NUREG-0544]

CNA: Canadian Nuclear Association, Centrale Nucléaire des Ardennes (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CNB: Centrale Nucléaire Belge (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CNC: condensation nuclei counter [NUREG-0544]

CNEA: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina) [NUREG-0544]

CNEN: Comisión Nacional de Energía Nuclear (Mexico), Comissão Nacional de Energía Nuclear (Brazil), Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare (Italy), Conseil National de l'Energie Nucléaire (Luxembourg) [NUREG-0544]

CNET: Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology [NUREG-0544]

CNEUPEN: Commission Nationale pour l'Etude de l'Utilisation Pacifique de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CNFP: commercial nuclear fuel plant [NUREG-0544]

CNI: Consolidated National Intervenors [NUREG-0544]

CNN: Cable Network News [NUREG-0544]

CNNA: China National Nuclear Corporation [NUREG-0544]

CNO: Chief Nuclear Officer [NUREG-0544]

CNPP: corporate nuclear performance plan [NUREG-0544]

CNR: Committee for Nuclear Responsibility [NUREG-0544]

CNRA: Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (of the OECD-NEA) [NUREG-0544]

CNRAG: corporate nuclear review and audit group, company nuclear review and audit group [NUREG-0544]

CNRM: Centre National de Recherches Métallurgiques (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CNRN: Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleare (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CNRS: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) [NUREG-0544]

CNS: Catawba Nuclear Station, Cherokee Nuclear Station, Cooper Nuclear Station, corporate nuclear safety [NUREG-0544]

CNSI: Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

CNSNS: Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) [NUREG-0544]

CNSR: combination neutron source rod [NUREG-0544]

CNWRA: Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses [NUREG-0544]

CO: change order, check open, chief operator, confirmatory order, contracting officer [NUREG-0544]

COB: close of business [NUREG-0544]

COBOL: common business-oriented language [NUREG-0544]

COBRA: Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, coolant boiling and in-rod array [NUREG-0544]

COC: certificate of compliance, certificate of conformance, Cleveland open cup (method) [NUREG-0544]

COCA: consent order and compliance agreement [NUREG-0544]

COCORP: Consortium of Continental Reflection Profiling [NUREG-0544]

COD: chemical oxygen demand, crack opening displacement [NUREG-0544]

COE: Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army [NUREG-0544]

COFINATOME: Compagnie de Financement de l'Industrie Atomique (France) [NUREG-0544]

COG: cell off-gas, condenser off-gas, continuity of government [NUREG-0544]

COGAP: combustion gas analyzer program [NUREG-0544]

COI: conflict of interest [NUREG-0544]

COL: combined operating license, construction/operating license [NUREG-0544]

COLR: core operating limit report [NUREG-0544]

COLSS: core operating limit supervisory system, core operating limit support system [NUREG-0544]

COM: communications , computer output on microfiche, computer output on microfilm [NUREG-0544]

COMET: computer-operated management evaluation technique [NUREG-0544]

COMRADEX: containment and meteorology for radiation exposure [NUREG-0544]

COMSEC: communications security [NUREG-0544]

CONAGT: Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (ASME) [NUREG-0544]

CONS: Consolidation, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

COOP: continuity of operations plan [NUREG-0544]

COPPS: committee on power plant siting [NUREG-0544]

COPS: containment overpressure protection systems [NUREG-0544]

CORAPRO: Contrôle-Radioprotection (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

CORAR: Council on Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals [NUREG-0544]

COREN: Combustibili per Reattori Nucleari, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

CORS: catalytic oxygen removal system [NUREG-0544]

COS: change of station [NUREG-0544]

COTS: commercial off-the-shelf [NUREG-0544]

COV: center of vortex [NUREG-0544]

CP: Callaway Plant, change proposal, charging pump, Chicago Pile, civil penalty, cold pipe, column product, Comanche Peak, Commission paper, construction permit, construction procedure, containment purge, coolant pump, critical power [NUREG-0544]

C/P: current/pneumatic [NUREG-0544]

CP-5: Chicago Pile #5 [NUREG-0544]

CPA: Cooperative Power Association [NUREG-0544]

CPC: Consumers Power Co., contact process cell, controlled-potential coulometer, core protection calculator, core protection computer [NUREG-0544]

CPCo: Consumers Power Company [NUREG-0544]

CPCSF: construction permit containment support fixture [NUREG-0544]

CPD: condensate pump discharge [NUREG-0544]

CPDD: conceptual project design description [NUREG-0544]

CPDO: containment performance design objective [NUREG-0544]

CPDS: condensate polishing demineralizer system [NUREG-0544]

CPE: contractor performance evaluation [NUREG-0544]

CPER: construction permit environmental report [NUREG-0544]

CPFF: cost plus fixed fee [NUREG-0544]

CPI: center pressure index, containment performance improvement [NUREG-0544]

CPIC: Capital Planning and Investment Control [NUREG-0544]

CPIS: containment purge isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

CP&L: Carolina Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

cpm: count per minute [NUREG-0544]

CPM: critical path method [NUREG-0544]

CPP: Center for Plutonium Production, coil power programmer, containment pre-entry purge, containment protection professional [NUREG-0544]

CPPMU: containment pre-entry purge makeup [NUREG-0544]

CPPR: construction permit for a power reactor [NUREG-0544]

CPR: critical power ratio [NUREG-0544]

CPRR: construction permit for a research reactor [NUREG-0544]

CPRRG: Comanche Peak Report Review Group [NUREG-0544]

CPRT: Comanche Peak Response Team [NUREG-0544]

CPRW: condensate polishing regeneration waste [NUREG-0544]

CPRWCT: condensate polishing regeneration waste collection tank [NUREG-0544]

CPS: canister positioning system, cathodic protection system, Clinton Power Station, condensate polishing system, containment purge system, conversion program system, core and plant system [NUREG-0544]

cps: count per second [NUREG-0544]

CPSC: Consumer Products Safety Commission [NUREG-0544]

CPSCI: central personnel security clearance index [NUREG-0544]

CPSES: Comanche Peak Steam Electrical Station [NUREG-0544]

CPU: central processing unit [NUREG-0544]

CPVC: chlorinated polyvinyl chloride [NUREG-0544]

CPWF: cementitious pelletized waste form [NUREG-0544]

CQ: Congressional Quarterly [NUREG-0544]

CQAA: corporate quality assurance audit [NUREG-0544]

CQE: cognizant quality engineer, critical quality element [NUREG-0544]

CR: Chicago Reactor, civil rights, condition report, conditional release, containment rupture, contractor report, control rod, control room, Congressional Record [NUREG-0544]

CRA: control rod assembly [NUREG-0544]

CRAC: calculation of reactor accident consequences, consequences of reactor accident code [NUREG-0544]

CRACS: control room air conditioning system [NUREG-0544]

CRATS: control room air temperature system [NUREG-0544]

CRAVS: control room area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

CRB: control rod blade, cost review board [NUREG-0544]

CRBR: Clinch River Breeder Reactor, controlled-recirculation boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

CRBRP: Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant, Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project [NUREG-0544]

CRC: critical reactor component [NUREG-0544]

CRCPD: Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors [NUREG-0544]

CRCTA: composite reactor components test activity [NUREG-0544]

CRD: control rod drive, control rod driveline [NUREG-0544]

CRDA: control rod drop accident [NUREG-0544]

CRDCS: control rod drive control system [NUREG-0544]

CRDD: control rod disconnect driveline [NUREG-0544]

CRDHS: control rod drive hydraulic system [NUREG-0544]

CRDM: control rod drive mechanism [NUREG-0544]

CRDMS: control rod drive mechanism shroud [NUREG-0544]

CRDR/A: control room design review/audit [NUREG-0544]

CRDS: control rod drive system [NUREG-0544]

CRDVF: control rod drive ventilating fan [NUREG-0544]

CREATE: collective radiation exposure (NRC performance indicator), control room envelope, controlled residual element [NUREG-0544]

CREACS: control room emergency air cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

CREATCS: control room emergency air temperature control system [NUREG-0544]

CREDO: centralized reliability data organization [NUREG-0544]

CREFAS: control room emergency fresh air system [NUREG-0544]

CREFS: control room emergency filtration system [NUREG-0544]

CREHVACS: control room emergency heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system [NUREG-0544]

CREST: Committee on Reactor Safety and Technology [NUREG-0544]

CREV: control room emergency ventilation [NUREG-0544]

CREVS: control room emergency ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

CRF: capacity reduction factor, correspondence routing form [NUREG-0544]

CRFAS: control room fresh air system [NUREG-0544]

CRG: Center Review Group [NUREG-0544]

CRGR: Committee To Review Generic Requirements (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

CRGT: control rod guide tube [NUREG-0544]

CRI: Centre de Recherches et d'Irradiations (France), control room indicator, control room isolation, criterion-referenced instruction [NUREG-0544]

CRIS: control room isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

CRM: Centre de Recherches Métallurgiques (Belgium), Centrum voor Research in de Metallurgie (Belgium), certified reference material, chemical remnant magnetization, core restraint mechanism, count rate meter [NUREG-0544]

CRNGP: Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant [NUREG-0544]

CRNL: Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories [NUREG-0544]

CRO: control room operator [NUREG-0544]

CRPI: control rod position indication [NUREG-0544]

CRS: conductivity recording switch, Congressional Research Service, containment recirculation spray [NUREG-0544]

CRSS: containment recirculation spray system [NUREG-0544]

CRT: cathode-ray tube, collet retaining tube [NUREG-0544]

CRTF: core restraint test facility [NUREG-0544]

CRU: combined rotating unit [NUREG-0544]

CRUD: Chalk River unidentified deposit [NUREG-0544]

CRVICS: containment and reactor vessel isolation control system [NUREG-0544]

CRW: clean radwaste [NUREG-0544]

CRWSS: condensate and refueling water storage system [NUREG-0544]

CS: carbon steel, communications system, component support, containment safety, containment spray, contract specialist, control system , core spray, current status [NUREG-0544]

CSA: chemical storage area, core special assembly, core structure accident [NUREG-0544]

CSAS: containment spray actuating signal, containment spray actuating system, containment spray actuation signal [NUREG-0544]

CSAU: code, scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (methodology) [NUREG-0544]

CSB: core support barrel [NUREG-0544]

CSC: Computer Sciences Corporation, containment spray cooling, core support cylinder [NUREG-0544]

CSCC: caustic stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

CSCS: core standby cooling system [NUREG-0544]

CSD: cold shutdown, constant speed drive [NUREG-0544]

CSDD: conceptual system design description [NUREG-0544]

CSDF: core segment development facility [NUREG-0544]

CSE: components and structures engineering, containment steam explosion , containment systems experiment [NUREG-0544]

CSF: central service facility, condensate storage facility, containment support fixture, Coulter Steel and Forge, critical safety factor, critical safety function [NUREG-0544]

CSHX: containment spray heat exchange [NUREG-0544]

CSIP: containment safety initiatives program [NUREG-0544]

CSIS: containment spray injection system [NUREG-0544]

CSN: Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

CSNE: Citizens for Safe Nuclear Energy [NUREG-0544]

CSNI: Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (NEA) [NUREG-0544]

CSOEC: Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

CSP: Coalition for Safe Power, conditional success probability, containment spray pump, core spray pump [NUREG-0544]

CSPT: core support performance test [NUREG-0544]

CSR: cable spreading room [NUREG-0544]

CSRS: containment spray recirculation system [NUREG-0544]

CSS: cask support structure, cast stainless steel, condensate storage system, containment spray system, core spray system, core support structure [NUREG-0544]

CST: condensate storage tank [NUREG-0544]

CSTB: condensate storage tank building [NUREG-0544]

CSTR: continuously stirred tank reactor [NUREG-0544]

CSTS: condensate storage and transfer system, construction and startup/turnover surveillance group [NUREG-0544]

cSv: centisievert [NUREG-0544]

CSWS: Central and Southwest Services, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

CT: cable test, CLEM (closed-loop ex-vessel machine) transporter, compact tension, computerized tomography, cooling tower, current transformer [NUREG-0544]

CTBT: Comprehensive (Nuclear) Test Ban Treaty [NUREG-0544]

CTD: charged tape detection [NUREG-0544]

CTF: cask tilting fixture [NUREG-0544]

CTG: combustion turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

C/Th: carbon-to-thorium atomic ratio [NUREG-0544]

CTI: Cooling Tower Institute [NUREG-0544]

CTL: Canatom Ltd. (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

CTM: cable transfer machine, collimation test module [NUREG-0544]

CTOS: cassette operations system [NUREG-0544]

CTP: construction test procedure, controlled temperature profile [NUREG-0544]

CTR: certified test result, controlled thermonuclear reactor [NUREG-0544]

CTRM: control room [NUREG-0544]

CTS: concentrate transfer system, condensate transfer and storage, current technical specification [NUREG-0544]

CTT: cask transfer tunnel [NUREG-0544]

CTTP: cask transport and testing program [NUREG-0544]

CTVC: cable tray vertical chase [NUREG-0544]

C/U: carbon-to-uranium atomic ratio [NUREG-0544]

CUB: Citizen's Utility Board [NUREG-0544]

CUC: cask unloading cell [NUREG-0544]

CUF: cumulative usage factor [NUREG-0544]

CUP: cask unloading pool [NUREG-0544]

CURE: Citizens United for Responsible Energy [NUREG-0544]

CUSP: City Utilities of Springfield [NUREG-0544]

CUWS: cask unloading warm shop [NUREG-0544]

CV: check valve, containment vessel, control valve [NUREG-0544]

CVA: consecutive-valve actuation [NUREG-0544]

CVAS: controlled ventilation area system [NUREG-0544]

CVC: chemical and volume control [NUREG-0544]

CVCS: charging and volume control system, chemical and volume control system [NUREG-0544]

CVH: containment vent header [NUREG-0544]

CVI: certified vendor information, containment ventilation isolation [NUREG-0544]

CVIS: containment ventilation isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

CVL: continuous vent line [NUREG-0544]

CVN: Charpy V-notch, construction verification notification [NUREG-0544]

CVP: continuous vacuum priming [NUREG-0544]

CVPETS: condenser vacuum pump effluent treatment system [NUREG-0544]

CVPSC: Central Vermont Public Service Corp. [NUREG-0544]

CVPV: containment vacuum pump valve [NUREG-0544]

CVTR: Carolinas-Virginia Tube Reactor [NUREG-0544]

CW: case work, circulating water, cold worked, column waste, cooling water [NUREG-0544]

CWA: Clean Water Act [NUREG-0544]

CWB: chilled water building [NUREG-0544]

CWIP: construction work in progress [NUREG-0544]

CWO: capital work order [NUREG-0544]

CWP: contractor work plan, control withdrawal prohibit [NUREG-0544]

CWPC: calcined waste packaging cell [NUREG-0544]

CWPH: circulating water pump house [NUREG-0544]

CWR: cooling water return [NUREG-0544]

CWS: circulating water system, compressed work schedule, cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

CX: column extractant, criticality experiment [NUREG-0544]

CY: calendar year [NUREG-0544]

CYAP: Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

CYAPCO: Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

CA: composite analysis [DOELLWRpt]

CAA: Clean Air Act

CAG (Compliance Application Guidance): Document developed by EPA in 1996. The CAG describes what EPA expects to see in DOE's WIPP Compliance Certification Application. [NSCEHC]

Caisson: Underground cylindrical concrete and metal vault. [DOELL]

Calcine: A process that uses heat to reduce liquid high-level waste into a dry, powdery form. Also the powdered waste that results from this process. [DOE/EM-0266]. A form of high-level waste produced from defense reactor fuel reprocessing waste (at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) by heating to a temperature below the melting point to bring about loss of moisture and nonradioactive volatile oxides, thus producing a chemically stable granular powder. [DOE-IDB97]

caliche: Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposited in the soils of arid or semiarid regions. [WIPPEA]

calorie: A unit of heat or energy sufficient to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. In dietetics, the kilocalorie is the unit usually used, frequently called a "calorie," omitting the prefix. [IEER]

Calutron: A device that uses an electromagnetic process to enrich uranium. Calutrons at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge were used to enrich uranium for the Manhattan Project. [DOE/EM-0266]

Canister: Concrete canister designed to provide structural stability to LLRW during isolation or disposal and sized to accommodate at least fourteen 55-gallon drums or two steel boxes (see also overpack) [TNRCC]

Canyon: A vernacular term for a chemical separations plant, inspired by the plant's long, high, narrow structure. Not all chemical separations plants are canyons. [DOE/EM-0266]

CAO (Carlsbad Area Office): In 1993, DOE created the Carlsbad Area Office to lead its transuranic waste disposal efforts. CAO coordinates DOE's transuranic program at waste-generating sites and national laboratories. [NSCEHC]

Capability: The maximum load that a generating station can carry under specified conditions for a given period of time without exceeding approved limits of temperature and stress. [NRC]

Capacity factor (gross): The ratio of the gross electricity generated, for the period of time considered, to the energy that could have been generated at continuous full-power operation during the same period. [NRC]

Capacity factor (net): The ratio of the net electricity generated, for the period of time considered, to the energy that could have been generated at continuous full-power operation during the same period. [NRC]

Capital Equipment (CE): Any piece of equipment, or related pieces of equipment, that has a value or cost of $5,000 or more, an anticipated service life of 2 years or more and meets the applicable capitalization criteria of DOE Order 8200.6, Chapter VI. [DOEEMGMT]

Capsules: Encapsulated strontium and cesium high-level wastes produced from defense reactor fuel reprocessing at the Hanford Site. [DOE-IDB97]

CAS: Chemical Abstract Service

CASR: Chemical Activities Status Report

Cask: A heavily shielded container used to store and/or ship radioactive materials. Lead and steel are common materials used in the manufacture of casks. [NRC]

Castile Formation: A Permian age rock unit of evaporites (interbedded halite and anhydrite) that immediately underlies the Salado Formation, the rock unit in which disposal rooms are excavated. [WIPPEA]

Category: The Environmental Management (EM) program to which the activity or project applies. Category choices are: Corrective Action (CA); Compliance and Program Coordination (CP); Environmental Restoration (ER); Facilities Transition (FT); Program Direction (PD); Technology Development (TD); Transportation Management (TR); and Waste Management (WM). [DOEEMGMT]

Cation: A positively charged ion. [NRC]

CCA (Compliance Certification Application): DOE documentation for the EPA. DOE prepares the CCA for EPA to review in determining whether WIPP will comply with EPA's Radioactive Waste Disposal regulations. [NSCEHC]

CDAC: Community Decommissioning Advisory Committee [CY]

CDC: Center for Disease Control

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund)

CERCLIS: CERCLA Information System

Cerenkov radiation
Light emitted when charged particles enter a transparent medium at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. It is seen as a bluish glow around strong radioactive sources, such as irradiated fuel elements stored under water. [AT]

Cesium: An element chemically similar to sodium and potassium. Isotope cesium-137 is one of the most important fission products, with a half-life of about 30 years. [DOE/EM-0319]

Chain reaction: A self-sustaining series of nuclear fission reactions, when neutrons liberated by fission cause more fission. Chain reactions are essential to the functioning of nuclear reactors and weapons. [DOE/EM-0266]
In a fission chain reaction, a fissionable nucleus absorbs a neutron and fissions spontaneously, releasing additional neutrons. These, in turn, can be absorbed by other fissionable nuclei, releasing still more neutrons. A fission chain reaction is self-sustaining when the number of neutrons released in a given time equals or exceeds the number of neutrons lost by absorption in nonfissionable material or by escape from the system. [NRC]

Characterization: Sampling, monitoring, and analysis activities to determine the extent and nature of contamination at a facility or site. Characterization provides the necessary technical information to develop, screen analyze, and select appropriate cleanup techniques. [DOE/EM-0342]

Chemical recombination: Following an ionization event, the positively and negatively charged ion pairs may or may not realign themselves to form the same chemical substance they formed before ionization. Thus, chemical recombination could change the chemical composition of the material bombarded by ionizing radiation. [NRC]

Chemical separation: Also known as reprocessing; a process for extracting uranium and plutonium from dissolved irradiated targets and spent nuclear fuel and irradiated targets. The fission products that are left behind are high level wastes. [DOE/EM-0266]

CHEMTREC: Chemical Transportation Emergency Center System

Chief Financial Officer (CFO): The individual responsible for the preparation and revision of the Department of Energy's (DOE) financial management plan and the development of the DOE's financial management budget. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issues guidance that requires the Chief Financial Officer to approve plans, budget formulation, and legislation affecting financial management resources at both the DOE and DOE-component levels. [DOEEMGMT]

CHRIS: Chemical Hazard Response Information System

CIS: Chemical Information System or Congressional Information System

Cladding: The thin-walled metal tube that forms the outer jacket of a nuclear fuel rod. It prevents corrosion of the fuel by the coolant and the release of fission products into the coolant. Aluminum, stainless steel, and zirconium alloys are common cladding materials. [NRC] Cladding surrounding the reactor fuel pellets provides protection from a chemically reactive environment and containment of fission products. [DOE-IDB97]

Class A: Least radiologically hazardous category of LLRW, as defined by 30 TAC §336.362 and 10 CFR Part 61. [TNRCC]

Class B: Category of LLRW with intermediate levels of radiological hazard, as defined by 30 TAC §336.362 and 10 CFR Part 61. [TNRCC]

Class C: Most hazardous category of LLRW suitable for near surface land disposal, as defined by 30 TAC §336.362 and 10 CFR Part 61. [TNRCC]

Classification system: System defined in 30 TAC §336.362 and 10 CFR Part 61 to categorize LLRW according to the radiological hazard it presents to the general public, the environment, disposal facility workers, and potential inadvertent intruders. [TNRCC]

Clean Air Act (CAA): The Act (1970) to "protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air resources." Its primary application is through the Prevention of Significant Deterioration permits to regulate new potentially polluting facilities. [DOEEMGMT]

Clean Water Act (CWA): The Act (1977) to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters." The Act's major enforcement tool is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. [DOEEMGMT]

Cleanup: The process of addressing contaminated land, facilities, and materials in accordance with applicable requirements. Cleanup does not imply that all hazards will be removed from the site. The term "remediation" is often used synonymously with cleanup. See also "environmental restoration." [DOE/EM-0466]

Cleanup system: A system used for continuously filtering and demineralizing a reactor coolant system to reduce contamination levels and to minimize corrosion. [NRC]

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): A documentation of the general rules by the executive departments of the federal government. The code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Each title is divided into chapters that usually bear the name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into parts covering specific regulatory areas.

Coastdown: An action that permits the reactor power level to decrease gradually as the fuel in the core is depleted. [NRC]

COE: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Co-extrusion: A process used to clad nuclear fuel elements for Hanford N Reactor and the Savannah River Site reactors. A press extrudes uranium billets welded inside aluminum or zirconium cladding material into tubes, bonding the uranium to the cladding materials. [DOE/EM-0319]

cohort: A group of individuals having a statistical factor (such as age) in common in a demographic or epidmiological study. [IEER]

Cold War Mortgage: The cost and effort associated with addressing the environmental legacy of 50 years of nuclear weapons production. [DOE/EM-0466]

Cold shutdown: The term used to define a reactor coolant system at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature below 200 degrees Fahrenheit following a reactor cooldown. [NRC]

COLEX (Column Exchange): Acronym for the column exchange process that was used at the Y-12 Plant to enrich lithium. COLEX was the principal lithium enrichment process used at the Y-12 Plant. [DOE/EM-0319]

Collective dose: The sum of the individual doses received on a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation. [NRC]

Combustion: This technique transforms the waste to a less reactive form and reduces its volume. Incineration is used for combustible dry active waste and LLW containing certain organic liquids and waste oil. Incineration can achieve high-volume reduction factors. [DOELLWRpt]

Commercial power reactor: Privately-owned nuclear reactors used to produce electricity. Commercial power reactors are fueled with low-enriched uranium. [DOE/EM-0319]

Committed dose equivalent: This is the dose to some specific organ or tissue that is received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Committed effective dose equivalent: The committed dose equivalent for a given organ multiplied by a weighting factor (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Compact: Interstate compact of states ratified by Congress for management of LLRW. Forty-two States have formed nine compacts. See also "Texas Compact". [NRC]

Compaction: This technique reduces the physical volume of the waste by mechanical compression. [DOELLWRpt]

Company Status: A code that indicates if the industry partner is a small business. [DOEEMGMT]

Completion of Cleanup: A condition in which cleanup of a site is considered complete when deactivation or decommissioning of all facilities currently in the Environmental Management program has been completed, excluding any longterm surveillance and monitoring; all releases to the environment have been cleaned up in accordance with agreed-upon cleanup standards; groundwater contamination has been contained, or long-term treatment or monitoring is in place; nuclear material and spent fuel have been stabilized and/ or placed in safe long-term storage; and "legacy" waste (i.e., waste produced by past nuclear weapons production activities, with the exception of high-level waste) has been disposed of in an approved manner. [DOE/EM-0466]

Compliance Activity (COM): A new or ongoing corrective action required to bring a facility or site from its current state of compliance to full compliance with all safety and health (S&H) orders and applicable laws and regulations. [DOEEMGMT]

Compliance Agreement: Legally binding agreement between regulators and regulated entities that sets standards and schedules for compliance with environmental statutes. [DOE/EM-0342]

Compliance and Program Coordination (CP): An Environmental Management (EM) program that performs independent oversight functions to ensure compliance with environmental and safety laws and regulations. The program also enhances the technical validity and cost effectiveness of other programs. [DOEEMGMT]

Compliance Reengineering: Complete, comprehensive analysis of the way Environmental Management processes work and reengineer them to get the most value for the money without compromising our commitment to workers' safety health or full environmental compliance. [DOE/EM-0342]

Compliance Review: An assessment of the contractor's project control system consisting of two summary steps: a review of the contractor's project control system documentation followed by an onsite functional appraisal. [DOEEMGMT]

Component fabrication: Includes the manufacturing, assembly, inspection, bench testing, and verification of specialized nuclear and non-nuclear parts and major subassemblies. Chemical processing to recover, purify, and recycle plutonium, uranium, tritium, and lithium from retired warheads and from component fabrication scrap and residues is included in this category. [DOE/EM-0319]

Composite analysis: An estimate of the potential cumulative effects to a hypothetical future member of the public from a LLW facility and other sources of radioactive materi-als in the ground that may interact with the LLW disposal facility. [EPALLRW]

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA): 42 USC 9601 et seq. A Federal law, enacted in 1980 that governs the cleanup of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive substances. The Act created a trust fund known as the Superfund to finance the investigation and cleanup of abandoned and uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. [DOE/EM-0266] Provides the legal authority for emergency response and cleanup of hazardous substances released into the environment and for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. [DOE/EM-0466] Under the Superfund program, EPA has the authority to clean up the nation's worst hazardous waste sites using money from a trust fund supported primarily from a tax on chemical feedstocks used by manufacturers. Companies or individuals responsible for the wastes are identified by EPA, if possible, and made to pay for the cleanups. The 1986 amendments included provisions that require DOE and other federal agencies to clean up their facilities under Federal Facility agreements with EPA. [DOE/EM-0319] The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 reauthorized CERCLA to continue cleanup activities around the country. Several site-specific amendments, definitions, clarifications, and technical requirements were added to the legislation, including additional enforcement authorities. Title III of SARA also authorized the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). [EPA-MW]

Comprehensive Land Use Planning: A required site planning and management system which involves stakeholders to develop and maintain current and future land use plans and any type of development, use, or disposal planning for the site. [DOE/EM-0466]

concentration: The amount of a substance contained in a unit quantity (mass or volume) of a sample. [WIPPEA]

Conceptual Design Phase: A process within a project life cycle that defines the project scope, criteria and design parameters, that assures project feasibility with attainable performance levels, and that develops reliable cost estimates and project schedules. [DOEEMGMT]

Concurrent Resolution: The congressional budget resolution for the fiscal year. It establishes binding figures for the aggregate levels of budget authority, outlays, revenues, and deficit; the appropriate level of the public debt; and an estimate of the budget authority and outlays for each of the nearly 21 major budget functions. [DOEEMGMT]

Condensate: Water that has been produced by the cooling of steam in a condenser.

Condenser: A large heat exchanger designed to cool exhaust steam from a turbine below the boiling point so that it can be returned to the heat source as water. In a pressurized water reactor, the water is returned to the steam generator. In a boiling water reactor, it returns to the reactor core. The heat removed from the steam by the condenser is transferred to a circulating water system and is exhausted to the environment, either through a cooling tower or directly into a body of water.

Congressional Request: See President's Budget. [DOEEMGMT]

Consent Order: A legally binding document that delineates actions previously agreed upon by the parties in a litigation. In the case of the Department of Energy, a Consent Order outlines planned Department actions to remediate environmental problems in return for the other party's consent to cease litigation. [DOE/EM-0342]

Conservative When used with predictions or estimates, leaning on the side of pessimism. A conservative estimate is one in which the uncertain inputs are used in the way that provides a reasonable upper limit of the estimate of an impact.

Constant Dollars: A term that represents a dollar value adjusted for changes in prices. Dollars in the future are adjusted by stripping out inflation by dividing current dollar amounts by an appropriate index, a process known as deflating. The result is a constant dollar series as it would exist if prices and transactions were the same in all subsequent years as the base year. Any changes in such a series would reflect only changes in the real volume of goods and services. The Baseline Report cost projections are in constant dollars. [DOELL]

Constant dollar estimate: Estimate of costs that makes no allowance for the schedule of activities that incur costs nor for the effects of inflation or time value of money. Thus, Constant Dollar estimates implicitly assume that all costs could be incurred "overnight." [TNRCC]

Construction Phase: A process within a project life cycle that creates a new facility or that alters, adds to, or rehabilitates an existing facility using any combination of engineering, procurement, erection, installation, assembly, or fabrication activities. [DOEEMGMT]

Construction recapture The maximum number of years that could be added to the license expiration date to recover the period from the construction permit to the date when the operating license was granted. A licensee is required to submit an application for such a change. [NRC]

contact-handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU): Transuranic waste with a surface radiation dose rate that does not exceed 200 millirems per hour. Contact-handled transuranic waste can be safely handled without any shielding other than that provided by the waste container itself. [NSCEHC] see also "transuranic waste, contact-handled"

Containment: Retention of a material or substance within prescribed boundaries. [WIPPEA]

Containment structure: A gaslight shell or other enclosure around a nuclear reactor to confine fission products that otherwise might be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident. [NRC]

Contaminated environmental media: Naturally occurring materials such as soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and other in-place materials (e.g., sludge and rubble/ debris that have been disposed of and/ or intermixed with soil) that are contaminated at levels requiring further assessment to determine whether an environmental restoration action is warranted. [DOE/EM-0319]

Contaminated Media: Environmental restoration activities address millions of cubic meters of soils, sediments, sludges, debris, and water potentially contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous constituents. This Report does not consider contaminated media as LLW or MLLW when the media are addressed through in-situ containment or treatment remediation strategies. LLW or MLLW are generated when remediation strategies generate excavated or removed materials that require disposal in specially engineered disposal facilities. [DOELLWRpt]

Contingency (Program Management Reserve): An amount of budget to cover costs that may result from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties. Contingency is controlled by DOE and not included in the performance measurement baseline. [DOEEMGMT]

Continuing Resolution: Budget authority for specific ongoing activities in cases where the regular fiscal year appropriation for such activities has not been enacted by the beginning of the fiscal year. Continuing resolution usually specifies a maximum rate at which the agency may incur obligations, based on the rate of the prior year, the President's Budget request, or an appropriation bill passed by either or both Houses of Congress. [DOEEMGMT]

Contract Budget Base: The total of all budget authorized on the contract, including management reserve. [DOEEMGMT]

Contractor: Any organizational entity or individual bound by a contract with the Department of Energy (DOE). [DOEEMGMT]

Contractor Identification Code (CID): An alphanumeric code that identifies the contractor who may be allocated and in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Funds Distribution System (FDS). [DOEEMGMT]

Controlled Access land use: The Department maintains restricted access areas for secure storage or disposal of nuclear materials or waste. Barriers and security fences prevent access by unauthorized persons. Wildlife and plants are controlled or removed. [DOE/EM-0466]

Control Account: The management control point at which actual costs are accumulated and performance determined. It represents one functional organization's work assigned as defined in one WBS element. It must contain the specific scope of work, definite schedule, assigned budget, unique identification, and method of measuring performance. [DOEEMGMT]

Control rod: A rod, plate, or tube containing a material such as hafnium, boron, etc., used to control the power of a nuclear reactor. By absorbing neutrons, a control rod prevents the neutrons from causing further fissions. [NRC]

Controlled area: At a nuclear facility, an area outside of a restricted area but within the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee for any reason. [NRC]

Conversion: The process by which uranium ore concentrate (U3 O8), or yellowcake, is converted to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ). [DOE/EA-1172] Chemical treatment of yellowcake in preparation for enrichment.

Coolant: A substance circulated through a nuclear reactor to remove or transfer heat. The most commonly used coolant in the United States is water. Other coolants include heavy water, air, carbon dioxide, helium, liquid sodium, and a sodium-potassium alloy. [NRC]

Cooldown: The gradual decrease in reactor fuel rod temperature caused by the removal of heat from the reactor coolant system after the reactor has been shutdown. [NRC]

Cooling tower: A heat exchanger designed to aid in the cooling of water that was used to cool exhaust steam exiting the turbines of a power plant. Cooling towers transfer exhaust heat into the air instead of into a body of water. [NRC]

Co-product: Hanford site code name for tritium. [DOE/EM-0319]

Core: The central portion of a nuclear reactor containing the fuel elements, moderator, neutron poisons, and support structures. [NRC] That part of the reactor which contains the nuclear fuel and in which most or all of the nuclear fissions occur. [DOE-IDB97]

Core Activity (COR): A continuously performed activity that is considered essential by facility management to maintain current levels of safety and health (S&H) performance and compliance and to prevent increases in the current level of S&H risks. [DOEEMGMT]

Corporate Review Budget (CRB): The phase of the annual budget formulation process that is the principal mechanism for developing and submitting information required by DOE. The CRB is presented to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and the Secretary of Energy for preparing the annual budget submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). [DOEEMGMT]

Corrective Action: Measures taken to rectify conditions adverse to quality and, where necessary, to preclude recurrence. Corrective action includes remedial action, investigative action, and determining root cause. [DOEEMGMT]

Corrective Action Description: A description of the proposed actions to correct cost, schedule, or technical problems. [DOEEMGMT]

Corrective Action Program (CA): An Environmental Management (EM) program that manages the actions and projects required to bring the Department of Energy's (DOE) active and standby facilities that have received Notices of Violations (NOVs) from Federal or State regulators into compliance. [DOEEMGMT]

Cost Baseline (CB): A budget that has been developed from the cost estimate made at approval of the technical baseline and has been time-phased in accordance with the schedule baseline. [DOEEMGMT]

Cost Performance Index (CPI): A performance index that indicates the cost efficiency of the work accomplished to date. A CPI of 1 represents an on cost position. A CPI less than 1 represents a cost overrun and a CPI greater than 1 represents a cost underrun.

Cost Savings: The increased cost effectiveness of managing waste or cleaning up the environment, depicted as savings, by implementing a new technology. [DOEEMGMT]

Cost Status Description: For a cost variance that exceeds a threshold value, a description that identifies the cause, impact, corrective action taken and its expected outcome. [DOEEMGMT]

Cost Variance (CV): The difference between the planned cost of work and the actual costs for that work. CV=BCWP-ACWP; CV%=(BCWP-ACWP)/BCWP [DOEEMGMT]

Coulomb: The practical meter-kilogram-second unit of electric charge equal to the quantity of electricity transferred by a current of one ampere in one second.

Counter: A general designation applied to radiation detection instruments or survey meters that detect and measure radiation. The signal that announces an ionization event is called a count. [TDHBRC]

Cow: A radioisotope generator system. [LBNL]

CPM (counts per minute): The unit of measurement usually used to measure alpha and beta radiation. [AT]

CRs: Condition Reports [CY]

CR: Control Room[CY]

CRCPD: Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors [TDH]

CRDM: Control Rod Drive Mechanism

Creation Date: The date an ADS or TTP was created. [DOEEMGMT]

Criticality: A term describing the conditions necessary for a sustained nuclear chain reaction. [DOE/EM-0266]

Critical Activities: Those activities in the schedule network whose float values are less than or equal to zero days. Zero float day activities must be completed at the calculated schedule time to prevent an expansion of the total project duration and a delay in the project completion date. [DOEEMGMT]

critical habitat: The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by a species at the time it is listed as threatened or endangered on which are found those physical or biological features that are essential to the conservation of the species and that may require special management considerations or protection. It also includes specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is listed if these areas are determined to be essential for the conservation of the species.[WIPPEA]

critical mass: The amount of a fissile substance that will allow a self-sustaining chain reaction. The amount depends both on the properties of the fissile element and on the shape of the mass. [IEER]

Critical organ That part of the human body which is most liable to be damaged, either by a stated radionuclide taken into the body, or by radiation from an external source. [AT]

Critical Path: The portion of the schedule that is composed of activities for which a schedule delay may be expected to cause a corresponding delay in the overall project or end product. [DOEEMGMT]

Critical Path Method (CPM): A project management method of calculating the total duration of a project based on individual task durations and their interdependencies. [DOEEMGMT]

Crosswalked ADS: An ADS whose scope of work and funding is being transferred to another ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

Crud: A colloquial term for corrosion and wear products (rust particles, etc.) that become radioactive (i.e., activated) when exposed to radiation. Because the activated deposits were first discovered at Chalk River, a Canadian nuclear plant, "crud" has been used as shorthand for Chalk River Unidentified Deposits. [NRC]

Cumulative dose: The total dose resulting from repeated exposures of ionizing radiation to an occupationally exposed worker to the same portion of the body, or to the whole body, over a period of time (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Culebra Dolomite: The lower of two geologic units of water-bearing dolomite within the Rustler Formation. [WIPPEA]

cumulative impacts: Cumulative impacts are those impacts on the environment that result from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency (Federal or non-Federal) or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time. [WIPPEA]

Curie (Ci): The amount of radioactivity in 1 gram of the isotope radium 226. One curie is 37 billion radioactive decays per second. [DOE/EM-0266] A unit of radioactivity equal to 37 billion disintegrations per second (i.e., 37 billion becquerels); also a quantity of any radionuclide or mixture of radionuclides having 1 curie of radioactivity. [DOE/EM-0466] The unit of radioactivity equal to 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second or 3.7 x 1010 becquerel (Bq). A common unit used in environmental measurements is the picocurie (pCi) which is equal to 1/10-12 Ci or 0.037 disintegrations per second or 0.037 Bq. [EPA-MW] A curie is also a quantity of any radionuclide that decays at a rate of 37 billion disintegrations per second. It is named for Marie and Pierre Curie, who discovered radium in 1898.

Current Dollars: A term that represents the dollar value of goods or services in terms of prices current at the time the goods or services were sold (inflation factors are present). [DOELL]

Current dollar estimate: Estimate of costs that makes allowances for the schedule of activities that incur costs and for the effects of inflation but not for the time value of money. Thus, Current Dollar estimates show the total amount of funds that will be required to conduct an activity, in the year they are scheduled. [TNRCC]

Current Year: The fiscal year during which the Office of Environmental Management (EM) is currently obligating and costing funds. [DOEEMGMT]

Custodial Agency: An agency of the federal or a state government designated to act on behalf of the government owner of a disposal site in monitoring and maintaining the site following termination of the license. [DOE/LLW-250a]

CWA: Clean Water Act

CY: Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant [CY]

CYAPCO: Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company[CY]

Cyclotron An accelerator in which charged particles follow a spiral path in a magnetic field and are accelerated by an oscillating electric field. See also Synchrotron. [AT]

|------------------------ D ------------------------|

DA: deaerator, dose assessment [NUREG-0544]

DAC: discretionary access control, distance amplitude correction [NUREG-0544]

DAE: Department of Atomic Energy (India) [NUREG-0544]

DAEC: Duane Arnold Energy Center [NUREG-0544]

DAF: dynamic amplification factor [NUREG-0544]

DANATOM: Danish Association for Industrial Development of Atomic Energy [NUREG-0544]

DAR: design assessment report [NUREG-0544]

DAS: data acquisition system, disturbance analysis system [NUREG-0544]

DASHO: Designated Agency Safety and Health Official [NUREG-0544]

DAT: disconnect actuating tool [NUREG-0544]

DatF: Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

DAVDS: data acquisition and visual display system [NUREG-0544]

DAW: dry active waste [NUREG-0544]

DAYP: Dairyland Power Cooperative [NUREG-0544]

DB: dry bulb [NUREG-0544]

DBA: design-basis accident [NUREG-0544]

DBD: design-basis document, design-basis documentation [NUREG-0544]

DBDA: design-basis depressurization accident [NUREG-0544]

DBE: design-basis earthquake, design-basis event [NUREG-0544]

DBF: design-basis fault, dominant bubble frequency [NUREG-0544]

DBFA: design-basis fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

DBFB: deep-bed filter and blower [NUREG-0544]

DBFL: design-basis flooding level [NUREG-0544]

DBI: design-basis incident [NUREG-0544]

DBLOCA: design-basis loss-of-coolant accident [NUREG-0544]

DBMS: database management system [NUREG-0544]

DBNPS: Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

DBOA: delayed breeder or alternative [NUREG-0544]

DBP: dibutyl phosphate [NUREG-0544]

DBPB: design-basis pipe break [NUREG-0544]

DBR: design-basis reconstitution [NUREG-0544]

DBT: design-basis tornado [NUREG-0544]

DBTT: ductile-to-brittle transition temperature [NUREG-0544]

DBVP: design baseline and verification program [NUREG-0544]

DC: data control, design contractor, document control, drain channel [NUREG-0544]

dc: direct current [NUREG-0544]

DCA: design change and authorization, Dosimeter Corporation of America, drain channel A [NUREG-0544]

DCAA: Defense Contract Audit Agency [NUREG-0544]

DCB: drain channel B [NUREG-0544]

DCC: damaged core coolability, Daniels Construction Company, degraded core coolability [NUREG-0544]

DCCA: Data Computer Corporation of America [NUREG-0544]

DCD: design control document, document control desk [NUREG-0544]

DCF: dose conversion factor [NUREG-0544]

DCFO: Deputy Chief Financial Officer [NUREG-0544]

DCH: direct containment heating, drain collection header [NUREG-0544]

DCIP: design change improvement program [NUREG-0544]

DCIR: daily Cadweld inspection report [NUREG-0544]

DCM: Delaware Custom Material [NUREG-0544]

DCN: design change notice, document change notice [NUREG-0544]

DCNPP: Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

DCP: design change package, document control procedure, Donald C. Cook Plant [NUREG-0544]

DCPD: direct current potential drop [NUREG-0544]

DCR: defueling completion report, design change request, direct conversion reactor [NUREG-0544]

DCRDR: detailed control room design review [NUREG-0544]

DCRN: dashpot cup retention nut [NUREG-0544]

DCS: document control system [NUREG-0544]

DCSP: dry cask storage project [NUREG-0544]

DCSS: dry cask storage system [NUREG-0544]

DCT: differential current transformer [NUREG-0544]

DCV: directional control valve [NUREG-0544]

DCX: direct current experiment [NUREG-0544]

DD: deputy director, Director's Decision [NUREG-0544]

D-D: deuterium-deuterium [NUREG-0544]

D&D: decontamination and decommissioning, defueling and decommissioning [NUREG-0544]

DDD: direct distance dialing [NUREG-0544]

DDH&DS: digital data handling and display system [NUREG-0544]

DDL: detergent and decontamination liquid [system] [NUREG-0544]

DDNB: delayed departure from nucleate boiling [NUREG-0544]

DDR: deficiency and disposition report [NUREG-0544]

DDS: digital data service [NUREG-0544]

DDT: deflagration to detonation, design data transmittal [NUREG-0544]

DDTT: drag disc-turbine transducer [NUREG-0544]

DE: diagnostic evaluation, Detroit Edison Co., dose equivalent, double ended [NUREG-0544]

DEA: driver evaluation assembly, Drug Enforcement Administration [NUREG-0544]

DEB: double-ended break [NUREG-0544]

DEC: Digital Equipment Corporation [NUREG-0544]

DECL: double-ended cold leg [NUREG-0544]

DECLG: double-ended cold-leg guillotine [NUREG-0544]

DECO: Detroit Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

DECON: decontamination and dismantlement [NUREG-0544]

DEDE: Deputy Executive Director for Regulatory Effectiveness (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

DEDM: Deputy Executive Director for Management Services NRC [NUREG-0544]

DEDR: Deputy Executive Director for Regulatory Programs (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

DEFAS: diverse emergency feedwater actuation system [NUREG-0544]

DEG: double-ended guillotine [NUREG-0544]

DEGB: double-ended guillotine break [NUREG-0544]

DEH: digital electrohydraulic [NUREG-0544]

DEHL: double-ended hot leg [NUREG-0544]

DEHLG: double-ended hot-leg guillotine [NUREG-0544]

DEI: dielectric and electrical insulation , dose equivalent iodine [NUREG-0544]

DEIS: draft environmental impact statement [NUREG-0544]

DEMA: Diesel Engine Manufacturers Association [NUREG-0544]

DEP: design external pressure, diagnostic evaluation plan, diagnostic evaluation program (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

DEPS: double-ended pump suction [NUREG-0544]

DEPSG: double-ended pump suction guillotine [NUREG-0544]

DER: Department of Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Resources, design electrical rating, Deviation Event Report, double-ended rupture [NUREG-0544]

DERE: Dounreay Experimental Reactor Establishment (Scotland) [NUREG-0544]

DERM: disassembly examination reassembly machine [NUREG-0544]

DES: data encryption standard, Department of Emergency Services, double-ended slot, draft environmental statement [NUREG-0544]

DESL: double-ended suction leg [NUREG-0544]

DESLS: double-ended suction leg slot [NUREG-0544]

DET: decomposition event tree, diagnostic evaluation team [NUREG-0544]

DEW: Deutsche Edelstahlwerke, A.G. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

DF: debris formation, decontamination factor [NUREG-0544]

D&F: determination and findings [NUREG-0544]

dF: dilution factor (also Fd) [NUREG-0544]

DF: dilution factor, dose factor [NUREG-0544]

Df: dose factor [NUREG-0544]

DFA: driver fuel assembly, dummy fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

DFBN: debris-filter bottom nozzle [NUREG-0544]

DFC: design field change [NUREG-0544]

DFCS: digital feedwater control system [NUREG-0544]

DFFR: dynamic forcing function report [NUREG-0544]

DFI: demand for information [NUREG-0544]

DFO: designated Federal official [NUREG-0544]

DFOS: diesel fuel oil system [NUREG-0544]

DFP: decommissioning funding plan, diesel fire pump [NUREG-0544]

DFR: damaged fuel relocation, Dounreay Fast Reactor (Scotland) [NUREG-0544]

DFRP: downcomer flow resistance plate [NUREG-0544]

DFT: dry film thickness [NUREG-0544]

DG: diesel-engine generator, diesel generator [NUREG-0544]

D/G: diesel generator [NUREG-0544]

DGA: dummy guide assembly [NUREG-0544]

DGAS: diesel generator auxiliary system [NUREG-0544]

DGB: diesel generator building [NUREG-0544]

DGCAIES: diesel generator combustion air intake and exhaust system [NUREG-0544]

DGCWS: diesel generator cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

DGEA: draft generic environmental assessment [NUREG-0544]

DGFOSTS: diesel generator fuel oil storage and transfer system [NUREG-0544]

DGLS: diesel generator lubrication system [NUREG-0544]

DGSS: diesel generator starting system [NUREG-0544]

DGZ: desired ground zero [NUREG-0544]

DH: decay heat [NUREG-0544]

DHHS: Department of Health and Human Services [NUREG-0544]

DHI: department head instruction [NUREG-0544]

DHP: department head procedure [NUREG-0544]

DHR: decay heat removal [NUREG-0544]

DHRS: decay heat removal system, direct heat removal service, direct heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

DHS: decontamination hot shop [NUREG-0544]

DHX: dump heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

DHXCS: dump heat exchanger control system [NUREG-0544]

DID: defense in depth [NUREG-0544]

DIE: direct inspection effort [NUREG-0544]

DIMPLE: Deuterium Moderated Pile Low Energy Reactor [NUREG-0544]

DIP: design internal pressure [NUREG-0544]

DIPS: dynamic isotope power system [NUREG-0544]

DIV: drywell isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

DL: dead load, Duquesne Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

DLAT: discharge-line air temperature [NUREG-0544]

DLF: dynamic load factor [NUREG-0544]

DLL: discharge-line length [NUREG-0544]

DLRWS: dirty liquid radioactive waste system [NUREG-0544]

DLV: discharge-line volume [NUREG-0544]

DLWL: discharge-line water-leg length [NUREG-0544]

DM: damage monitor, demineralized [NUREG-0544]

DMA: direct memory access [NUREG-0544]

DMPL: Delmarva Power and Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

DMS: data management subsystem, Defense Message Service [NUREG-0544]

DMT: dispersive mechanism test [NUREG-0544]

DMTR: Dounreay Materials Testing Reactor (Scotland) [NUREG-0544]

DMUX: distributed multiplex [NUREG-0544]

DMW: demineralized makeup water [NUREG-0544]

DN: delayed neutron, discrepancy notice [NUREG-0544]

DNA: Defense Nuclear Agency, deoxyribonucleic acid, does not apply [NUREG-0544]

DNB: departure from nucleate boiling [NUREG-0544]

DNBR: departure from nucleate boiling ratio [NUREG-0544]

DNFSB: Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board [NUREG-0544]

DNM: delayed neutron monitor [NUREG-0544]

DNMS: delayed neutron monitoring subsystem [NUREG-0544]

DNPS: Dresden Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

DNRC: Democritos Nuclear Research Center (Greece) [NUREG-0544]

DNS: domain name server [NUREG-0544]

DNT: dinitrotoluene [NUREG-0544]

DO: designated official, digital output, dissolved oxygen, duty officer [NUREG-0544]

DOCUMENT: Department of Commerce, dissolver off-gas condensate [NUREG-0544]

DOD: Department of Defense [NUREG-0544]

DOE: Department of Energy [NUREG-0544]

DOG: dissolver off-gas [NUREG-0544]

DOI: Department of the Interior [NUREG-0544]

DOL: Department of Labor [NUREG-0544]

DOJ: Department of Justice [NUREG-0544]

DOP: detailed operating procedure, dioctyl phosphate, disaster operations plan, di-sec, octyl phthalate [NUREG-0544]

DORF: Diamond Ordnance Radiation Facility [NUREG-0544]

DOS: degree of sensitization, Department of State, disk operating system [NUREG-0544]

DOSAR: Dosimetry Applications Research Facility [NUREG-0544]

DOT: Department of Transportation [NUREG-0544]

DP: data processing, differential pressure [NUREG-0544]

D/P: differential pressure [NUREG-0544]

DPA: delegation of procurement authority [NUREG-0544]

DPC: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Duke Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

DPD: decontamination as precursor to decommissioning [NUREG-0544]

DPE: development project engineer, discipline project engineer [NUREG-0544]

DPIS: differential pressure indicating switch [NUREG-0544]

DPIV: drywell purge isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

DPLC: Dayton Power and Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

dpm: decade per minute, disintegrations per minute [NUREG-0544]

DPMM: dewpoint moisture monitor [NUREG-0544]

DPO: differing professional opinion [NUREG-0544]

DPP: drip pan pot [NUREG-0544]

DPR: developmental power reactor, demonstration power reactor [NUREG-0544]

DPRK: Democratic People's Republic of Korea [NUREG-0544]

DPS: demand position system [NUREG-0544]

DPV: differing professional view [NUREG-0544]

DR: design review, designated representative, Danish Reactor, deficiency report, discrepancy report [NUREG-0544]

DRA: dropped rod accident [NUREG-0544]

DRC: dropped rod control [NUREG-0544]

D/RE: disassembly/reassembly equipment [NUREG-0544]

DRES: direct reading emission spectrograph [NUREG-0544]

DRF: dose reduction factor [NUREG-0544]

DRMW: demineralized reactor makeup water [NUREG-0544]

DRP: disaster recovery plan, discrete radioactive particle [NUREG-0544]

DRPI: digital rod position indication, digital rod position indicator [NUREG-0544]

DRPIS: digital rod position indication system [NUREG-0544]

DR/QR: design review/quality revalidation [NUREG-0544]

DRR: document release record [NUREG-0544]

DRS: development requirements specification, disassembly/reassembly station [NUREG-0544]

DRW: dirty radwaste [NUREG-0544]

DS: decontamination shop, design standard [NUREG-0544]

D/S: dynamic/static [NUREG-0544]

DSA: diagnostic self-assessment [NUREG-0544]

DSAR: defueled safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

DSC: design safety criterion/criteria, dry shielded canister, dry storage canister [NUREG-0544]

DSE: draft safety evaluation [NUREG-0544]

DSER: draft safety evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

DSI: direction-setting issue [NUREG-0544]

DSIR: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

DSL: drawing and specification listing [NUREG-0544]

DSM: defect-specific management [NUREG-0544]

DSO: designated senior official, director of site operations [NUREG-0544]

D-T: deuterium-tritium [NUREG-0544]

DTA: differential thermal analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

DTER: draft technical evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

DTI: diagnostic team inspection [NUREG-0544]

DTNSRDC: David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center [NUREG-0544]

DTPA: diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid [NUREG-0544]

DTR: document transmittal record [NUREG-0544]

DTRF: data transmittal and routing form [NUREG-0544]

DTRS: development test requirement specification [NUREG-0544]

DTS: differential temperature switch [NUREG-0544]

DTT: design thermal transient, design transition temperature [NUREG-0544]

DTV: direct torus vent [NUREG-0544]

DUEGG: dual-energy gamma group [NUREG-0544]

DUN: Douglas United Nuclear [NUREG-0544]

DUNC: deep underwater nuclear counting [NUREG-0544]

DuP-SR: E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company--Savannah River [NUREG-0544]

DUTS: decision unit tracking system [NUREG-0544]

DVAL: degraded voltage analytical limits [NUREG-0544]

DVM: digital voltmeter [NUREG-0544]

DW: deadweight, demineralized water, drywell [NUREG-0544]

DWCS: defueling water cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

DWEDS: drywell equipment drain sump [NUREG-0544]

DWFDS: drywell floor drain sump [NUREG-0544]

DWG: drawing [NUREG-0544]

DWICA: deep-water isotopic current analyzer [NUREG-0544]

DWK: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

DWL: depressed water leg, drywell [NUREG-0544]

DWMS: demineralized water makeup system [NUREG-0544]

DWOC: Don't Waste Oregon Council [NUREG-0544]

DWP: detailed work plan [NUREG-0544]

DWR: Department of Waste Resources [NUREG-0544]

DWS: demineralized water system, development work statement [NUREG-0544]

DWST: demineralized water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

DWT: drop weight test [NUREG-0544]

DYNAL: dynamic analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

D&D: decontamination and decommissioning

Daughter products: Nuclides resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent radionuclides; may be either stable or radioactive. [DOE/EA-1172] Radionuclides that are produced from other radionuclides when they decay. [DOE/EM-0319]. In the case of radium-226, for example, there are 10 successive daughter products, ending in the stable isotope, lead-206. [NRC]

DCGL - Derived Concentrate Guideline Level. Residual radioactivity levels on buildings and soil (above background radiation) that corresponds to the allowable radiation dose limits. [CY]

Deactivation: Activities that ensure surplus facilities are secure in a safe and stable condition pending their ultimate disposition. Includes eliminating immediate safety and environmental hazards as well as removing most contaminants within the facility. [DOE/EM-0319] "The deactivation process places a facility in a safe and stable condition that minimizes the long-term cost of a surveillance and maintenance program and is protective of workers, the public, and the environment until decommissioning is complete. Actions include the removal of fuel, draining and/or de-energizing of nonessential systems, removal of stored radioactive and hazardous materials, and related actions." [DOE D&D Resource Manual" (DOE/EM-0246)]

Decay chain, radioactive: A series of nuclides in which each member decays to the next member of the chain through radioactive decay until a stable nuclide has been formed.

decay correction: The amount by which the calculated radioactivity (for example, of a release of radioisotopes) must be reduced after a period of time, to allow for its radioactive decay during that time. [IEER]

Decay (radioactive): Spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom, resulting in the emission of particles and energy. [DOE/EM-0266] The decrease in the amount of any radioactive material with the passage of time, due to the spontaneous emission from the atomic nuclei of either alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma radiation. [TDHBRC] The transition of a nucleus from one energy state to a lower one, usually involving the emission of a photon, electron, neutron, or alpha particle. [DOE-IDB97]

Decay heat: The heat produced by the decay of radioactive fission products after a reactor has been shut down. [NRC]

Decay product: The isotope that results from the decay of an unstable atom. [DOE/EM-0266] Synonym for daughter product.

Declared Pregnant Woman: A woman who has voluntarily informed her employer, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception.

Decommissioning: Decontamination and dismantlement of retired, contaminated facilities and removal and/or disposal of the resulting wastes. [IEER] Retirement of a nuclear facility, including decontamination and/ or dismantlement. [DOE/EM-0466] "Decommissioning takes place after deactivation and includes surveillance and maintenance, decontamination, and/or dismantlement. These actions are taken at the end of the life of a facility to retire it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and the public and protection of the environment. The ultimate goal of decommissioning is unrestricted release or restricted use of the site." - DOE D&D Resource Manual" [DOE/EM-0246].

Decommissioning waste: Waste (generally LLRW) generated in the decommissioning of a facility [TNRCC]

decon: A method of decommissioning in which the equipment, structures, and portions of a facility and site containing radioactive contaminants are removed and safety buried in a low-level radioactive waste landfill or decontaminated to a level that permits the property to be released for unrestricted use shortly after cessation of operations. [NRC] One of three decommissioning options established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Decon is immediate decontamination and dismantlement, the option selected for the Haddam Neck Plant. The other two options are Safestor and Entomb. Safestor is putting a nuclear power plant into a safe condition and delaying decontamination and dismantlement activities for as long as 60 years. Entomb is encasing in a structurally long-lived substance, e.g. concrete, with future dismantlement option. [CY]

Decontamination: Removal of radioactive or hazardous contamination by a chemical or mechanical process. [DOE/EM-0466] The reduction or removal of contaminating radioactive material from a structure, area, object, or person. Decontamination may be accomplished by: 1) Treating the surface to remove or decrease the contamination, 2) Letting the material stand so that the radioactivity is decreased as a result of natural decay, 3) Covering the contamination to shield or attenuate the radiation emitted. [TDHBRC] Activities taken to remove unwanted (typically radioactive) material from facilities, soils, or equipment by washing, chemical action, mechanical cleaning, or other (treatment) techniques. [DOE-IDB97]. It should be noted that some have considered decontamination itself as being a form of contamination, since the materials are moved to an uncontaminated area and pollute the environment at that new location. This alludes to both new waste disposal sites yet also techniques such as surface irrigation of radioactive wastewater at mining sites.

Decrement Level Funding: One of the three funding levels used in the development of the ADS by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The decrement level funding is established annually as a percentage of the target level at the program level by the operations/field offices. Funding at the decrement level meets activities and projects of the highest priority. [DOEEMGMT]

Deep-bed plant: A boiling-water reactor facility using a demineralizer vessel for water purification which contains an ion-exchange resin that is 3 ft or more deep. [DOE-IDB97]

Defense-in-depth: A design and operational philosophy with regard to nuclear facilities that calls for multiple layers of protection to prevent and mitigate accidents. It includes the use of controls, multiple physical barriers to prevent release of radiation, redundant and diverse key safety functions, and emergency response measures. [NRC]

Defense-generated waste: Waste resulting from weapons research and development, the operation of naval reactors, the production of weapons material, the reprocessing of defense spent fuel, the dismantling of nuclear weapons, and the decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships and submarines [NSCEHC].

Defense Waste Processing Facility: A high-level-waste vitrification plant built at the Savannah River Site. [DOE/EM-0266]

Delayed Fallout: See "fallout". [ATARC]

Delayed neutrons Neutrons resulting from fission but emitted a measurable time (0.1 seconds or so) after fission has taken place. They play an essential part in nuclear reactor control. [AT]

Delay Tank A tank for the temporary storage of radioactive fluids while their activity decays. [AT]

Demonstration Scale: An indication that a technology demonstration is a bench, pilot, or full-scale demonstration. [DOEEMGMT]

Department of Energy (DOE): The cabinet-level U.S. Government agency responsible for nuclear weapons production and energy research and the cleanup of hazardous and radioactive waste at its sites. It was created from the Energy Research and Development Administration and other Federal Government functions in 1977. [DOE/EM-0266]

Departmental Integrated Standardized Core Accounting System (DISCAS): A real time accounting system used by the Operations/Field Offices. Data is extracted monthly for the Management Analysis Reporting System (MARS). [DOEEMGMT]

Departure From Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) The ratio of the heat flux to cause departure from nucleate boiling to the actual local heat flux or a fuel rod.[NRC]

Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB): The point at which the heat transfer from a fuel rod rapidly decreases due to the insulating effect of a steam blanket that forms on the rod surface when the temperature continues to increase. [NRC]

depleted uranium: A by-product of uranium enrichment, the most common chemical form of which is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). Natural uranium is composed of three isotopes: uranium-238 (99.284 percent); uranium-235 (0.711 percent); and uranium-234 (0.005 percent), all of which are radioactive. The purpose of uranium enrichment is to concentrate uranium-235, the fissile isotope, in one stream. The other stream which is low in uranium-235, is called "depleted uranium," which contains about 0.2 to 0.3 percent uranium-235. [IEER] The U-238 radionuclide is also commonly refered to as depleted uranium.
Uranium that, through the process of enrichment, has been stripped of most of the uranium-235 it once contained, so that it has more uranium-238 than natural uranium. It is used in some parts of nuclear weapons and as a raw material for plutonium production. [DOE/EM-0319]

Derived air concentration (DAC): The concentration of radioactive material in air and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. An NRC licensee may take 2,000 hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert). [NRC]

Design Phase: A process, within a project life cycle, that prepares drawings, specifications, bidding documents, cost estimates, and construction and procurement schedules. The Design phase has two distinct processes: Preliminary Design and Detailed Design. [DOEEMGMT]

DERO Decommissioning Emergency Response Organization [CY]

Design-basis accident: A postulated accident that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to withstand without loss to the systems, structures, and components necessary to assure public health and safety. [NRC]

Design-basis phenomena: Earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, etc., that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to withstand without loss of systems, structures, and components necessary to assure public health and safety. [NRC]

Detection level: The level above which a constituent (e.g., metal, organic) can be detected in a medium through sampling and analysis. [DOE/EM-0319]

Deterministic effect: The health effects, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a deterministic effect (also called a non-stochastic effect) (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Deterrence: Dissuasion of a potential adversary from initiating an attack or conflict by the threat of retaliation. [ATARC]

Deuterium: A naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium is lighter than tritium, but twice as heavy as ordinary hydrogen. Deuterium is most often found in the form of heavy water. [DOE/EM-0266] It can be used in thermonuclear fusion reactions for the release of energy. Deuterium is extracted from water which always contains 1 atom of deuterium to about 6,500 atoms of ordinary hydrogen. [ATARC]

Deuteron: The nucleus of deuterium. It contains one proton and one neutron. See also heavy water. [NRC]

Dewatering: This is a process usually used as a liquid removal technique to treat wet solids. Pumping and gravitational drainage can be used to remove the water from semi-solid LLW. Ion-exchange resins are commonly treated using "in-container dewatering." [DOELLWRpt]

DF: LLRW disposal facility [TNRCC]

Differential pressure (dp or P): The difference in pressure between two points of a system, such as between the inlet and outlet of a pump. [NRC]

Direct Costs: Any cost that can be specifically identified with a particular project or activity, including salaries. travel, equipment, and supplies directly benefiting the project or activity. [DOEEMGMT]

Discounting: The process of converting a stream of returns or costs incurred over time to a single present value. [DOELL]

Discrete Planning Method: A planning method that accurately reflects scope of work and breaks projects down into manageable pieces. A discrete effort is scheduled with clearly defined start and completion dates and contains specific milestones against which performance can be measured. [DOEEMGMT]

Disintegration energy (Q-value): The amount of energy released in a particular nuclear disintegration. This is usually expressed in MeV/disintegration.

Disposal: "Disposal" means isolation or removal of (low level) radioactive waste from mankind and mankind's environment without intent to retrieve that (low level) radioactive waste later. The term does not include emissions and discharges under department rules. [TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code]

Disposal Facilities: DOE Order 435.1 defines a disposal facility as the land, structures, and equipment used for disposal of waste. A disposal site is the portion of a disposal facility that is used to dispose of waste. For LLW, it consists of a disposal unit and a buffer zone. A disposal unit is the discrete portion (e.g., a pit, trench, tumulus, vault, or bunker) of the disposal site into which waste is placed for disposal (Source: DOE Order 435.1). The Department has stipulated that waste management disposal facilities at only three sites (Hanford Site and Nevada Test Site) accept waste from offsite generators. CERCLA disposal facilities are designed and constructed to manage LLW/MLLW generated by onsite remediation activities only. [DOELLWRpt]

Disposal Ready Volume Projections: LLW and MLLW are generated by a number of Department of Energy programs and disposed by waste operations and CERCLA disposal facilities, as well as commercial facilities. LLW and MLLW volume projections vary depending on the point in time at which they were reported. Projection data are available for a number of different volumes, from initial LLW generated from a remediation response to contaminated media to volumes transferred for treatment to volumes transferred for disposal. In general, data on treatment were not available. The projections reported in this Report represent the waste volumes requiring disposal in engineered facilities. Volume projections transferred by any generator to the Environmental Management program for treatment and/or disposal represent the volumes at the time of transfer to the Environmental Management program. As certain types of treatment, such as compaction or incineration, may significantly reduce volumes for final disposal, these volumetric projections may overstate required disposal capacities. Moreover, employing aggressive waste minimization techniques may further reduce the volume projections. [DOELLWRpt]

Disposal in CERCLA Facilities: This disposition category consists primarily of disposal in the existing, approved, and planned CERCLA disposal facilities. Appendix A contains a detailed discussion of the existing, approved, and planned CERCLA disposal facilities. Note that these disposal facilities will accept only onsite remediation LLW or MLLW. [DOELLWRpt]

Disposition: Reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, storage, treatment, or disposal. [DOE/EM-0319]

Disposition to be Determined: Some sites did not report a final disposition remediation strategy for specific elements. Examples include collection and treatment or collection and storage (the Report did not consider these remediation strategies as final disposition types) where no additional responses were provided by the sites. Other sites did not have sufficient data to provide an initial volume of contaminated media. Finally, some sites dispositioned only fractions of certain elements. In all these instances, the Report segregated these elements into the "disposition to be determined" category. [DOELLWRpt]

Division: A department within the Environmental Management (EM) Headquarters program office that is responsible for a unit of work. [DOEEMGMT]

DNAPL: An acronym for denser-than-water nonaqueous-phase liquid. An organic liquid, composed of one or more contaminants, that does not mix with water and is denser than water. The most common DNAPL contaminants in ground water are chlorinated solvents. [DOE/EM-0466]

DNFSB: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board [DOELLWRpt]

DOC Decommissioning Operations Contractor [CY]

DOE Orders: Written, permanent, and temporary departmental directives affecting more than one DOE organization that establish or change policies, organization, methods, standards, or procedures; guide, instruct, and inform employees in their work; require action or impose workload; give information essential to the administration or operation of the department; or transmit other information to employees or contractors of the department when use of DOE publications would not be practicable. [EPALLRW]

Dolomite: A sedimentary rock consisting primarily of the mineral dolomite: CaMg (CO3)2. [WIPPEA]

Domestic purchase: A uranium purchase from a firm located in the United States. [DOE/EA-1172]

Domestic uranium industry: For the purposes of this analysis, the domestic uranium industry is defined as those businesses (whether domestic or foreign-based) that operate under the laws and regulations pertaining to the conduct of commerce within the United States and its territories and possessions and that engage in activities within the United States, its territories and possessions specifically directed toward uranium mining and milling; conversion and enrichment of uranium materials. [DOE/EA-1172]

Doppler coefficient: Another name used for the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity. [NRC]

Dose: A specific amount of ionizing radiation or a toxic substance absorbed by a living being. [DOE/EM-0319] The absorbed dose, given in rads (or the international system of units, grays), that represents the energy absorbed from the radiation in a gram of any material. Furthermore, the biological dose or dose equivalent, given in rem or sieverts, is a measure of the biological damage to living tissue from the radiation exposure. [NRC]

Dose equivalent: (also called biological dose) The product of the absorbed dose in rad and the effect of this type of radiation in tissue and a quality factor. Dose equivalent is expressed in units of rem or Sievert, where 1 rem equals 0.01 Sievert. The dose equivalent to an organ, tissue or whole body will be that received from the direct exposure plus 50-year committed dose equivalent received from radionuclides taken into the body during the year. [DOE/EA-1172] A measure of the biological damage to living tissue from radiation exposure. It takes into account the type of radiation and the absorbed dose. For example when considering beta, xray, and gamma ray radiation, the equivalent dose (expressed in rem) is equal to the absorbed dose (expressed in rads). For alpha radiation, the equivalent dose is assumed to be 20 times the absorbed dose. It is expressed numerically in rem. [EPALLRW]

dose limit: Regulatory limit set on the amount of radiation that an individual may receive from artificial sources (excluding medical sources). Worker limits are set higher than general population limits. [IEER]

Dose rate: The ionizing radiation dose delivered per unit time. For example, rem or sieverts per hour. [NRC]

dose reconstruction: Estimating exposure by considering emissions, environmental measurements, and routes of exposure. [IEER]

Dose, absorbed: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing radiation per unit mass of the substance. It is expressed numerically in rads or grays. [NRC]

dosimeter - A small portable instrument (such as a film badge, thermoluminescent, or pocket dosimeter) for measuring and recording the total accumulated personal dose of ionizing radiation. [EPALLRW]

Dosimetry: The theory and application of the principles and techniques involved in the measurement and recording of ionizing radiation doses. [NRC]

Double-shell tank wastes: High-level wastes, generated from defense reactor fuel reprocessing at Hanford, which are stored in double-shelled tanks. These wastes consist of a mixture of liquid and suspended solids referred to as slurry. See also "singleshell tank wastes." [DOE-IDB97]

Dry cask storage: The storage of spent nuclear fuel without keeping it immersed in water. [DOE/EM-0266]

Drywell: The containment structure enclosing a boiling water reactor vessel and its recirculation system. The drywell provides both a pressure suppression system and a fission product barrier under accident conditions. [NRC]

Dual Path: The continued calcination of high-level waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste and the Technology Development of the separations treatment required to complete the final treatment of the high-level waste (calcine). [DOE/EM-0342]

Dual Purpose Canister: A storage canister certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for both storage and shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel. [DOE/EM-0342]

DWPF: Defense Waste Processing Facility, the name of the vitrification plant for high-level radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site. [IEER]

|------------------------ E ------------------------|

EA: enforcement action, engineering assurance, environmental assessment [NUREG-0544]

E/A: element and attribute, erratum/errata and addendum/addenda [NUREG-0544]

E&A: erratum/errata and addendum/addenda [NUREG-0544]

EAB: exclusion area boundary [NUREG-0544]

EAC: emergency assessment coordinator [NUREG-0544]

EACC: Environmental Assessment Command Center [NUREG-0544]

EACRP: European-American Committee on Reactor Physics [NUREG-0544]

EACT: emergency action and coordination team [NUREG-0544]

EAES: European Atomic Energy Society [NUREG-0544]

EAG: emergency action guidelines [NUREG-0544]

EAL: emergency action level, equipment air lock [NUREG-0544]

EAP: emergency action plan, Event Assessment Panel, experimental activity proposal [NUREG-0544]

EAPS: essential auxiliary power system [NUREG-0544]

EAR: event analysis report [NUREG-0544]

EAS: essential auxiliary support, experiment assurance system [NUREG-0544]

EASE: elastic analysis for structural engineering [NUREG-0544]

EASI: estimate of adversary sequence interruption [NUREG-0544]

EAST: Eastern Utilities Associates [NUREG-0544]

EATL: energy-absorbing torque limiter [NUREG-0544]

EATS: Enforcement Action Tracking System [NUREG-0544]

EB: electron beam [NUREG-0544]

EBASCO: Electric Bond and Share Company, EBASCO Services Inc. [NUREG-0544]

EBOR: experimental beryllium oxide reactor [NUREG-0544]

EBR: experimental breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

EBS: emergency barrier system, Emergency Broadcast System [NUREG-0544]

EBTF: ECC (emergency core cooling) bypass test facility [NUREG-0544]

EBWR: experimental boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

EC: eddy current, emergency coordinator, enforcement coordinator, European Communities, event category [NUREG-0544]

ECA: energy-conversion area, engineering change authorization [NUREG-0544]

ECAR: East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement [NUREG-0544]

ECC: emergency control center, emergency core coolant, emergency core cooling [NUREG-0544]

ECCS: emergency core cooling system [NUREG-0544]

ECCW: emergency core cooling water (system) [NUREG-0544]

ECD: electron capture device [NUREG-0544]

ECF: emergency cooling function [NUREG-0544]

ECFM: eddy current flowmeter [NUREG-0544]

ECI: emergency coolant injection, essential controls and instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

ECN: Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (Netherlands), engineering change notice [NUREG-0544]

ECNG: East Central Nuclear Group, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

ECNP: Environmental Coalition on Nuclear Power [NUREG-0544]

ECP: emergency cooling pond, employee concerns program, engineering change proposal, estimated critical position [NUREG-0544]

E&CQA: engineering and construction quality assurance [NUREG-0544]

ECR: emergency coolant recirculation, estimate change request [NUREG-0544]

ECS: emergency control station, environmental control shroud, environmental control system [NUREG-0544]

ECSP: employee concerns special program [NUREG-0544]

ECST: emergency condensate storage tank [NUREG-0544]

ECT: eddy current test, emergency cooling tower [NUREG-0544]

ECTG: employee concerns task group [NUREG-0544]

ECTS: electronic custom telephone set, electronic custom telephone system [NUREG-0544]

ECU: environmental control unit [NUREG-0544]

ECW: emergency cooling water, essential chilled water [NUREG-0544]

ECWP: emergency cooling water pond [NUREG-0544]

ECWPH: emergency cooling water pump house [NUREG-0544]

ED: electron device , exhaust damper [NUREG-0544]

EDAX: energy dispersive x-ray analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

EDC: emergency decontamination center [NUREG-0544]

ED&C: electrical distribution and control [NUREG-0544]

EDCN: engineering drawing change notice [NUREG-0544]

EDCP: emergency design change package [NUREG-0544]

E&DCR: engineering and design coordination report [NUREG-0544]

EDECWS: emergency diesel engine cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

EDELS: emergency diesel engine lubrication system [NUREG-0544]

EDESS: emergency diesel engine starting system [NUREG-0544]

EdF: Electricité de France (France) [NUREG-0544]

EDG: emergency diesel generator [NUREG-0544]

ED/G: emergency diesel generator [NUREG-0544]

EDGCAIES: emergency diesel generator combustion air intake and exhaust system [NUREG-0544]

EDM: electric discharge machining, electrical disintegration machining [NUREG-0544]

EDN: engineering discrepancy notice [NUREG-0544]

EDO: Executive Director for Operations (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

EDP: electronic data processing [NUREG-0544]

EDRO: Executive Director of Regional Operations, Office of (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) [NUREG-0544]

EDS: electrical distribution system, experimental data system, explosives detection system [NUREG-0544]

EDSFI: electrical distribution system functional inspection [NUREG-0544]

EDT: energy dissipation test, equipment drain tank, explosives detector team [NUREG-0544]

EDTA: ethylenedinitrilo tetraacetic acid [NUREG-0544]

EDTS: equipment drain treatment system [NUREG-0544]

EEC: end-of-equilibrium cycle, European Economic Community [NUREG-0544]

EECW: emergency equipment cooling water [NUREG-0544]

EEI: Edison Electric Institute [NUREG-0544]

EEM: extrapolated endpoint method [NUREG-0544]

EEPVS: electrical equipment protection ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

EEQML: electrical equipment qualification master list [NUREG-0544]

EEQSP: environmental equipment qualification summary package [NUREG-0544]

EER: engineering evaluation request [NUREG-0544]

EERF: Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility [NUREG-0544]

EES: economizer-evaporator superheater, emergency exhaust system [NUREG-0544]

EESWS: emergency equipment service water system [NUREG-0544]

EFAPP: Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

EFAS: emergency feedwater actuation signal, emergency feedwater actuation system [NUREG-0544]

EFCO: Engineers and Fabricators Company [NUREG-0544]

EFCV: excess flow check valve [NUREG-0544]

EFD: engineering flow diagram [NUREG-0544]

EFDS: equipment and floor drainage system [NUREG-0544]

EFFBR: Enrico Fermi Fast Breeder Reactor [NUREG-0544]

EFI: Enrico Fermi Institute [NUREG-0544]

EFIC: emergency feedwater initiation and control [NUREG-0544]

EFM: expected flow measurement [NUREG-0544]

EFNS: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science [NUREG-0544]

EFO: equipment forced outage (NRC performance indicator) [NUREG-0544]

EFOIA: Electronic Freedom of Information Act [NUREG-0544]

EFP: electric fire pump, Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

EFPD: effective full-power day, equivalent full-power day [NUREG-0544]

EFPH: effective full-power hour [NUREG-0544]

EFPM: effective full-power month [NUREG-0544]

EFPY: effective full-power year [NUREG-0544]

EFS: emergency feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

EFT: emergency filter treatment, emergency filter train [NUREG-0544]

EFW: emergency feedwater [NUREG-0544]

EFWS: emergency feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

EFWST: emergency feedwater storage tank [NUREG-0544]

EG: emergency generator [NUREG-0544]

EGCR: experimental gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

EGDN: ethylene glycol dinitrate [NUREG-0544]

EG&G: Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier [NUREG-0544]

EGM: enforcement guide memorandum/memoranda [NUREG-0544]

EGTS: emergency gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

EH: electrohydraulic [NUREG-0544]

EHC: electrohydraulic control [NUREG-0544]

EHNP: Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

EHR: emergency heat removal [NUREG-0544]

EHV: extra high voltage [NUREG-0544]

EI: emergency injection, engineering instruction [NUREG-0544]

E&I: electrical and instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

EIA: Energy Information Administration, environmental impact appraisal [NUREG-0544]

EIAP: environmental impact assessment project [NUREG-0544]

EICC: emergency information and coordination center [NUREG-0544]

EIIS: energy industry identification system [NUREG-0544]

EIP: emergency implementation procedure [NUREG-0544]

EIR: Eidgenossisches Institute für Reaktorforschung (Switzerland), engineering information request, equipment inoperable record [NUREG-0544]

EIS: effluent inventory system, electrical and instrument shop, electrical isolation scheme, emergency injection system, environmental impact statement, environmental information system [NUREG-0544]

EJ: environmental justice [NUREG-0544]

EKG: effective kilogram [NUREG-0544]

EKMS: Electronic Key Management System [NUREG-0544]

EL: Elettronucleare Italiana (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ELMS: electrical load monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

ELP: Employees Legal Project [NUREG-0544]

ELPHR: experimental low-temperature process heat reactor [NUREG-0544]

ELR: effectiveness limiting risk [NUREG-0544]

ELS: error-likely situation [NUREG-0544]

ELU: emergency lighting unit [NUREG-0544]

EM: electromagnetic, elevation model, engineering management , environmental management, evaluation model [NUREG-0544]

E/M: electromechanical [NUREG-0544]

E-MAD: engineering, maintenance, assembly, disassembly [NUREG-0544]

EMB: engineering in medicine and biology [NUREG-0544]

EMC: electromagnetic capability, electromagnetic compatibility , emergency management coordinator, engineering mockup critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

EMI: electromagnetic interference, engineering and manufacturing instruction [NUREG-0544]

EMO: electric motor operated [NUREG-0544]

EMOV: electromagnetically operated valve [NUREG-0544]

EMP: electromagnetic pulse [NUREG-0544]

EMR: electromagnetic radiation [NUREG-0544]

EMRV: electromagnetic relief valve [NUREG-0544]

EMS: earthquake monitoring system, emergency management system, Emergency Medical Services [NUREG-0544]

EMT: electrical metallic tubing, emergency management team, executive management team [NUREG-0544]

EN: enforcement notification, event notification [NUREG-0544]

ENC: Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

ENDESA: Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A. (Chile) [NUREG-0544]

ENEA: European Nuclear Energy Association [NUREG-0544]

ENEL: Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ENERGOATOM: Nuclear Power Utility (Ukraine) [NUREG-0544]

ENI: Electro-Navale et Industrielle, S.A. (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

ENO: extraordinary nuclear occurrence [NUREG-0544]

ENPI: Ente Nazionale Prevenzione Infortuni (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ENRESA: Empresa Nacional de Residnos Radiativos (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

ENS: emergency notification system, European Nuclear Society [NUREG-0544]

ENSA: Equipos Nucleares (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

ENSI: Energia Nucleare Sud Italia (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ENUSA: Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A. (Spain), Energie Nucléaire, S.A. (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

EO: emergency officer, enforcement officer, equipment operator [NUREG-0544]

E.O.: Executive Order [NUREG-0544]

EOC: emergency operations center, end of cycle [NUREG-0544]

EOCR: experimental organic-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

EOC-RPT: end-of-cycle recirculation pump trip [NUREG-0544]

EOD: explosives ordnance disposal [NUREG-0544]

EOEC: end-of-equilibrium cycle [NUREG-0544]

EOF: emergency operations facility [NUREG-0544]

EOI: emergency operating instruction, Entergy Operations, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

EOL: end of life [NUREG-0544]

EOP: emergency operating plan, emergency operating procedure [NUREG-0544]

EOS: equation of state [NUREG-0544]

EOY: end of year [NUREG-0544]

EP: electric power, emergency plan, emergency planning, emergency power, emergency preparedness, emergency procedure, equipment piece [NUREG-0544]

E/P: electrical to pneumatic [NUREG-0544]

EPA: electrical penetration assembly, engineering plant analyzer, Environmental Protection Agency [NUREG-0544]

EP Act: Energy Policy Act of 1992 [NUREG-0544]

EPB: emergency planning basis/bases [NUREG-0544]

EPBE: emergency-planning-basis event [NUREG-0544]

EPC: emergency preparedness coordinator, engineering planning coordinator [NUREG-0544]

EPDC: Electric Power Development Co. Ltd. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

EPDM: ethylene propylene diene monomer [NUREG-0544]

EPE: emergency plan evolution, emergency preparedness evaluation [NUREG-0544]

EPEC: El Paso Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

EPFE: electrical penetration filter and exhaust [NUREG-0544]

EPG: emergency procedure guideline [NUREG-0544]

EPI: Environmental Policy Institute [NUREG-0544]

EPIA: emergency preparedness implementation appraisal [NUREG-0544]

EPIP: emergency plan implementing procedure [NUREG-0544]

EPIX: Equipment Performance and Information and Exchange System (replaces NPRDS) (INPO) [NUREG-0544]

EPL: environmental protection limit [NUREG-0544]

EPM: electrical power monitoring, end path manual, engineering project manager, engineering procedure memorandum/memoranda, environmental project manager [NUREG-0544]

EPP: engineering program plan, environmental protection plan [NUREG-0544]

EPR: electromechanical potentiokinetic reactivation, emergency planning requirements, emergency planning review, enhanced participatory rulemaking, essential performance requirement [NUREG-0544]

EPRG: emergency planning review guideline [NUREG-0544]

EPRI: Electric Power Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

EPROM: electronic programmable read-only memory [NUREG-0544]

EPRTCS: emergency power ride-through capability system [NUREG-0544]

EPS: electric power system, emergency power system [NUREG-0544]

EPSL: emergency power switching logic [NUREG-0544]

EPSS: emergency power sequencing subsystem [NUREG-0544]

EPT: ethylene-propylene terpolymer [NUREG-0544]

EPZ: emergency planning zone [NUREG-0544]

EQ: environmental qualification, environmentally qualified, equipment qualification [NUREG-0544]

EQC: equipment qualification coordinator [NUREG-0544]

EQD: environmental qualification document [NUREG-0544]

EQDB: equipment qualification database [NUREG-0544]

EQDF: equipment qualification data file [NUREG-0544]

EQDP: environmental qualification data package [NUREG-0544]

EQEDC: equipment qualification environmental design criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

EQML: equipment qualification master list [NUREG-0544]

EQ-TAP: environmental qualification-task action plan, equipment qualification-task action plan [NUREG-0544]

ER: emergency response, environmental report [NUREG-0544]

ERA: Economic Regulatory Administration, Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Reorganization Act [NUREG-0544]

ERB: Executive Resources Board, experiment review board [NUREG-0544]

ERBS: emergency radio broadcast system [NUREG-0544]

ERC: emergency relocation center, emergency response coordinator, Engineering Research Council [NUREG-0544]

ERCOT: Electric Reliability Council of Texas [NUREG-0544]

ERCW: emergency raw cooling water, essential raw cooling water [NUREG-0544]

ERCWS: emergency raw cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

ERDA: Energy Research and Development Administration [NUREG-0544]

ERDAM: Energy Research and Development Administration Manual [NUREG-0544]

ERDS: Emergency Response Data System (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

ERF: emergency response facility, entrainment release factor, explosion release factor [NUREG-0544]

ERFBS: electrical raceway fire barrier system [NUREG-0544]

ERFDADS: emergency response facility data acquisition and display system [NUREG-0544]

ERFIS: emergency response facility information system [NUREG-0544]

ERG: emergency response guideline [NUREG-0544]

ERIE: emergency resources identification equipment [NUREG-0544]

ERIS: emergency response information system [NUREG-0544]

ERL: emergency reference level [NUREG-0544]

ERO: engineering release order [NUREG-0544]

EROD: executive resources and organizational development [NUREG-0544]

EROS: earth resources observation system, electric radiological occurrence system [NUREG-0544]

ERP: elevated release point, emergency response procedure [NUREG-0544]

ERPA: emergency response planning area [NUREG-0544]

ERR: Elk River Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ERS: Economic Research Service [NUREG-0544]

ERSP: earth resources survey program [NUREG-0544]

ERT: emergency repair team, emergency response team, employee response team, event response team [NUREG-0544]

ERTS: environmental radiological technical specification, environmental resources technology satellite [NUREG-0544]

ERV: emergency relief valve [NUREG-0544]

ERVC: external reactor vessel cooling [NUREG-0544]

ES: engineered safeguards, examination standard, extraction steam [NUREG-0544]

E/S: electrical supply [NUREG-0544]

ESADA: Empire States Atomic Development Associates [NUREG-0544]

ESAS: emergency safeguards actuation system, engineered safeguards actuation system [NUREG-0544]

ESCA: extended source calibration area [NUREG-0544]

ESCO: Electrical Steel Company [NUREG-0544]

ESCOM: Electricity Supply Commission (South Africa) [NUREG-0544]

ESCP: employee safety concerns program [NUREG-0544]

ESCWS: essential services cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

ESD: extension shaft disconnect [NUREG-0544]

ESDR: engineered safeguards design rating [NUREG-0544]

ESEERC: Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation [NUREG-0544]

ESF: engineered safety feature, exploratory shaft facility, Exploratory Studies Facility [NUREG-0544]

ESFA: engineered safety feature actuation [NUREG-0544]

ESFAS: engineered safety features actuation system [NUREG-0544]

ESFS: engineered safety feature system [NUREG-0544]

ESFVS: engineered safety feature ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

ESO: emergency support organization, Engineering Service Organization [NUREG-0544]

ESP: earth-surface potential [NUREG-0544]

ESQ: equipment seismic qualification [NUREG-0544]

ESR: early site review, electron spin resonance, experimental superheat reactor [NUREG-0544]

ESRG: Energy Systems Research Group [NUREG-0544]

ESRP: environmental standard review plan [NUREG-0544]

ESRR: early site review report [NUREG-0544]

ESS: electronic switching system, engagement simulation system, evaporation/solidification system [NUREG-0544]

ES&S: engineering services and safety [NUREG-0544]

ESSA: Environmental Science Services Administration [NUREG-0544]

ESSAR: early site safety analysis report, EBASCO Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

ESSE: EBASCO Site Support Engineering [NUREG-0544]

ESSP: earliest scram set point [NUREG-0544]

ESW: electroslag welding, emergency service water, essential service water [NUREG-0544]

ESWD: emergency service water discharge [NUREG-0544]

ESWI: emergency service water intake [NUREG-0544]

ESWS: emergency service water screening, emergency service water system, essential service water system [NUREG-0544]

ESWSS: emergency service water supply system [NUREG-0544]

ET: emergency tank, executive team [NUREG-0544]

ETA: equipment transfer aisle, estimated time of arrival [NUREG-0544]

ETBS: elevated tubesheet and baffle sleeve [NUREG-0544]

ETC: estimated time of completion [NUREG-0544]

ETE: evacuation time estimate [NUREG-0544]

ETEC: Energy Technology Engineering Center [NUREG-0544]

ETF: extended task force [NUREG-0544]

ETG: electrical test group [NUREG-0544]

ETL: environmental team leader [NUREG-0544]

ETP: equivalent top product [NUREG-0544]

ETQAP: education and training in quality assurance practices [NUREG-0544]

ETR: engineering test reactor [NUREG-0544]

ETS: elevated tubesheet sleeve, Emergency Telecommunications System, environmental technical specification, events tracking system [NUREG-0544]

E&TT: engineering and technical training [NUREG-0544]

EUB: emergency utility building [NUREG-0544]

EURATOM: European Atomic Energy Community [NUREG-0544]

EV: evaporator vessel, exhaust valve [NUREG-0544]

EVA: early valve actuation [NUREG-0544]

EVCC: ex-vessel core catcher [NUREG-0544]

EVESR: ESADA (Empire States Atomic Development Associates) Vallecitos Experimental Superheat Reactor [NUREG-0544]

EVFM: ex-vessel flux monitor [NUREG-0544]

EVHM: ex-vessel handling machine [NUREG-0544]

EVS: emergency ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

EVST: ex-vessel storage tank [NUREG-0544]

EVTM: external vessel transfer machine, ex-vessel transfer machine [NUREG-0544]

EWEB: Eugene Water and Electricity Board [NUREG-0544]

EWG: exempt wholesale generator [NUREG-0544]

EWST: elevated water storage tank, emergency water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

EXSIS: executive shared information system [NUREG-0544]

EZB: exclusion zone boundary [NUREG-0544]

E = mc2: Albert Einstein's equation E = mc2 is the most famous in the history of science. It states that energy and mass are equivalent, a concept that enabled scientists to understand the energy source of the sun and other stars and led to the development of nuclear energy. Specifically, the equation states that a mass m can theoretically be transformed into an amount of energy, E, equal to m multiplied by the square of the speed of light (3 X 10 to the 10th power cm/sec). Einstein deduced this concept from his theory of special relativity. The equation first appeared in a paper he published in 1907. [ATARC] See " Mass-energy equation"

Earned Value (EV): See BCWP (BCWP). [DOEEMGMT]

Earthquake, operating basis An earthquake that could be expected to affect the reactor plant site, but for which the plant power production equipment is designed to remain functional without undue risk to public health and safety. [NRC]

Easement: A right or privilege that a person may have in another's land. [DOE/EM-0319]

ECRA: Environmental Cleanup Responsibility Act (New Jersey)

EERU: Environmental Emergency Response Act

Effective halflife: The time required for the amount of a radioactive element deposited in a living organism to be diminished 50% as a result of the combined action of radioactive decay and biological elimination. [NRC]

Effective Transfer Date: The date on which ADS's scope of work and allocated funding will be transferred to another ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

Efficiency, plant: The percentage of the total energy content of a power plant's fuel that is converted into electricity. The remaining energy is lost to the environment as heat. [NRC]

EHS: Extremely Hazardous Substance (regulated under SARA 313 and RCRA)

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): A sharp pulse of radio-frequency (long wavelength) radiation produced when an explosion occurs in an asymmetrical environment, especially at or near the earth's surface or at high altitudes. The intense electric and magnetic fields can damage unprotected electrical and electronic equipment over a large area. It is now thought that a single high-altitude blast over the U. S. could seriously disrupt the nation's communications system, and perhaps shut down the entire power grid. At present, however, there is no known way of providing complete protection against the effect. [ATARC]

Electromagnetic radiation: A traveling wave motion resulting from changing electric or magnetic fields. Familiar electromagnetic radiation range from x-rays (and gamma rays) of short wavelength, through the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions, to radar and radio waves of relatively long wave length. [NRC] All electromagnetic radiations travel in a vacuum with the velocity of light. [TDHBRC]

Electromagnetic Separation: The separation of uranium isotopes by electromagnetic means (to produce uranium 235 for an atomic bomb). [ATARC]

Electromagnetic spectrograph: Process used to enrich uranium based on the tendency of ions of the uranium-238 to deflect at a lower rate than ions of uranium-235 as they travel through a magnetic field. This process was used in a device called a "Calutron" and was used at the Y-12 Plant from late 1943 through 1946. [DOE/EM-0319]

electron: An elementary particle carrying 1 unit of negative electric charge. Its mass is 1/1837 that of a proton. [IEER]

Electron capture: A radioactive decay process in which an orbital electron is captured by and merges with the nucleus. The mass number is unchanged, but the atomic number is decreased by one. [LBNL]

Electron volt A unit in which energy is measured in the study of nuclear particles and their interactions. It is equal to the change in energy of an electron crossing a potential difference of 1 volt. Abbrev.: eV and multiples keV (103 eV) and MeV (106 eV). [AT] It is equivalent to 1.6 -12 ergs. [ATARC]

ELEX (Electric Exchange): Acronym for the electric exchange process that was used at the Y-12 Plant to enrich lithium. [DOE/EM-0319]

Eluant Washing solution (The solution that is introduced into the cow). [LBNL]

Eluate: The washings obtained by elution (the solution that comes out of the cow). [LBNL]

Elute: To separate by washing (to milk). [LBNL]

Emergency classifications: Response by an offsite organization is required to protect local citizens near the site. A request for assistance from offsite emergency response organizations may be required. [NRC]

Emergency core cooling systems (ECCS): Reactor system components (pumps, valves, heat exchangers, tanks, and piping) that are specifically designed to remove residual heat from the reactor fuel rods should the normal core cooling system (reactor coolant system) fail. [NRC]

Emergency feedwater: Another name that may be used for auxiliary feedwater. [NRC]

Emergency Preparedness (EP): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to provide the final barrier for ensuring the safety and health of workers and the public; and for protecting property and the environment in the event of an emergency. EMF/ELF: Electric and Magnetic Fields

EMWMF: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility [DOELLWRpt]

Encapsulation: A process whereby waste is placed and sealed in casks, cans, or other containers to prevent the material from moving through the environment. [DOE/EM-0342]

Encumbered Balances: Amount of contracts awarded by the M&Os and the IMCs consisting of (1) purchase orders issued; (2) contracts and subcontracts awarded including full liability under lease purchases and capital leases; (3) termination costs for incrementally funded firm fixed price contracts, operating lease agreements, and multi-year service contracts that contain termination clauses; (4) other agreements for the acquisition of goods and services related to other M&O/IMC liabilities, and 5)work orders or authorizations issued to M&O/IMC construction contractors. The threshold for encumbered uncosted obligated balances is 50% of the costs resulting from encumbrances of the fiscal year just ended. [DOEEMGMT]

Endangered species: Animals, birds, fish, plants, or other organisms threatened with extinction by manmade or natural changes in their environment and declared "endangered" by law. Requirements for declaring species endangered are contained in the Endangered Species Act of 1973. [DOE/EA-1172]

Endangered Species Act of 1973: This act requires federal agencies, with the consultation and assistance of the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce, to ensure that their actions will not likely jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered or threatened species or adversely affect the habitat of such species. [DOE/EA-1172]

End State: The physical state of a site after agreed upon remediation activities have been completed. [DOE/EM-0466]

End State Focus
The end state for each EM project is defined as part of the baseline. In addition, a closure critical path is developed for each site to show the sequence of activities necessary to achieve site closure. The programmatic risk for activities on the closure critical path is evaluated and actively managed. [DOEEMGMT]

Energy Information Administration (EIA): The independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy, which, as one of its responsibilities, collects and disseminates information related to the domestic nuclear power industry. [DOE/EA-1172]

Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct): Public Law 102-486, created the U.S. Enrichment Corporation as a wholly-owned government corporation to take over uranium enrichment functions from DOE; made USEC the government's marketing agent for enriched uranium; and authorized DOE to sell uranium inventories not needed for national security purposes. Portions of it will be or have been repealed by the USEC Privatization Act (e.g., once USEC is privatized it will no longer serve as the government's exclusive marketing agent). [DOE/EA-1172] "(The Act) Emphasizes energy efficiency, research and development on conventional fuels, alternative fuels, and uranium enrichment. Also establishes several guidelines for radioactive waste disposal. [DOE/EM-0319]

Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA): The agency created in 1975 to take over the weapons production and research responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Commission. ERDA was transformed, along with other Federal Government functions, into the cabinet-level Department of Energy in 1977. [DOE/EM-0266]

Enforceable Agreement (EA): A legal agreement entered into by DOE and other parties that requires DOE to accomplish listed milestones. [DOEEMGMT]

Enforceable Agreement Execution Date: The date an Enforceable Agreement is executed. [DOEEMGMT]

Enforceable Agreement Facility: The Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is referenced in an enforceable agreement. [DOEEMGMT]

Enforceable Agreement Milestones: All milestones with planned dates specifically identified in an enforceable agreement. [DOEEMGMT]

Enforceable Agreement Parties: The parties to an enforceable agreement. [DOEEMGMT]

Enforceable Agreement Statute: The statute referenced in an enforceable agreement.[DOEEMGMT]

Engineered barriers: Barriers generally used to limit the contact of surface water or groundwater with wastes and to control the migration of contaminants into the surrounding environment. In special cases, they may be used to limit the release of contaminated fluids and gases from leaking waste storage tanks, liquid waste transfer systems, or buried wastes. The most common type of engineered barrier is the surface barrier called a cap, which is placed over waste deposits. [EPALLRW]

Engineered Units: Includes radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary landfills; vaults; tank farms; and other units with manmade containment systems. [DOE/EM-0466]

Eniwetok Atoll: On November 1, 1952 a 10.4 megaton thermonuclear explosion code-named "Mike", at Eniwetok Atoll, demonstrated the release of energy from nuclear fusion. The island of Elugelab in the Eniwetok Atoll on which the test was conducted, was completely vaporized. It left a crater deeper than the height of the Empire State Building and large enough to house several Pentagons. [ATARC]

Enrichment: A process whereby the proportion of the fissile 235 U isotope is increased above its naturally occurring value of about 0.71% so that it can be used as fuel in nuclear power reactors. [DOE/EA-1172] The process of separating the isotopes of uranium from each other. Other elements can also be enriched. In the United States this is done using the gaseous diffusion process. [DOE/EM-0266] See gaseous diffusion, isotope separation.

Enriched uranium: Uranium that, as a result of the process of enrichment, has more uranium 235 than natural uranium. [DOE/EM-0266]

entomb: A method of decommissioning in which radioactive contaminants are encased in a structurally long-lived material, such as concrete. The entombment structure is appropriately maintained, and continued surveillance is carried out until the radioactivity decays to a level permitting decommissioning and ultimate unrestricted release of the property. [NRC] See Decon [CY]

Entombment: An alternative for dispositioning surplus facilities by burial or covering in a vault. [DOE/EM-0319]

Envirocare: Currently active commercial LLRW disposal facility located near Clive, Utah owned by the private company 'Envirocare'. [TNRCC]

Environmental Assessment (EA): A written environmental analysis prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine whether a federal action would significantly affect the environment and thus require the preparation of a more detailed environmental impact statement. If the action does not significantly affect the environment, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is prepared. [DOE/EA-1172]

Environmental contamination: The release into the environment of radioactive, hazardous and toxic materials. [DOE/EM-0266]

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): The detailed written statement that is required by section 102(2)(C) of NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) for a proposed major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. A DOE EIS is prepared in accordance with applicable requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality NEPA regulations in 40 CFR 1500-1508, and the DOE NEPA regulation in 10 CFR 1021.
The statement includes, among other information, discussions of the environmental impacts of the proposed action and all reasonable alternatives, adverse environmental effects that can not be avoided should the proposal be implemented, the relationship between short-term uses of the human environment and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources. It is a decision making tool that describes the positive and negative effects of the proposed action and alternatives. [DOE/EM-0466]

Environmental Management (EM) Program: An office of DOE that was created in 1989 to oversee the Department's waste management and environmental cleanup efforts. Originally called the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it was renamed in 1993. [DOE/EM-0466]

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A Federal agency, established in 1970, responsible for enforcing environmental laws including the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). [DOE/EM-0319] The EPA is responsible for working with state and local governments to control and prevent pollution in areas of solid and hazardous waste, pesticides, water, air, drinking water, and toxic and radioactive substances. [EPA-MW]

Environmental Restoration: Often described broadly as "cleanup," this function encompasses a wide range of activities, such as stabilizing contaminated soil; treating ground water; decommissioning process buildings, nuclear reactors, chemical separations plants, and many other facilities; and exhuming sludge and buried drums of waste. [DOE/EM-0466]

Environmental Restoration Program (ER): An Environmental Management (EM) program concerned with all aspects of assessment and cleanup of both contaminated facilities in use and of sites that are no longer part of active operations. [DOEEMGMT]

Environmental restoration waste: Generally waste from cleanup of contaminated media and facilities at DOE sites. Regulated under CERCLA.

EPA Region: A geographic area, as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an administrative region, where a Department of Energy (DOE) facility is located or where a DOE Federal Agency Pollution Abatement Plan (OMB Circular A-106) activity is primarily conducted. [DOEEMGMT]

EPCRA: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (1986) -refer to SARA Title III

EPIC: Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center

Epidemiology: The branch of medicine that studies the sources, distribution, and determinants of diseases and injuries in human populations. [DOE/EM-0266]

Equilibrium: A state of rest in a chemical or mechanical system. Chemical: The state of a reaction in which its forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates so that the concentrations of the reactants do not change with time. Mechanical: Forces in one direction are equal and opposite to those in the opposing direction. Flow of salt to fill the excavated cavity is an attempt by the salt to reattain a state of mechanical equilibrium. [WIPPEA]

Equilibrium cycle: An assumed nuclear fuel cycle in which the feed and waste materials of a facility have constant compositions. In a reactor this condition typically results after the third or fourth fuel-loading schedule. [DOE-IDB97] Equivalent Megatons (EMT): In evaluating the destructive power of a weapons system it is usual to use the concept of equivalent megatons (EMT). Equivalent megatonnage is defined as the actual megatonnage raised to the two-thirds power. [ATARC]

ERCS: Emergency Response Cleanup Services

ERDF: Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Hanford) [DOELLWRpt]

ERNS: Emergency Response Notification System (EPA)

EROS: Earth Observation Satellite

ESA: Environmental Site Assessment

Estimate at Completion (EAC): The actual cost incurred to date plus the estimated cost (direct and indirect) of all approved remaining work. EAC=ACWP+[(BAC-BCWP)/CPI] [DOEEMGMT]

Evaporation: This is a concentration method that can be used on many different liquid wastes and slurries. [DOELLWRpt]

Evaporation pond: A pond constructed to hold liquid radioactive wastes so that the water can evaporate away, leaving behind the dissolved and suspended radioactive material. [DOE/EM-0266]

Evapotranspiration Loss of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere by a combination of evaporation from the soil, lakes, streams, and transpiration from plants. [WIPPEA]

Excited state : The state of an atom or nucleus when it possesses more than its normal energy. The excess energy is usually released eventually as a gamma ray. [LBNL]

Exclusion area: That area surrounding the reactor, in which the reactor licensee has the authority to determine all activities, including exclusion or removal of personnel and property from the area. [NRC]

Excursion: A sudden, very rapid rise in the power level of a reactor caused by supercriticality. Excursions are usually quickly suppressed by the negative temperature coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient or the void coefficient (depending upon reactor design), or by rapid insertion of control rods. [NRC]

Exclusive Use: The sole use of a transport vehicle by a single consignor and for which all loading and unloading are carried out in accordance with the direction of the consignor or consignee. (Also referred to as "sole use" or "full load.")

Execution: (1) A process that allocates and tracks funding for work in progress. (2) A process that identifies the activities that need to be accomplished in the fiscal year and how these activities are to be accomplished. The outcome of this process is the Program Execution Guidance (PEG). [DOEEMGMT]

Experimental breeder reactor: Experimental breeder reactors are located at Hanford, Washington and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. A breeding reactor produces more fissile material than it consumes. [DOE/EM-0319]

Explanation of Change: (1) A narrative explaining why data was modified. (2) A budget analyst's reason for requesting a change to the New Obligational Authority (NOA), uncosted carryover, or unobligated balance associated with a budget and reporting code (B&R code). (3) A description of changes in scope and funding between a transferred ADS and the ADS receiving the transfer. [DOEEMGMT]

exposure - A measurement of the amount of ionization produced by x-rays or gamma rays as they travel through air. The unit of radiation exposure is the roentgen, named for Wilhelm Roentgen, the German scientist who discovered x-rays in 1895 [CY]

External radiation dose: The dose from sources of radiation located outside the body. This is most often from gamma rays, though beta rays can contribute to dose in the skin and other relatively superficial tissues. [IEER]

Extremities: The hands, forearms, elbows, feet, knee, leg below the knee, and ankles (permissible radiation exposures in these regions are generally greater than in the whole body because they contain less blood forming organs and have smaller volumes for energy absorption) (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

|------------------------ F ------------------------|

FA: forced air, fuel assembly, full arc [NUREG-0544]

F/A: fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

FAA: Federal Aviation Administration, fresh acid add [NUREG-0544]

FaAA: Failure Analysis Associates [NUREG-0544]

FAB : ISOfabrication isometric [NUREG-0544]

FAC: final acceptance criterion/criteria, flow-accelerated corrosion [NUREG-0544]

FACA: Federal Advisory Committee Act [NUREG-0544]

FACNET: Federal Acquisition Computer Network [NUREG-0544]

FAF: Forum Atomique Français (France) [NUREG-0544]

FAI: fail as is [NUREG-0544]

FAP: fatigue action plan [NUREG-0544]

FAPIG: First Atomic Power Industry Group (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

FAR: Federal Acquisition Regulation, Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Center (France) , functional analysis report [NUREG-0544]

FARA: Federal Acquisition Reform Act [NUREG-0544]

FARET: fast reactor test assembly [NUREG-0544]

FAS: Federation of American Scientists [NUREG-0544]

FASA: Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 [NUREG-0544]

FASAB: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board [NUREG-0544]

FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board [NUREG-0544]

FAST: fuel aerosol simulation test, fuel assembly stability test [NUREG-0544]

FATT: fracture appearance transition temperature [NUREG-0544]

FAX: facsimile [NUREG-0544]

FBACS: fuel building air cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

FBC: fluidized bed combustion [NUREG-0544]

FBFC: Société Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustible (France) [NUREG-0544]

FBFS: fuel building filter system [NUREG-0544]

FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation [NUREG-0544]

FBR: fast breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

FBRF: fast burst reactor facility [NUREG-0544]

FBV: fuel building ventilation [NUREG-0544]

FC: fail closed, fine control, flow controller, fuel cycle [NUREG-0544]

FCA: field change authorization [NUREG-0544]

FCAW: flux cored arc welding [NUREG-0544]

FCD: fine control damper, full core discharge, functional control diagram [NUREG-0544]

FCE: flexible critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

FCG: fatigue crack growth [NUREG-0544]

FCI: Fluid Controls Institute, fuel-coolant interaction [NUREG-0544]

FCN: field change notice [NUREG-0544]

FCO: funds certifying official [NUREG-0544]

FCP: field change package [NUREG-0544]

FCR: fast ceramic reactor, fast conversion ratio, field change request [NUREG-0544]

FCS: Fort Calhoun Station [NUREG-0544]

F&CS: feedwater and condensate system [NUREG-0544]

FCTT: fuel cladding transient tester [NUREG-0544]

FCU: fan coil unit [NUREG-0544]

FCV: flow control valve [NUREG-0544]

Fd: dilution factor (also dF) [NUREG-0544]

F/D: filter/demineralizer [NUREG-0544]

F&D: finding and determination [NUREG-0544]

FDA: final design acceptance, final design analysis, final design approval, final design authorization, Food and Drug Administration [NUREG-0544]

FDAA: Federal Disaster Assistance Administration [NUREG-0544]

FDA-EDRO: Food and Drug Administration, Office of Executive Director of Regional Operations [NUREG-0544]

FDB: Fahrenheit dry bulb [NUREG-0544]

FDC: functional design criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

FDDR: field deviation disposition request [NUREG-0544]

FDG: fluid distribution grid [NUREG-0544]

FDI: field disposition instruction [NUREG-0544]

FDLP: Federal Depository Library Program (GPO) [NUREG-0544]

FDM: frequency division multiplex [NUREG-0544]

FDR: final design report, functional design requirement [NUREG-0544]

FDS: final docketed special , fire detection system, floor drain system [NUREG-0544]

FDSA: facility description and safety analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

FDT: floor drain tank [NUREG-0544]

FDTS: floor drain treatment system [NUREG-0544]

FDW: feedwater [NUREG-0544]

FE: flow element [NUREG-0544]

FEA: Federal Energy Administration, front-end analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

FECCSR: failure of emergency core cooling system recirculation [NUREG-0544]

FEDAL: failed element detection and location , fuel element detection and location [NUREG-0544]

FEDP: Federal Executive Development Program [NUREG-0544]

FEF: foreign event file, fuel examination facility, fusion energy foundation [NUREG-0544]

FEFP: fuel element failure propagation [NUREG-0544]

FEFPL: fuel element failure propagation loop [NUREG-0544]

FEGLI: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance [NUREG-0544]

FEIS: final environmental impact statement, full electrical isolation scheme [NUREG-0544]

FELAP: finite element analysis program [NUREG-0544]

FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency [NUREG-0544]

FEO: facility emergency organization [NUREG-0544]

FEP: facility emergency plan [NUREG-0544]

FEPCA: Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 [NUREG-0544]

FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [NUREG-0544]

FERD: fuel element rupture detection [NUREG-0544]

FERMILAB: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

FERP: fire emergency response plan [NUREG-0544]

FERS: Federal Employees' Retirement System [NUREG-0544]

FES: final environmental statement [NUREG-0544]

FF: filter factor, fluorine facility [NUREG-0544]

FFD: fitness for duty [NUREG-0544]

FFE: Federal field exercise, FRERP (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan) field exercise, full field exercise [NUREG-0544]

FFF: fuel failure fraction [NUREG-0544]

FFI: full field investigation [NUREG-0544]

FFLA: Family Friendly Leave Act [NUREG-0544]

FFLS: failed fuel location subsystem [NUREG-0544]

FFM: fuel failure mockup [NUREG-0544]

FFP: fuel fabrication plant [NUREG-0544]

FFR: folded flow reactor [NUREG-0544]

FFRDC: Federally Funded Research and Development Center [NUREG-0544]

FFTF: fast flux test facility [NUREG-0544]

FFTFPO: Fast Flux Test Facility Project Office [NUREG-0544]

FFWT: final feedwater temperature [NUREG-0544]

FG: fission gas [NUREG-0544]

FGAA: Federal Government Accountants Association [NUREG-0544]

FGEL: Fitchburg Gas and Electric Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

FGM: fission gas monitor [NUREG-0544]

FGS: Fulton Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

FHAR: fire hazards analysis report [NUREG-0544]

FHAVS: fuel-handling area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

FHB: fuel-handling building [NUREG-0544]

FHBVI: fuel-handling building ventilation isolation [NUREG-0544]

FHBVS: fuel-handling building ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

FHC: fuel-handling cell [NUREG-0544]

FHE: fuel-handling equipment [NUREG-0544]

FHES: fuel-handling equipment system [NUREG-0544]

FHFP: full height, full pressure [NUREG-0544]

FHIS: fuel-handling isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

FHOB: fuel-handling operator booth [NUREG-0544]

FHP: fuel-handling procedure [NUREG-0544]

FHPC: fuel-handling and preparation cell [NUREG-0544]

FH&RM: fuel-handling and radioactive maintenance [NUREG-0544]

FHS: fuel-handling system [NUREG-0544]

FHSR: final hazards safety report, final hazards summary report [NUREG-0544]

FHT: feedwater holding tank [NUREG-0544]

FHU: fuel-handling unit [NUREG-0544]

FI: flow indicator [NUREG-0544]

FIA: Factory Insurance Association [NUREG-0544]

FIAS: flow indicator alarm switch [NUREG-0544]

FIEN: Forum Italiano dell'Energia Nucleare (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

FIFO: first in, first out [NUREG-0544]

FIM: field inspection manual [NUREG-0544]

FIMA: fission per initial heavy metal atom [NUREG-0544]

FIN: financial identification number [NUREG-0544]

FIP: Federal information processing, field inspection procedure [NUREG-0544]

FIPS: Federal information processing standard [NUREG-0544]

FIR: food irradiation reactor [NUREG-0544]

FIRM: failure introspection in rotating machinery [NUREG-0544]

FIRMR: Federal Information Resources Management Regulation [NUREG-0544]

FIRR: Federal Institute for Reactor Research (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

FIRS: field incident radio system [NUREG-0544]

FISC: fuel inspection and sampling cell [NUREG-0544]

FIST: full integral simulation test [NUREG-0544]

FIT: flow indicator transmitter [NUREG-0544]

FIV: flow-induced vibration [NUREG-0544]

FIVE: fire-induced vulnerability evaluation [NUREG-0544]

FJO: field job order [NUREG-0544]

FLAME: flame acceleration measurement and experiment [NUREG-0544]

FLD: fuel-loading data [NUREG-0544]

FLECHT: full-length emergency cooling heat transfer [NUREG-0544]

FLIP: floating index point, fuel lifetime improvement program [NUREG-0544]

FLIT: free limiting internal truss [NUREG-0544]

FLST: full-length source term [NUREG-0544]

FLTS: full-length tubesheet sleeve [NUREG-0544]

FM: Factory Mutual, fracture mechanics, frequency multiplier [NUREG-0544]

FMCRD: fine motion control rod drive [NUREG-0544]

FME: foreign material exclusion [NUREG-0544]

FMEA: Factory Mutual Engineering Associates, failure modes and effects analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

FMEF: fuels and materials examination facility [NUREG-0544]

FMF: fuel-melt fraction [NUREG-0544]

FMIT: fusion materials irradiation test [NUREG-0544]

FMRC: Factory Mutual Research Corporation [NUREG-0544]

FMS: flux monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

FNB: Forum Nucléaire Belge (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

FNP: floating nuclear plant [NUREG-0544]

FNR: Ford Nuclear Reactor [NUREG-0544]

FO: fail open [NUREG-0544]

FOA: forced oil and air [NUREG-0544]

FOAKE: first-of-a-kind engineering [NUREG-0544]

FOCI: foreign ownership, control, or influence [NUREG-0544]

FOE: Friends of the Earth [NUREG-0544]

FOGG: feed-only-good generator [NUREG-0544]

FOIA: Freedom of Information Act [NUREG-0544]

FOL: facility operating license [NUREG-0544]

FONSI: finding of no significant impact [NUREG-0544]

FONUBEL: Forum Nucléaire Belge (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

FOR: forced outage rate (NRC performance indicator) [NUREG-0544]

FORATOM: Forum Atomique Européen [NUREG-0544]

FORC: fluorinator off-gas recycle compressor [NUREG-0544]

FOSAR: foreign object search and retrieval [NUREG-0544]

FOTA: fuels open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

FP: fire protection, fission product, full power [NUREG-0544]

FPC: Federal Power Commission, Florida Power Corporation, fuel pool cooling [NUREG-0544]

FPCC: fuel pool cooling and cleanup [NUREG-0544]

FPCCS: fuel pool cooling and cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

FPCSTL: fission product control screening test loop [NUREG-0544]

FPD: full-power day [NUREG-0544]

FPDD: final project design description [NUREG-0544]

FPDI: food processing development irradiator [NUREG-0544]

FPEB: fuel pool exhaust blower [NUREG-0544]

FPFI: fire protection functional inspection [NUREG-0544]

FPL: Florida Power & Light Co., full performance level [NUREG-0544]

FP&L: Florida Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

FPM: Federal Personnel Manual [NUREG-0544]

FPMR: Federal property management regulation [NUREG-0544]

FPO: Federal Preservation Officer [NUREG-0544]

FPOL: full-power operating license [NUREG-0544]

FPPH: fire protection pump house [NUREG-0544]

FPPVS: fuel pool pump ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

FPR: Federal procurement regulation, flexible plastic reactor [NUREG-0544]

FPS: final policy statement, fire protection system, Fluor Power Services, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

FPSL: fission product screening loop [NUREG-0544]

FPT: feedwater pump turbine, fission product test [NUREG-0544]

FP-TAP: Fire Protection--Task Action Plan [NUREG-0544]

FPWT: fuel pool water treatment [NUREG-0544]

FQC: field quality control [NUREG-0544]

FR: Federal Register [NUREG-0544]

FR: final rule, flow regulator, friction ratio [NUREG-0544]

FRA: flow recorder and alarm [NUREG-0544]

FRAB: fuel receiving air blower [NUREG-0544]

FRAC: Federal Regional Assistance Committee [NUREG-0544]

FRAF: fuel receiving air filter [NUREG-0544]

FRAMATOME: Société Franco-Américaine de Constructions Atomiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

FRAP: fuel rod analysis program [NUREG-0544]

FRAP-S: fuel rod analysis program--steady-state [NUREG-0544]

FRAP-T: fuel rod analysis program--transient [NUREG-0544]

FRB: Forschungsreaktor Berlin (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

FRC: Federal Radiation Council, Federal Records Center, Federal Response Center, Fire Research Center, flow recording controller, fractional relief capacity, Franklin Research Center [NUREG-0544]

FRCS: flow recording controller switch [NUREG-0544]

FRCTF: fast reactor core test facility [NUREG-0544]

FRD: formerly restricted data [NUREG-0544]

FRERP: Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan [NUREG-0544]

FRF: fuel reprocessing facility [NUREG-0544]

FRMAC: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center [NUREG-0544]

FRMAP: Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Plan FRN: Federal Register notice, formal report number [NUREG-0544]

FRP: Federal Response Plan, fuel reprocessing plant [NUREG-0544]

FRPCC: Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee [NUREG-0544]

FRS: fast reactor safety, fixed radial shield, floor response spectrum/spectra, fuel receiving station [NUREG-0544]

FRSF: fuel receiving and storage facility [NUREG-0544]

FRTEF: fast reactor thermal engineering facility [NUREG-0544]

FS: factor of safety, far side, finishing superheater, flow switch [NUREG-0544]

FSAR: final safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

FSC: Federal supply classification, Federal supply code [NUREG-0544]

FSCR: fuel storage control room [NUREG-0544]

FSCS: fuel storage cable spread [NUREG-0544]

FSEB: fuel storage exhaust blower [NUREG-0544]

FSER: final safety evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

FSF: fuel storage facility [NUREG-0544]

FSI: fluid-structure interaction [NUREG-0544]

FSN: Federal stock number [NUREG-0544]

FSNM: formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material [NUREG-0544]

FSP: fuel storage pool [NUREG-0544]

FSPA: fuel storage personnel area [NUREG-0544]

FSPB: fuel storage processing building [NUREG-0544]

FSPPR: fast supercritical pressure power reactor [NUREG-0544]

FSPVS: fuel storage pool ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

FSR: fast source reactor, First Soviet Reactor [NUREG-0544]

FS&R: filling, storage, and remelt [NUREG-0544]

FS&RS: filling, storage, and remelt system [NUREG-0544]

FSS: Federal Supply Service, fire suppression system, floor service station [NUREG-0544]

FSSAR: final standard safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

FSTF: full-scale test facility [NUREG-0544]

FSU: former Soviet Union [NUREG-0544]

FSV: Fort St. Vrain [NUREG-0544]

FSVNGS: Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

FT: fault tree, flow transmitter [NUREG-0544]

FTA: fault tree analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

FTC: Federal Telecommunications Center, fuel temperature coefficient, fuel transfer canal, fuel transfer cask [NUREG-0544]

FTE: FFTF (fast flux test facility) test engineering, fracture transition elastic, full-time equivalent [NUREG-0544]

FTI: Framatome Technologies, Inc. (formerly Babcock & Wilcox) [NUREG-0544]

FTL: full-term license, full-time license [NUREG-0544]

FTM: functional test matrix [NUREG-0544]

FTOL: full-term operating license [NUREG-0544]

FTP: FFTF (fast flux test facility) test procedure, file transfer protocol, fracture transition plastic, fuel transfer pool, fuel transfer port [NUREG-0544]

FTR: fast test reactor, Federal travel regulation [NUREG-0544]

FTRC: Federal Telecommunications Records Center [NUREG-0544]

FTRIA: flow and temperature removable instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

FTS: Federal Telecommunications Services, fuel transfer system [NUREG-0544]

FT&SA: fuel transfer and storage assembly [NUREG-0544]

FTTM: few-tube test model [NUREG-0544]

FTTS: flow-through tube sampler [NUREG-0544]

FTU: formazine turbidity unit [NUREG-0544]

FUETAP: formed under elevated temperature and pressure [NUREG-0544]

FUFO: fuel fusing option [NUREG-0544]

FUSE: Floridians United for Safe Energy, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

FUSRAP: formerly utilized sites remedial action program [NUREG-0544]

FV: floor valve, Fussell Vesely [NUREG-0544]

FVA: floor valve adapter [NUREG-0544]

FVC: filtered vented containment [NUREG-0544]

FVCS: filtered vented containment system [NUREG-0544]

FW: feedwater, field weld, Foster Wheeler Corp. [NUREG-0544]

FWB: Fahrenheit wet bulb [NUREG-0544]

FWC: feedwater control [NUREG-0544]

FWCI: feedwater coolant injection [NUREG-0544]

FWCS: feedwater control system [NUREG-0544]

FWEC: Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (subsidiary of Foster Wheeler Corp.) [NUREG-0544]

FWHM: full width half maximum [NUREG-0544]

FWIV: feedwater isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

FWLB: feedwater line break [NUREG-0544]

FWLC: feedwater level control system [NUREG-0544]

FWP: Federal Women's Program [NUREG-0544]

FWPAC: Federal Women's Program Advisory Committee [NUREG-0544]

FWPB: feedwater pipe break [NUREG-0544]

FWPCA: Federal Water Pollution Control Act [NUREG-0544]

FWRA: Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994 [NUREG-0544]

FWRV: feedwater regulating valve [NUREG-0544]

FWS: feedwater supply, feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

F&WS: Fish and Wildlife Service [NUREG-0544]

FWSDR: final working system design review [NUREG-0544]

FWSH: fresh water supply header [NUREG-0544]

FWST: fueling water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

FY: fiscal year [NUREG-0544]

FYP: five-year plan [NUREG-0544]

FZS: Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, G.m.b.H. (Austria) [NUREG-0544]

Facility: A building with its functional systems, equipment, process systems and associated piping, landfills, and impoundments. A facility is usually associated with a unique process or operation at a given location. [DOEEMGMT]

Fallout, nuclear: The slow descent of minute particles of radioactive debris in the atmosphere following a nuclear explosion. [EPALLRW] The process of the descent to the earth's surface of particles contaminated with radioactive material from a radioactive cloud. The term is also applied in a collective sense to the contaminated particulate matter itself. The early (or local) fallout is defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as those particles which reach the earth within 24 hours after a nuclear explosion. The delayed (or worldwide) fallout consists of the smaller particles which ascend into the upper troposphere and stratosphere, to be carried by winds to all parts of the earth. The delayed fallout is brought to earth, mainly by rain and snow, over extended periods ranging from months to years. [ATARC]

Fat Man: The second atomic bomb used in combat by the United States. [DOE/EM-0319] The implosion bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan at 11:02 am on August 9, 1945. The bomb was dropped 2 miles off target. 74,000 people were killed and another 75.000 sustained serious injuries. [ATARC]

Fast fission: Fission of a heavy atom (such as uranium-238) when it absorbs a high energy (fast) neutron. Most fissionable materials need thermal (slow) neutrons in order to fission. [NRC]

Fast neutron: A neutron with kinetic energy greater than its surroundings when released during fission. [NRC]

Fast reactor (aka fast-flux reactor): A reactor that is designed to use fast neutrons for sustaining the nuclear chain reaction. Fast reactors can be used to produce more fissile material than they consume. [IEER]

Fault: A fracture or a zone of fractures along which there has been displacement parallel to the fracture. [WIPPEA]

Feasibility Study: An analysis of the practicality of a proposal such as a description and analysis of the potential cleanup alternatives for a site. The Feasibility Study emphasizes data analysis and usually recommends selecting a cost-effective alternative. It is usually performed with and uses data from a Remedial Investigation; together, they are commonly referred to as a "RI/FS" or Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study. [DOE/EM-0466]

Federal Facility Agreement: A type of compliance agreement stemming from section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which required written agreement for compliance activities among the Department, the state, and the Environmental Protection Agency. [DOE/EM-0342]

Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA or FFCAct): Public Law 102-386. A 1992 amendment to RCRA, this law made Federally owned and operated facilities subject to state-imposed fines and penalties for violations of hazardous waste requirements and required DOE to develop plans for treatment of RCRA-regulated mixed waste. [DOE/EM-0319] The FFCA waives sovereign immunity for DOE and other Federal Agencies, allowing States and the EPA to impose penalties for non-compliance. [EPA-MW, DOEEMGMT]

Federal Facility Identification Number: A unique identifier of a federal facility for Federal Agency Pollution Abatement Plan (OMB Circular A-106) reporting purposes. [DOEEMGMT]

Federal Regulation (FED): A regulation promulgated by a federal agency to implement a law. [DOEEMGMT]

Feedwater: Water supplied to the reactor pressure vessel (in a BWR) or the steam generator (in a PWR) that removes heat from the reactor fuel rods by boiling and becoming steam. The steam becomes the driving force for the plant turbine generator. [NRC]

FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency

FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission[CY]

Fernald plant: The uranium foundry built in the early 1950s to supply uranium for nuclear weapons production. Located near Fernald, Ohio, 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Known as the Feed Materials Production Center during the Cold War and now officially referred to as the Fernald Environmental Management Project. [DOE/EM-0266]

Fertile nuclide: A nuclide capable of being transformed into a fissile nuclide by neutron capture. [DOE-IDB97]

Filter/demineralizer plant: A facility that combines filtration and ion-exchange processing using nonregenerable powered resins.[DOE-IDB97]

FGEIS - Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (NUREG-0586), a Nuclear Regulatory Commission document.[CY]

Final assembly: The task of assembling a nuclear weapon from its component parts and subassemblies. This is done at the Pantex Plant. [DOE/EM-0266]

final status survey - FSS, a radiological survey systematically conducted to demonstrate that an area is below DCGL. [CY]

Financial assurance: Financial arrangements made to cover planned or potential future costs associated with LLRW management [TNRCC]

Financial Officer: The individual responsible for assuring that the TTP budget information is consistent with the Program Execution Guidance (PEG), Approved Funding Program (AFP), and the Director of Program Support's guidance. [DOEEMGMT]

Fireball: The luminous sphere of hot gases which form a few millionths of a second after a nuclear explosion. It is the result of the absorption by the surrounding medium of the thermal X-rays emitted by the extremely hot (several tens of million degrees) weapon residues. The exterior of the fireball in air is initially sharply defined by the luminous shock front and later by the limits of the hot gases themselves. [ATARC]

Fire Protection (FP): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to prevent, detect, and suppress fires. [DOEEMGMT]

Firestorm: Stationary mass fire, generally in builtup urban areas, causing strong, inrushing winds from all sides; the winds keep the fires from spreading while adding fresh oxygen to increase their intensity. [ATARC]

Fiscal Year: A 12-month period for which an organization plans the use of its funds. In the Federal Government this period extends from October 1 through September 30 of the following calendar year. Fiscal year is commonly written "FY". [DOE/EM-0342]

Fissile: Capable of being split by a low-energy neutron. The most common fissile isotopes are uranium 235 and plutonium 239. [DOE/EM-0266]

Fissile material: A material consisting of atoms whose nuclei can be split when irradiated with low energy (ideally, zero energy) neutrons. Well-known examples are Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Plutonium-239, and Plutonium-241. [IEER and DOE/EM-0466]

"Nuclear materials that may be used in making a nuclear explosive for a weapon. It does not include fissile materials present in spent nuclear fuel or irradiating targets from reactors." [DOE/EM-0342]

Fissionable material: Commonly used as a synonym for fissile material, the meaning of this term has been extended to include material that can be fissioned by fast neutrons, such as uranium-238. [NRC]

Fission: The splitting or breaking apart of the nucleus of a heavy atom like uranium or plutonium, usually caused by the absorption of a neutron. Large amounts of energy and one or more neutrons are released when an atom fissions. [DOE/EM-0266] The splitting of the nucleus of an element into fragments. Heavy elements such as uranium or plutonium release energy when fissioned. [IEER]

Fission gases: Those fission products that exist in the gaseous state. In nuclear power reactors, this includes primarily the noble gases, such as krypton and xenon. [NRC]

Fission products: Any isotope created by the fission of a heavy element. The large variety of smaller atoms, including cesium and strontium, left over by the splitting of uranium and plutonium. Most of these atoms are radioactive, and they decay into other isotopes. There are more than 200 isotopes of 35 elements in this category. Most of the fission products in the United States are found in spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. [DOE/EM-0266]

Fission Probability: The probability that a nucleus will split (fission) when an additional neutron is added to the nucleus. [ATARC]

FFD Fitness For Duty[CY]

Flashblindness: Caused by the reflex glance toward the intense light given off by a nuclear explosion. Its effects can range from permanent blindness to retinal burns to temporary visual loss. [ATARC]

Flash Burn: A burn caused by excessive exposure (of bare skin) to thermal radiation. [ATARC]

Float: For activities and milestones (without constrained dates), it is the difference (usually measured in days) between when an activity could start and finish and when it must start and finish in order to avoid affecting the critical path and the project duration. [DOEEMGMT]

Flux: A term applied to the amount of some type of particle (neutrons, alpha radiation, etc.) or energy (photons, heat, etc.) crossing a unit area per unit time. The unit of flux is the number of particles, energy, etc., per square centimeter per second. [NRC]

FNORM: NORM from FUSRAP remediation activities prior to 1978 [TNRCC]

Focus Area: An area of research that is determined as needed to support Environmental Management (EM) endeavors. [DOEEMGMT]

Forecast Baseline: The part of a program or project that is defined mostly by assumptions but which is represented as a basis for planning a program or project. [DOEEMGMT]

Foreign end use: Uranium sales for foreign end use refers to those sales that require that the uranium sold must be used outside the United States. Initial sale could be to a foreign or domestic entity as long as the end user of the uranium is foreign. [DOE/EA-1172]

Foreign sale: A uranium sale to a firm located outside the United States. [DOE/EA-1172]

Formation: A mappable geologic body of rock identified by lithic characteristics and stratigraphic position. Formations may be combined into groups or subdivided into members. [WIPPEA]

Formerly utilized site: A site contaminated with radioactive wastes which was previously used for supporting nuclear activities of the DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District (Manhattan Project) and the Atomic Energy Commission. [DOE-IDB97]

Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP): A Federal program initiated in 1974 to identify and remediate sites around the country that were contaminated during the 1940s and 1950s as a result of researching, developing, processing, and producing uranium and thorium, and storing processing residues. Many of these facilities were part of the Manhattan Project, and were contaminated as a result of nuclear materials research and production. [DOE/EM-0466, DOE/EM-0319]

Formulation: A process that identifies the funding needed to implement the programs that achieve the goals and objectives in program strategic plans. Formulation has four distinct phases: the Field submission process, the Corporate Review Budget (CRB) process, the OMB Budget process, and the Congressional Budget process. [DOEEMGMT]

French Drain: A chemical disposal well. [DOELL]

FSAR Final Safety Analysis Report[CY]

Fuel assembly: A cluster of fuel rods (or plates). Also called a fuel element. Many fuel assemblies make up a reactor core. [NRC]

Fuel cycle: The series of steps involved in supplying fuel for nuclear power reactors. It can include mining, milling, isotopic enrichment, fabrication of fuel elements, use in a reactor, chemical reprocessing to recover the fissionable material remaining in the spent fuel, reenrichment of the fuel material, refabrication into new fuel elements, and waste disposal. [NRC] It may also involve chemical processing to recover the fissionable material remaining in the spent nuclear fuel, reenrichment of the fuel material, and/or refabrication of new fuel elements. [DOE-IDB97]

Fuel element: Nuclear reactor fuel including both the fissile and structural materials, such as cladding, typically in the shape of a long cylinder. [DOE/EM-0266]

Fabrication, fuel: Conversion of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into pellets of ceramic uranium dioxide (UO2). These pellets are then sealed into corrosion-resistant tubes of zirconium alloy or stainless steel. The loaded tubes, called fuel elements or rods, are then mounted into special assemblies for loading into the reactor core. [DOE-IDB97]

Fuel and target fabrication: Consists of the foundry and machine shop operations required to convert uranium feed material, principally metal, into nuclear fuel and target elements used in nuclear materials production reactors. [DOE/EM-0319]

Fuel-grade plutonium: Plutonium that contains more than 7% plutonium-240 isotope by mass. [DOE/EM-0319]

Fuel, nuclear: Natural or enriched uranium that sustains the fission chain reaction in a nuclear reactor. Also refers to the entire fuel element, including structural materials and cladding. Also known as reactor fuel. [DOE/EM-0319]

fuel pellet: As used in pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, a pellet is a small cylinder approximately 3/8-inch in diameter and 5/8-inch in length, consisting of uranium fuel in a ceramic form--uranium dioxide, UO2. Typical fuel pellet enrichments in nuclear power reactors range from 2.0 percent to 3.5 percent uranium-235. [NRC]

Fuel rod: A long, slender tube that holds fissionable material (fuel) for nuclear reactor use. Fuel rods are assembled into bundles called fuel elements or fuel assemblies, which are loaded individually into the reactor core. [NRC].

Fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity: The change in reactivity per degree change in the fuel temperature. The physical property of fuel pellet material (uranium-238) that causes the uranium to absorb more neutrons away from the fission process as fuel pellet temperature increases. This acts to stabilize power reactor operations. This coefficient is also known as the doppler coefficient. [NRC]

Full-time equivalent: A measurement equal to one staff person working a full-time work schedule for 1 year, or 2,080 non-overtime hours. For example, two employees who work half-time count as one Full-Time Equivalent. [NRC, DOELL]

Functional Appraisal: An on-site review of the use and effectiveness of a contractor's project control system to give the Department of Energy (DOE) confidence that the contractor is compliant in its operation of the project control system and is producing reports with valid data. System deficiencies are noted and recommendations are made for corrective action. [DOEEMGMT]

Fund Type: A breakout of funding by type of expense. Commonly referred to as the "color of money," different fund types are Operating Expense (OE), Capital Equipment (CE), and construction projects, which are further defined as General Plant Projects (GPP) and Line Item (LI) projects. [DOEEMGMT]

Funding Ceiling: An upper limit placed on the amount of obligations or expenditures that may be incurred for a specific program, function, activity, or element of expense. This type of restriction is generally subject to departmental administrative requirements, rather than statutory, rules and penalties. Funding ceilings can be imposed by Congress, OMB, or internal departmental management. [DOEEMGMT]

Funding Level: A scenario used during the formulation process to justify funding based upon the activities that can be accomplished for each scenario. The three funding levels, Decrement, Target, and Planning, project the possible level of accomplishment. [DOEEMGMT]

Funding Projections: The planning window funding requests for an ADS or a TTP by fund type. Funding projections are used to justify the funding request. [DOEEMGMT]

Funding Source: The program source used to fund a project or unit of work. [DOEEMGMT]

fusion: The combining of two nuclei to form a heavier one. Fusion of the isotopes of light elements such as hydrogen or lithium gives a large release of energy. [IEER] The nuclei of lighter elements, especially the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium) combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element with the release of substantial amounts of energy. [DOE/EM-0266] For a fusion reaction to take place, the nuclei, which are positively charged, must have enough kinetic energy to overcome their electrostatic force of repulsion. Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium will produce a helium nucleus and an energetic neutron. This is one basis of the Hydrogen Bomb, which employs a brief, uncontrolled thermonuclear fusion reaction. A great effort is now under way to harness thermonuclear fusion as a source of power. [ATARC]

Fusion Bomb: A nuclear bomb based on the fusing or burning of light elements. Fusion bombs use fission bombs for ignition. [ATARC]

Fusion reaction A reaction in which at least one heavier, more stable nucleus is produced from two lighter, less stable nuclei. Reactions of this type are responsible for enormous release of energy, as in the energy of stars, for example. [NRC]

FUSRAP: see Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

FS: Feasibility Study

Future Land Use: The ultimate uses to be permitted for currently contaminated lands, waters, and structures at each DOE installation. land use decisions will strongly influence the cost of environmental management. [DOE/EM-0466]

Future Use Site Working Group: A diverse group of state, Tribal, and local government and community representatives who worked together to formulate future-use recommendations for some sites. [DOELL]

FWPCA: Federal Water Pollution Control Act

|------------------------ G ------------------------|

GA: gas analysis/analyses, General Atomics (before 1988, GA Technologies, Inc.), grapple adapter [NUREG-0544]

GAAA: Groupement pour les Activités Atomiques et Avancées (France) [NUREG-0544]

GAE: general analytical evaluation [NUREG-0544]

GAEC: Greek Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

GAHF: grapple adapter handling fixture [NUREG-0544]

GALE: gaseous and liquid effluent [NUREG-0544]

GALL: generic aging lessons learned [NUREG-0544]

GAMAS: General Atomics material assay system [NUREG-0544]

GAN: Gosatomnadzor (Russia) [NUREG-0544]

GAO: General Accounting Office [NUREG-0544]

GAP: Georgia Power Co., Government Accountability Project [NUREG-0544]

GAPCO: Georgia Power Company [NUREG-0544]

GASSAR: General Atomics Standard Safety Analysis Report, Gilbert Associates Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [NUREG-0544]

GBHC: Great Bay Holdings Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GBPC: Great Bay Power Company [NUREG-0544]

gBq: gigabecquerel [NUREG-0544]

GBR: gas-cooled breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

GBRA: Gas-Cooled Breeder Reactor Association (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

GBSR: graphite-moderated boiling and superheating reactor [NUREG-0544]

GC: gas chromatograph [NUREG-0544]

GCB: gravity cutback [NUREG-0544]

GCBR: gas-cooled breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

GCCA: generic compliance and communications activity [NUREG-0544]

GCEP: gas centrifuge enrichment plant [NUREG-0544]

GCFBR: gas-cooled fast breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

GCH: gas collection header [NUREG-0544]

GCHWR: gas-cooled, heavy-water-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

GCI: Generic Communications Index [NUREG-0544]

GCL: gas-cooled loop [NUREG-0544]

GCR: gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

GCRA: Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates [NUREG-0544]

GCRE: gas-cooled reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

GCS: glued cylindrical specimen [NUREG-0544]

GCSS: graphite core support structure [NUREG-0544]

GDC: general design criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

GDP: gaseous diffusion plant [NUREG-0544]

GDS: general declassification schedule, graphical display system [NUREG-0544]

GDT: gas decay tank [NUREG-0544]

GE: General Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

GEAP: General Electric Atomic Products [NUREG-0544]

GEC: General Electric Co. (United Kingdom), General Electrodynamics Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GEIS: generic environmental impact statement, generic environmental impact study [NUREG-0544]

GEM: graphical evaluation module [NUREG-0544]

GENE: General Electric Nuclear Energy [NUREG-0544]

GEN&SIS: Geographical, Environmental, and Siting Information System [NUREG-0544]

GENTR: General Electric Nuclear Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

GERA: General Engineering Research and Applications (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

GERP: general employee retraining program [NUREG-0544]

GERS: general equipment ruggedness spectrum/spectra [NUREG-0544]

GES: generic environmental statement [NUREG-0544]

GESMO: Generic Environmental Statement on Use of Mixed Oxide Fuel [NUREG-0544]

GESSAR: General Electric Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

GESTAR: General Electric Standard Application for Reactor Fuel [NUREG-0544]

GET: general employee training [NUREG-0544]

GETAB: General Electric Thermal Analysis Basis [NUREG-0544]

GETP: general employee training program [NUREG-0544]

GETR: General Electric Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

GETSCO: General Electric Technical Services Co. [NUREG-0544]

GFE: Government-furnished equipment [NUREG-0544]

GFE&M: Government-furnished equipment and material [NUREG-0544]

GFES: generic fundamentals examination section [NUREG-0544]

GFFD: gross failed fuel detector [NUREG-0544]

GFK: Gesellschaft für Kernforschung, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GFP: Government-furnished property [NUREG-0544]

GFY: Government fiscal year [NUREG-0544]

GG: generator gas [NUREG-0544]

GGA: Gulf General Atomic [NUREG-0544]

GGNS: Grand Gulf Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

GH: gate house [NUREG-0544]

G&H: Gibbs & Hill, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

GI: gastrointestinal, generic issue [NUREG-0544]

GIBBSSAR: Gibbs and Hill, Inc., Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

GIC: geomagnetically induced current [NUREG-0544]

GIDEP: Government-Industry Data Exchange Program [NUREG-0544]

GIF: gamma irradiation facility [NUREG-0544]

GIFT: gas-insulated flow tube [NUREG-0544]

GIIN: Groupe Intersyndical de l'Industrie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

GILS: Government Information Locator Service [NUREG-0544]

GIMCS: Generic Issue Management Control System [NUREG-0544]

GIP: generic implementation procedure [NUREG-0544]

GIS: geographic information system, geologic information system [NUREG-0544]

GKM: Grosskraftwerk Mannheim, A.G. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GKN: Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland N.V. (Netherlands), Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GKT: Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Tullnerfeld, G.m.b.H. (Austria) [NUREG-0544]

GKW: Gemeinschaftkraftwerk Weser, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GL: generic letter, Government liaison [NUREG-0544]

GLASS: germanium-lithium-argon scanning system [NUREG-0544]

GLDB: General License Database [NUREG-0544]

GLEEP: Graphite Low-Energy Experimental Pile (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

GLRP: Generic License Renewal Program [NUREG-0544]

GLRWS: gaseous and liquid radioactive waste system [NUREG-0544]

GM: Geiger-Müller (Mueller) [NUREG-0544]

GMAW: gas metal arc weld/welding [NUREG-0544]

GMPC: Green Mountain Power Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GMRA: Government Management Reform Act of 1994 [NUREG-0544]

GMT: Greenwich mean time [NUREG-0544]

GN: general notice [NUREG-0544]

GNGS: Genoa Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

GNPP: R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

GNS: Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GO-CO: Government owned/contractor operated [NUREG-0544]

GOI: general operating instruction [NUREG-0544]

GORX: graphite oxidation from reactor excursion [NUREG-0544]

GOS: group operating service [NUREG-0544]

GP: general purpose, generic project [NUREG-0544]

GPA: Governmental and Public Affairs, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

GPC: Georgia Power Company [NUREG-0544]

GPCL: general purpose closed loop [NUREG-0544]

GPE: general purpose evaporator [NUREG-0544]

GPL: general purpose loop [NUREG-0544]

GPO: Government Printing Office [NUREG-0544]

GPO : FDLPGPO Federal Depository Library Program [NUREG-0544]

GPP: general plant project [NUREG-0544]

GPR: Groupe Permanent Chargé des Réacteurs Nucleaires [NUREG-0544]

GPRA: Government Performance and Results Act of 1994 [NUREG-0544]

GPS: global positioning system [NUREG-0544]

GPT: general plant telephone [NUREG-0544]

GPU: General Public Utilities Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GPUN: GPU (General Public Utilities) Nuclear Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GPUSC: GPU (General Public Utilities) Service Corp. [NUREG-0544]

GQA: graded quality assurance [NUREG-0544]

GRC: generation review committee [NUREG-0544]

GRI: Gas Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

GRR: Greek Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

GRS: gaseous radwaste system, geoscience and remote sensing, Gesellschaft für Alagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

GRSA: General Radioquimica, S.A. (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

GRT: general reactor technology [NUREG-0544]

GRWS: gaseous radioactive waste system [NUREG-0544]

GS: gland seal [NUREG-0544]

GSA: General Services Administration [NUREG-0544]

GSB: general services building [NUREG-0544]

GSC: gland seal condenser, gland steam condenser, Global Strategy Council [NUREG-0544]

GSD: generating significant dose [NUREG-0544]

GSER: generic safety evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

GSH: gas surge header [NUREG-0544]

GSI: generic safety issue [NUREG-0544]

GSLO: gland seal leakoff [NUREG-0544]

GSPS: generating station protection system [NUREG-0544]

GSR: gland steam regulator [NUREG-0544]

GST: gas surge tank [NUREG-0544]

GSU: generator stepup, Gulf States Utilities Co. [NUREG-0544]

GTA: gas tungsten arc, guide tube assembly [NUREG-0544]

GTAW: gas tungsten arc weld [NUREG-0544]

GTCC: greater than Class C [NUREG-0544]

GTG: gas turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

GT-HTGR: gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

GTIG: Gamma Thermometer Interest Group [NUREG-0544]

GTL: gaseous tritium light [NUREG-0544]

GTLS: gaseous tritium light source [NUREG-0544]

GTR: ground test reactor [NUREG-0544]

GTRR: Georgia Technology Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

GTTF: gas-turbine test facility [NUREG-0544]

GUI: graphical user interface [NUREG-0544]

GUNFCO: Gulf United Nuclear Fuels Corporation [NUREG-0544]

GV: guard vessel [NUREG-0544]

GVR: gas volume ratio [NUREG-0544]

GVW: gross vehicle weight [NUREG-0544]

GWAC: Government-wide agency contract [NUREG-0544]

GWD: gaseous waste disposal [NUREG-0544]

GWMS: gaseous waste management system, gas-water module storage [NUREG-0544]

GWPS: gaseous waste processing system [NUREG-0544]

GWS: gaseous waste system [NUREG-0544]

GWTT: ground-water travel time [NUREG-0544]

Gy: gray [NUREG-0544]

GAO: U.S. General Accounting Office [TNRCC]

Gadget, The: The Gadget was built to test the implosion design. It was placed atop a 100 foot tower and detonated at 5:29:45 am on July 15, 1945. It had a yield of 19 kilotons. [ATARC]

Gamma rays/ radiation: High-energy, short wavelength, electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus in the radioactive decay of many radionuclides. [DOE/EM-0266] Waves of gamma rays can ionize atoms and split chemical bonds. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies alpha and beta emissions and always accompanies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense materials, such as lead or depleted uranium. [NRC] Gamma rays are similar to X-rays, the latter term being applied usually to electromagnetic waves generated by electron accelerators, as for instance in medical equipment. [IEER]

Gap: The space inside a reactor fuel rod that exists between the fuel pellet and the fuel rod cladding. [NRC]

Gas centrifuge: A uranium enrichment process using a large number of rotating cylinders in a series. The lighter uranium-235 isotope concentrates at the center of a spinning centrifuge of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. This method produced the first gram quantities of enriched uranium in 1944. [DOE/EM-0319]

Gaseous diffusion: A uranium enrichment process based on the difference in rates at which uranium isotopes in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride diffuse through a porous barrier. This process is used to enrich uranium in the United States. The full scale K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was completed and operational at Oak Ridge, Tennessee in August 1945. Two additional, currently operating, gaseous diffusion plants previously used by AEC and DOE for weapons production are located at Paducah, Kentucky and Piketon, Ohio. [DOE/EM-0319]

Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs): Gaseous diffusion is the process used in the United States to enrich uranium so that it can be used as fuel in nuclear power plants. Two DOE-owned uranium gaseous diffusion plants are leased to and operated by the U.S. Enrichment Corporation. [DOE/EA-1172] A facility where uranium hexafluoride gas is filtered, uranium-235 is separated from uranium-238, increasing the percentage of uranium-235 from 1 to about 3 percent. The process requires enormous amounts of electric power. [NRC] Although nuclear power has been touted as a "clean" energy alternative to combat global warming, the truth is that uranium enrichment is one of the most CO2-intensive industrial operations on earth. The uranium enrichment plant in Kentucky is the nation's single largest emitter of banned chorloflourocarbons.

GC/MS: Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer

Geiger-Mueller counter A radiation detection and measuring instrument. This instrument consists of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which there is an electrical voltage but no current flowing. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted. The number of pulses per second measures the intensity of the radiation field. It is sometimes referred to as simply a Geiger counter. [EPALLRW, NRC] It was named for Hans Geiger and W. Mueller, who invented it in the 1920s. It is sometimes called simply a Geiger counter or a G-M counter, and is the most commonly used portable radiation instrument.

General Plant Projects (GPP): Miscellaneous small construction projects that each have a total estimated cost of less than $2 million and cannot be specifically identified in advance of the fiscal year, although "representative" lists of projects are offered during budget formulation. [DOEEMGMT]

Generation (gross): The total amount of electric energy produced by a generating station as measured at the generator terminals. [NRC]

Generation (net): The gross amount of electric energy produced less the electric energy consumed at a generating station for station use. [NRC]

Generation (waste): The origination of new wastes from various facility operations (including production, rework, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental restoration), including the recovery of pre-1970 transuranic-produced wastes, should their recovery be determined necessary. [DOE-IDB97]

Generator: A cow -a system containing a parent-daughter set of radioisotopes in which the parent decays through a daughter to a stable isotope. The daughter is a different element from that of the parent, and, hence, can be separated from the parent by elution (milking). [LBNL]

generator sites: DOE facilities across the United States that currently store, or will soon generate, transuranic waste destined for disposal at the WIPP. [NSCEHC]

genetic damage: A type of cellular damage that can result from ionizing radiation. Genetic damage refers to the alteration or mutation of reproductive cells, resulting in potential damage to future generations. [NSCEHC]

Geologic repository: A place to dispose of radioactive waste deep beneath the earth's surface. [DOE/EM-0319] A mined facility for disposal of radioactive waste that uses waste packages and the natural geology as barriers to provide waste isolation. [DOE/EM-0466] A facility that has an excavated subsurface system for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. [DOE-IDB97]

Gigawatt, GigawattHours One billion (109) watts/ gigawatts. [NRC]

Global Commons: Those resources shared by the nations of the world that are not under the jurisdiction of any nation. [DOE/EA-1172]

Glass frit: A fusible ceramic mixture used to make glass for use in the immobilization and disposal of high-level wastes. [DOE-IDB97]

Glovebox: A sealed box used to handle some radioactive materials with gloves attached to the wall. Often filled with an inert gas and fitted with a filtered ventilation system. [DOE/EM-0266]

Graded Approach : The depth of detail required and the magnitude of resources expended for a particular management element to be tailored to be commensurate with the element's relative importance to safety, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic importance, magnitude of the hazard, financial impact, and/or other facility-specific requirements. [DOEEMGMT]

Graphite reactor: A nuclear reactor using graphite blocks surrounding the nuclear fuel to slow the neutrons to low energy so that a self-sustaining chain reaction is achieved. The first nuclear reactors built near Chicago, Illinois; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Hanford, Washington were graphite reactors. [DOE/EM-0319]

Greater-Than-Class C: Low-level waste disposal criteria specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on concentration of radio nuclides (Classes A, B, and C) that exceed the low-level waste limits for Class C and that are used to designate the waste as generally unacceptable for near-surface disposal. [DOE/EM-0342] Waste from commercial sources containing concentrations of radionuclides that exceed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits for Class C low-level radioactive waste, as defined in 10 CFR Part 61.55. [DOE-IDB97]

Graphite: A form of carbon, similar to the lead used in pencils, used as a moderator in some nuclear reactors. [NRC]

gray (Gy): A unit of absorbed radiation dose expressed in terms of absorbed energy per unit mass of tissue, equal to 100 rads. 1 gray = 1 Joule/kilogram and also equals 100 rad. [NRC, IEER]

Green Fields: The most unrestricted alternative land-use case, characterized by actively removing or destroying contaminants in all media. These cases are "ideals" impractical to implement as alternatives. [DOELL]

GLCM: Ground Launched Cruise Missile. [ATARC]

groundwater - Water beneath the earth's surface that fills pores between materials such as sand, soil or gravel. Groundwater is a major source of water for agricultural and industrial purposes and is an important source of drinking water for about half of all Americans. [CY]

Ground Zero: The point on the surface of land vertically below or above the center of a burst of a nuclear weapon; frequently abbreviated to GZ. [ATARC]

GTCC: Greater-Than-Class C LLRW; not generally suitable for near-surface land disposal. [TNRCC]

Gun-Type Weapon: A device in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass which can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. [ATARC]

|------------------------ H ------------------------|

H/A: hand/automatic [NUREG-0544]

HAA: head access area [NUREG-0544]

HAAUP: hanger and analysis update program [NUREG-0544]

HAC: high alumina cement [NUREG-0544]

HACL: Harvard Air Cleaning Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HAD: heat-activated device, heat-actuated device [NUREG-0544]

HAFM: helium accumulation fluence monitor [NUREG-0544]

HAN: hydroxylamine nitrate [NUREG-0544]

HAP: hafnium column product [NUREG-0544]

HAPS: Houston automatic priority spooling [NUREG-0544]

HAS: holding action system [NUREG-0544]

HASL: Health and Safety Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HAW: high acid waste [NUREG-0544]

HAX: hafnium column extractant [NUREG-0544]

HAZ: heat-affected zone [NUREG-0544]

HAZCAP: Hazard Communication Compliance Assistance Program (U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) [NUREG-0544]

HAZEL: Homogeneous Assembly Zero Energy Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HB: handbook, horizontal baffle [NUREG-0544]

HBA: horizontal baffle assembly [NUREG-0544]

HBP: hydrogen behavior program [NUREG-0544]

HBPP: Humboldt Bay Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

HBR2: H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2 [NUREG-0544]

HBS: hydrogen burn survivability [NUREG-0544]

HBWR: Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (Norway) [NUREG-0544]

HCDA: hydrodynamic core-disruptive accident, hypothetical core-disruptive accident [NUREG-0544]

HCDB: heat code database [NUREG-0544]

HCE: human-caused error [NUREG-0544]

HCGS: Hope Creek Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

HCLF: horizontal cask lifting fixture [NUREG-0544]

HCLPF: high confidence in low probability of failure [NUREG-0544]

HCM: hydraulic core mockup [NUREG-0544]

HCOG: Hydrogen Control Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

HCS: hydrazine control system, hydrogen control system [NUREG-0544]

HCSS: head compartment support structure [NUREG-0544]

HCTL: heat capacity temperature level [NUREG-0544]

HCU: hydraulic control unit [NUREG-0544]

HCV: hand control valve, hydraulic control valve [NUREG-0544]

HCW: hafnium column waste [NUREG-0544]

HDGR: high-density gas reactor [NUREG-0544]

HDO: Headquarters duty officer [NUREG-0544]

HDR: Heissdampfreaktor (Germany), high dose rate, hot dry rock [NUREG-0544]

HDT: heated detonation tube [NUREG-0544]

HDW: high-pressure demineralized water [NUREG-0544]

HE: human error [NUREG-0544]

HEARTHFIRE: high-energy accelerator reactor for thermonuclear fusion with ion beam of relativistic energy [NUREG-0544]

HECTOR: Hot, Enriched, Carbon-Moderated, Thermal-Oscillator Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

HED: historical earthquake data, human engineering deficiency, human engineering discrepancy [NUREG-0544]

HEDL: Hanford Engineering and Development Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HEHF: Hanford Environmental Health Foundation [NUREG-0544]

HEI: Heat Exchanger Institute [NUREG-0544]

HEJ: hybrid expansion joint [NUREG-0544]

HELB: high-energy line break [NUREG-0544]

HELBA: high-energy line break analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

HELCO: Hartford Electric Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

HELP: Health and Energy Learning Project [NUREG-0544]

HEM: homogeneous equilibrium model [NUREG-0544]

HEP: human-error probability [NUREG-0544]

HEPA: high-efficiency particulate air [NUREG-0544]

HEPB: high-energy pipe break [NUREG-0544]

HER: human-error rate [NUREG-0544]

HERALD: Heterogenous Experimental Reactor, Aldermaston (United Kingdom), High Enriched Reactor, Aldermaston (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

HERMES: Heavy Element and Radioactive Material Electromagnetic Separator (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

HERO: Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

HES: Hanford Engineering Service [NUREG-0544]

HET: horizontal electrical tunnel [NUREG-0544]

HETS: height equivalent to a theoretical stage [NUREG-0544]

HEU: highly enriched uranium [NUREG-0544]

HEW: Hamburgische Electrizitäts-Werke, A.G. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

HEX: uranium hexafluoride [NUREG-0544]

HFAR: hardware failure analysis report [NUREG-0544]

HFBR: high-flux beam reactor [NUREG-0544]

HFCE2: high-flux critical experiment2 [NUREG-0544]

HFE: human factors engineering [NUREG-0544]

HFED: high-frequency envelope detection [NUREG-0544]

HFEF: hot fuel examination facility [NUREG-0544]

HFIR: high-flux isotope reactor [NUREG-0544]

HFP: hot full power [NUREG-0544]

HFPP: human factors program plan [NUREG-0544]

HFR: high-flux reactor [NUREG-0544]

HFRG: human factors review group [NUREG-0544]

HFT: hot functional testing [NUREG-0544]

HG: hydrogen gas [NUREG-0544]

HGE: hydraulic grade elevation [NUREG-0544]

HGMS: high gradient magnetic separator [NUREG-0544]

HG/NG: hydrogen gas/nitrogen gas [NUREG-0544]

HHLR: Horace Hardy Lestor Reactor [NUREG-0544]

HHS: Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of [NUREG-0544]

HHSI: high-head safety injection [NUREG-0544]

HHW: high-heat waste [NUREG-0544]

HI: Hydraulic Institute [NUREG-0544]

H&I: harassment and intimidation [NUREG-0544]

HIC: hand indicator controller, high-integrity container [NUREG-0544]

HI-C: high conversion--critical [NUREG-0544]

HI&D: harassment, intimidation, and discrimination [NUREG-0544]

HID: high-impact design, high-intensity discharge [NUREG-0544]

HIFAR: High-Flux Australian Reactor [NUREG-0544]

HIFRENSA: Hispano-Francesa de Energía Nuclear, S.A. (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

HIL: helium impurities loop [NUREG-0544]

HILAC: heavy ion linear accelerator [NUREG-0544]

HILC: high intermediate level cell [NUREG-0544]

HIP: Hanford Isotopes Plant [NUREG-0544]

HIPA: high-speed interactive plant analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

HIPOW: hot isostatic pressing of waste [NUREG-0544]

HIPS: hoist integrated protective system [NUREG-0544]

HIR: hanger inspection report [NUREG-0544]

HIRDL: High-Intensity Radiation Development Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HIS: hydrogen igniter system, hydrogen ignition system [NUREG-0544]

HITC: Hydraulic Institute test code [NUREG-0544]

HJTC: heated junction thermocouple [NUREG-0544]

HKG: Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

HLB: hot laboratory building [NUREG-0544]

HLC: high-level cell [NUREG-0544]

HLCS: high-level compaction station [NUREG-0544]

HLCV: hot-leg check valve [NUREG-0544]

HLIV: hot-leg isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

HLLWT: high-level liquid waste tank [NUREG-0544]

HLNCC: high-level neutron coincidence counter [NUREG-0544]

HLO: high-level override [NUREG-0544]

HL&P: Houston Lighting & Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

HLRW: high-level radioactive waste [NUREG-0544]

HLSW: high-level solidified waste [NUREG-0544]

HLW: high-level liquid waste, high-level radioactive waste, high-level waste [NUREG-0544]

HLWC: high-level waste calcination, high-level waste concentrate [NUREG-0544]

HLWD: high-level waste distillate [NUREG-0544]

HLWF: high-level waste feed [NUREG-0544]

HLWOG: high-level liquid waste off-gas [NUREG-0544]

HLWR: high-level waste repository [NUREG-0544]

HLWS: high-level waste surge [NUREG-0544]

HM: heavy metal [NUREG-0544]

HMS: Hanford Meteorology Survey, hydrogen mixing system [NUREG-0544]

H&N: Holmes and Narver, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

HNL: Holifield National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HNNP: Haddam Neck Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

HNP: Haddam Neck Nuclear Plant, Hartsville Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

HNPF: Hallam Nuclear Power Facility [NUREG-0544]

HO: hydraulic operator [NUREG-0544]

HOG: head off-gas [NUREG-0544]

HOO: headquarters operations officer [NUREG-0544]

HOP: HEDL (Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory) overpower [NUREG-0544]

HOTCE: hot critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

HOV: hydraulic-operated valve [NUREG-0544]

HP: Edwin I. Hatch Plant, hanger package, health physicist, health physics, high pressure, high purity [NUREG-0544]

HPC: health physics center, hot pipe chase [NUREG-0544]

HPCF: high-pressure core flooder [NUREG-0544]

HPCI: high-pressure coolant injection [NUREG-0544]

HPCIS: high-pressure coolant injection system [NUREG-0544]

HPCS: high-pressure core spray [NUREG-0544]

HPD: high-power density [NUREG-0544]

HPED: Human Performance Event Database [NUREG-0544]

HPES: human performance evaluation system [NUREG-0544]

HPFL: high-performance fuels laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HPFP: high-pressure fire protection [NUREG-0544]

HPI: high-pressure injection [NUREG-0544]

HPIP: Human Performance Investigation Process [NUREG-0544]

HPIS: high-pressure injection system [NUREG-0544]

HPME: high-pressure melt ejection [NUREG-0544]

HPN: health physics network [NUREG-0544]

HPOF: high-pressure oil fill, high pressure, oil filled [NUREG-0544]

HPP: health physics program, hot processing plant [NUREG-0544]

HPPP: Human Performance Program Plan [NUREG-0544]

HPR: high-pressure recirculation [NUREG-0544]

HPRR: health physics research reactor [NUREG-0544]

HPRS: high-pressure recirculation system [NUREG-0544]

HPS: Hanford Plant standard, Health Physics Society, health physics station, helium purification system, hydrogen purge system [NUREG-0544]

HPSI: high-pressure safety injection [NUREG-0544]

HPSIP: high-pressure safety injection pump [NUREG-0544]

HPSP: high-power set point [NUREG-0544]

HPSW: high-pressure service water [NUREG-0544]

HPSWS: high-pressure service water system [NUREG-0544]

HPT: high-pressure turbine, hot pipe tunnel [NUREG-0544]

HPU: hydraulic power unit [NUREG-0544]

HQ: Hydro-Quebec (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

HR: hard rock, Human Resources, Office of (NRC), hydrogen recombiner [NUREG-0544]

HRA: Human Reliability Analysis [NUREG-0544]

HRB: Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

HRE: homogeneous reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

HRIS: human resources information system [NUREG-0544]

HRM: human resources management [NUREG-0544]

HRP: Halden Reactor Project [NUREG-0544]

HRPS: hydrogen recombination and purge system [NUREG-0544]

HRRM: high-range radiation monitor [NUREG-0544]

HRS: heat rejection system [NUREG-0544]

HRT: homogeneous reactor test [NUREG-0544]

HS: hand switch, hot shop [NUREG-0544]

HSI: human system interface [NUREG-0544]

HSO: hydrogen seal oil [NUREG-0544]

HSP: hot-shutdown panel [NUREG-0544]

HSST: heavy section steel technology [NUREG-0544]

HSW: heat sink welding [NUREG-0544]

HSWA: Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments [NUREG-0544]

HSWH: high solid waste header [NUREG-0544]

HTB: hafnium test blade [NUREG-0544]

HTFFT: heat transfer fluid flow thermodynamics [NUREG-0544]

HTGCR: high-temperature gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

HTGR: high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, high-temperature gas reactor [NUREG-0544]

HTGR-CX: high-temperature gas reactor critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

HTIS: heat transfer instrument system [NUREG-0544]

HTL: heat transfer loop [NUREG-0544]

HTLTR: high-temperature lattice test reactor [NUREG-0544]

HTM: high trajectory missile [NUREG-0544]

HTPC: Hayward Tyler Pump Company [NUREG-0544]

HTR: Hanford Test Reactor, high-temperature reactor, Hitachi Training Reactor (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

HTRDA: High-Temperature Reactor Development Associates [NUREG-0544]

HTRE: heat transfer reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

HTRI: Heat Transfer Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

HTS: heat transfer system, heat transport system [NUREG-0544]

HTSF: high-temperature sodium facility [NUREG-0544]

HTTP: hypertext transfer protocol [NUREG-0544]

HTV: half thickness value [NUREG-0544]

H/U: heatup [NUREG-0544]

HU: hydraulic unit [NUREG-0544]

HUGHES-NEL: Hughes Aircraft Company Nuclear Electronics Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

HULP: Hudson Light and Power Dept. [NUREG-0544]

HUT: HEDL (Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory) up transient, holdup tank [NUREG-0544]

HV: hand valve [NUREG-0544]

H&V: heating and ventilation [NUREG-0544]

HVAC: heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [NUREG-0544]

HVD: heaters, vents, and drains [NUREG-0544]

Hvdc: high-voltage direct current [NUREG-0544]

HVH: hydrogen vent header [NUREG-0544]

HVSU: heating and ventilating supply unit [NUREG-0544]

HW: heavy water, hot water, hotwell [NUREG-0544]

HWC: hydrogen water chemistry [NUREG-0544]

HWCTR: heavy-water components test reactor [NUREG-0544]

HWGCR: heavy-water-moderated, gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

HWH: hot water heating [NUREG-0544]

HWLC: hotwell level control [NUREG-0544]

HWLWCR: heavy-water-moderated, boiling light-water-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

HWP: heavy-water plant [NUREG-0544]

HWR: heavy-water reactor, hot water return [NUREG-0544]

HWS: Hanford work specification, Hanford work standard [NUREG-0544]

HWSF: hazardous waste storage facility [NUREG-0544]

HWWVS: hardened wetwall vent system [NUREG-0544]

HX: heat exchange, heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

HYPO: high-power water-boiler reactor [NUREG-0544]

HZP: hot zero power [NUREG-0544]

ha: hectare [DOELLWRpt]

Habitat: The part of the physical environment in which a plant or animal lives. [WIPPEA]

Halite: A mineral composed of sodium chloride, NaCl. [WIPPEA]

Half-Life : The half-life of a radioactive material is the time it takes for half of the material to radiate energetic particles and rays and transform to new materials. For example, the half-life of cesium (Cs-137) is 30 years after which time half of it decays to a non-radioactive stable nuclide, barium (Ba-137). If you start with 100 Kg of Cs-137 then after 30 years you will have 50 Kg of Cs-137 remaining. After 30 more years you will have 25 Kg of Cs-137 remaining and so on. (After one half-life, half the radioactive atoms in a sample remain radioactive; after two, one quarter; after three, one-eighth; etc) [EPA-MW, NSCEHC]
The time it takes for one-half of any given number of unstable atoms to decay and disintegrate into another nuclear form. Each isotope has its own characteristic half life. They range from millionths of a second to billions of years. A general "rule of thumb" in health physics is that the hazardous period for a given isotope is 10 half-lives. [DOE/EM-0266, DOE/EM-0466] Also called physical or radiological halflife. [NRC]

Halflife, biological The time required for the body to eliminate one half of the material taken in by natural biological means. [NRC]

Halflife, effective: The time required for a radionuclide contained in a biological system, such as a human or an animal, to reduce its activity by one-half as a combined result of radioactive decay and biological elimination. [NRC]

HALFPACK: A prototype of a new transuranic waste transport container that has been developed; an application for certification of the container is pending before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). [NSCEHC]

Half-thickness: The thickness of any given absorber that will reduce the intensity of its original beam of ionizing radiation to one-half of its initial value. [NRC]

Half-value, layer: The thickness of any given absorber that will reduce the intensity of a beam of radiation to one half of its initial value.

Hanford Site: A 570-square-mile Federal government-owned reservation in the desert of southeast Washington State. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, the Hanford Site's chief mission has been the production of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Hanford is home to nine production reactors, four chemical separation plants, and an active commercial LLRW disposal facility. [DOE/EM-0266]

Hardened Target: A target protected against the blast, heat, and radiation effects of nuclear weapons of specific yields. Hardening is usually measured by the number of psi of blast overpressure which a target can withstand. [ATARC]

Hazard: A source of danger (i.e., material, energy source, or operation) with the potential to cause illness, injury, or death to personnel or damage to an operation or to the environment (without regard for the likelihood or credibility of accident scenarios or consequence mitigation). [DOE/EM-0466]

Hazardous Life: Not rigorously defined; period of time during which LLRW remains sufficiently radioactive that it is a hazard to human health or the environment. [TNRCC]

Hazardous Substances: Substances not regulated as hazardous waste under RCRA, but considered hazardous under CERCLA, TSCA, etc. [DOE/EM-0466]

Hazardous Waste (HAZ): Defined under RCRA and its implementing regulations in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 260 to 279, and corresponding state regulations. To be considered hazardous, a waste must be a solid waste under RCRA and must exhibit at least one of four characteristics described in 40 CFR 261.20 through 40 CFR 261.24 (i.e., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity) or be specifically listed by the Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR 261.31 through 40 CFR 261.33. Source, special nuclear, or by-product materials as defined by the Atomic Energy Act are not hazardous waste because they are not solid waste under RCRA. [DOE/EM-0466, DOE/EM-0319]
A subset of solid wastes that pose substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and meet any of the following criteria identified 40 CFR 260 and 261:
-is specifically listed as a hazardous waste by EPA
-exhibits one or more of the characteristics of hazardous waste (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and/or toxicity);
-is generated by the treatment of hazardous waste; or is contained in a hazardous waste. [EPA-MW]

Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HWSA) : This 1984 Act amended RCRA and required phasing out land disposal of untreated hazardous waste by more stringent hazardous waste management standards (broken down into thirds with a time table for each third). Some of the other mandates of this law include increased enforcement authority for EPA and a program requiring corrective action. [EPA-MW]

Headquarters Manager: The DOE Headquarters Program Manager who is responsible for the work covered by an ADS or a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Head, reactor vessel: The removable top section of a reactor pressure vessel. It is bolted in place during power operation and removed during refueling to permit access of fuel handling equipment to the core. [NRC]

Health physics: The science of radiation protection, established during the Manhattan Project. [DOE/EM-0266]. The study and administration of radiological protection. [AT]

Health Physicist: A person who works in the area of environmental health engineering that deals with the protection of the individual and population groups against the harmful effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The health physicist is responsible for the safety aspects in the design of processes, equipment, and facilities utilizing radiation sources, so that radiation exposure to personnel will be minimized, and will at all times be within acceptable limits. [TDHBRC]

Heat exchanger: Any device that transfers heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid or to the environment. [NRC]

Heat sink Anything that absorbs heat. It is usually part of the environment, such as the air, a river, or a lake. [NRC]

Heavy Metal (RCRA Metals) : A common hazardous waste. Metallic elements with high atomic weights (e.g., mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead) that can damage living organisms at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain. Uranium, thorium, and plutonium are also heavy metals. [DOE/EM-0319]

Heavy water: Water that contains deuterium atoms in place of hydrogen atoms. Heavy water is used in the Savannah River Site production reactors. [DOE/EM-0266]
Deuterium oxide, D2O. Water in which the hydrogen is replaced by "heavy hydrogen" or deuterium. Because of the very low neutron absorption cross-section of deuterium, heavy water makes an excellent moderator and is used in e.g. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) and SGHWR (Steam Generator Heavy Water Reactor) nuclear reactors. It is present in ordinary water at part in about 5000. [AT]

Water containing significantly more than the natural proportions (one in 6,500) of heavy hydrogen (deuterium, D) atoms to ordinary hydrogen atoms. Heavy water is used as a moderator in some reactors because it slows down neutrons effectively and also has a low probability of absorption of neutrons. [NRC]

Heavy water moderated reactor: A reactor that uses heavy water as its moderator. Heavy water is an excellent moderator and thus permits the use of unenriched uranium as a fuel.[NRC]

Heel: That portion of substance left in a liquid storage tank after all easily removable substances have been removed. [DOE/EM-0342]

Height of Burst: The height above the earth's surface at which a bomb is detonated in the air. The optimum height of burst for a particular target is that at which it is estimated a weapon of a specified energy yield will produce a certain desired effect over the maximum possible area. [ATARC]

HEPA - High-efficiency particulate air [CY]

HEU: Highly enriched uranium. [IEER]

HIDS: Hazardous Incident Data Systems

High Altitude Burst: This is defined as a detonation at an altitude over 100,000 feet. [ATARC]

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) : High-level radioactive waste (HLW) means (1) irradiated (spent) reactor fuel; (2) liquid waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, and the concentrated wastes from subsequent extraction cycles, in a facility for reprocessing irradiated reactor fuel; and (3) solids into which such liquid wastes have been converted. HLW is primarily in the form of spent fuel discharged from commercial nuclear power reactors. It also includes some reprocessed HLW from defense activities, and a small quantity of reprocessed commercial HLW (see 10 CFR Part 60). [NRC]
The radioactive waste material that results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, including liquid waste produced directly from reprocessing and any solid waste derived from the liquid that contains a combination of transuranic and fission product nuclides in quantities that require permanent isolation. HLW is also a mixed waste because it has highly corrosive components or has organics or heavy metals that are regulated under RCRA. HLW may include other highly radioactive material that NRC, consistent with existing law, determines by rule requires permanent isolation. [EPA-MW]
Material generated by chemical reprocessing of spent fuel and irradiated targets. High-level waste contains highly radioactive, short-lived fission products, hazardous chemicals, and toxic heavy metals. High-level waste is usually found in the form of a liquid, a solid saltcake, a sludge, or a dry powdery calcine. [DOE/EM-0266]

High-level waste slurry: A watery mixture of highly radioactive, insoluble matter. [DOE-IDB97]

Highly-enriched uranium: Uranium with more than 20 percent of the uranium-235 isotope, used for making nuclear weapons and also as fuel for some isotope-production, research, and power reactors. Weapons-grade uranium is a subset of this group. [DOE/EM-0319]

High Radiation Area Any area with dose rates greater than 100 millirems (1 millisievert) in one hour 30 centimeters from the source or from any surface through which the ionizing radiation penetrates. Areas at licensee facilities must be posted as "high radiation areas" and access into these areas is maintained under strict control. [NRC]

Hiroshima: The first use in warfare of a nuclear weapon occurred on August 6, 1945, at 8:16:02 a.m. over Hiroshima, Japan. In an instant 80,000 to 140,000 people were killed and 100,000 more were seriously injured. Hiroshima ceased to exist as a functioning city. The bomb exploded almost directly over the center of the city. Two square miles of the city were completely leveled by the bomb. [ATARC]

historical site assessment - HSA, a report that documents various radiological and non-radiological events that could have impacted the site over time. [CY]

H&SC: Texas Health and Safety Code [TNRCC]

HMIRS: Hazardous Materials Incident Reporting System (DOT)

HMTA: Hazardous Materials Transportation Act

Holding Pond: A structure built to contain large volumes of liquid waste to ensure that it meets environmental requirements prior to release. [DOELL]

Hot: A colloquial term meaning highly radioactive. [TDHBRC]

Hot Spot: The region in a radiation/contamination area in which the level of radiation/contamination is noticeably greater than in neighboring regions in the area. [TDHBRC]

Hot Spot monitor: A portable radiation detector for health physics use, with the detector head on a long probe so that the operator need not approach the radiation source closely. [AT]

HPS: Health Physics Society. [TDHBRC]

HSWA: Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984)

HWDMS: Hazardous Waste Data Management System

HWS: Hazardous Waste Sites Hydrauger: A horizontal drain installed to stabilize a slope. [DOELL]

Hydrofracture: A process formerly used for permanent disposal of low-level (approximately 0.25 Ci/L) liquid waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The process involved mixing the waste with a blend of cement and other additives with the resulting grout being injected into shale at a depth of 200 to 300 m.

Hydrogen: The lightest element. Two of the three isotopes of hydrogen have been used in nuclear weapons: deuterium and tritium. [DOE/EM-0266]

Hydrogen Bomb: The hydrogen bomb, or H-bomb, is a nuclear weapon in which light atomic nuclei of hydrogen are joined together in an uncontrolled nuclear fusion reaction to release tremendous amounts of energy. The hydrogen bomb is about a thousand times as powerful as the atomic bomb, or A-bomb, which produces a nuclear fission explosion about a million times more powerful than comparably sized bombs using conventional high explosives such as TNT. [ATARC]

Hydrofracture: An underground injection disposal technology used in the past to dispose radioactive waste. [DOE/EM-0319]

|------------------------ I ------------------------|

IA: industry application , insertion approval, instrument air [NUREG-0544]

I/A: isolation amplifier [NUREG-0544]

I&A: identification and authentication [NUREG-0544]

IAA: interim access authorization [NUREG-0544]

IAC: interim acceptance criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

IAD: immediate action directive [NUREG-0544]

IAE: instrumentation and electrical [NUREG-0544]

IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency [NUREG-0544]

IAEC: Israel Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

IAG: incident analysis group [NUREG-0544]

IAL: immediate action letter [NUREG-0544]

IALL: intermediate activity level liquid [system] [NUREG-0544]

IANEC: Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

IAP: independent assessment program, integrated action plan, Iowa Power [NUREG-0544]

IAPG: Interagency Advanced Power Group [NUREG-0544]

IAPMO: International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials [NUREG-0544]

IAR: irradiation-anneal-reirradiation [NUREG-0544]

IAS: instrument air system [NUREG-0544]

IASCC: irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

IAT: information assessment team [NUREG-0544]

IATI: integrated assessment team inspection [NUREG-0544]

IAW: in accordance with [NUREG-0544]

IB: inner bremsstrahlung [NUREG-0544]

IBA: inner blanket assembly, intermediate break accident [NUREG-0544]

IBEW: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers [NUREG-0544]

IBJ: Industrial Bank of Japan, Ltd., Instytut Badán Jadrowych (Poland) [NUREG-0544]

IBM: International Business Machines Corp. [NUREG-0544]

IBSHR: integral boiling and superheat reactor [NUREG-0544]

IC: indicating controller, Internuclear Co., isolation condenser [NUREG-0544]

I&C: instrumentation and control [NUREG-0544]

ICA: item control area [NUREG-0544]

ICAP: International Code Assessment Program [NUREG-0544]

ICAR: interface control action request [NUREG-0544]

ICAVP: independent corrective action verification program [NUREG-0544]

ICB: information collection budget, interface control board [NUREG-0544]

ICBWR: improved cycle boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

ICC: inadequate core cooling, information collection coordinator, Interstate Commerce Commission [NUREG-0544]

ICCDP: incremental conditional core damage probability [NUREG-0544]

ICCGR: international cyclic crack growth rate [NUREG-0544]

ICCU: interchannel comparison unit [NUREG-0544]

ICCW: in-containment chilled water [NUREG-0544]

ICD: interface control diagram, interface control document, interface control drawing [NUREG-0544]

ICE: implicit continuous-fluid Eulerian [NUREG-0544]

ICEA: Insulated Cable Engineers Association [NUREG-0544]

ICES: integrated civil engineering system [NUREG-0544]

ICI: ice condenser instrumentation, in-core instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

ICODS: Interagency Committee on Dam Safety [NUREG-0544]

ICONS: Information Center on Nuclear Standards [NUREG-0544]

ICP: inert carrier process, instrument calibration procedure, inventory control point [NUREG-0544]

ICPP: Idaho Chemical Processing Plant [NUREG-0544]

ICRA: Interagency Committee on Radiological Assistance [NUREG-0544]

ICRI: incomplete control rod insertion [NUREG-0544]

ICRP: International Commission on Radiological Protection [NUREG-0544]

ICRS: instrument calibration and recall system [NUREG-0544]

ICRU: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements [NUREG-0544]

ICS: instrumentation and control system, integrated control system, intercommunication system, iodine cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

ICSA: in-core shim assembly [NUREG-0544]

ICSD: ionization chamber smoke detector [NUREG-0544]

ICV: independent construction verification [NUREG-0544]

ID: inner diameter, inside diameter, inventory difference [NUREG-0544]

IDA: intrusion detection alarm [NUREG-0544]

IDAS: intermediate dose assessment system [NUREG-0544]

IDCA: independent design and construction assessment [NUREG-0544]

IDCOR: Industry Degraded-Core Rulemaking Program [NUREG-0544]

IDCV: independent design and construction verification [NUREG-0544]

IDENTIFY: Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil) [NUREG-0544]

IDI: independent design inspection, integrated design inspection [NUREG-0544]

IDLH: immediate danger to life and health [NUREG-0544]

IDMS: isotope dilution mass spectrometry [NUREG-0544]

IDNS: Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety [NUREG-0544]

IDOT: Illinois Department of Transportation [NUREG-0544]

IDP: Individual Development Plan (NRC Form 321) [NUREG-0544]

IDR: independent design review, inspection discrepancy report, interface data report [NUREG-0544]

IDS: interim decay storage, intermediate decay storage, isotope detection system [NUREG-0544]

IDT: integrated design team [NUREG-0544]

IDV: independent design verification [NUREG-0544]

IDVP: independent design verification program [NUREG-0544]

IE: industrial electronics , initiating event, Inspection and Enforcement, Office of (NRC), irradiation effect [NUREG-0544]

I&E: internally and externally [NUREG-0544]

IEA: Instituto de Energia Atomica (Brazil), International Energy Agency [NUREG-0544]

IEAR: Instituto de Energia Atomica Reactor (Brazil) [NUREG-0544]

IEB: IE (Office of Inspection and Enforcement) bulletin [NUREG-0544]

IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission [NUREG-0544]

IED: improvised explosive device [NUREG-0544]

IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [NUREG-0544]

IEG: items evaluation group [NUREG-0544]

IELP: Iowa Electric Light & Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

IEM: interim examination and maintenance [NUREG-0544]

IEMTF: interim examination and maintenance training facility [NUREG-0544]

IEN: IE (Office of Inspection and Enforcement) notice [NUREG-0544]

IEOTSG: integral economizer once-through steam generator [NUREG-0544]

IES: Illumination Engineering Society, Institute of Environmental Sciences, irradiation effects simulation [NUREG-0544]

IESB: iron-enriched synthetic basalt [NUREG-0544]

IET: initial engine test [NUREG-0544]

IFA: instrument fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

IFB: invitation for bids [NUREG-0544]

IFBA: integral fuel burnable absorber [NUREG-0544]

IFCA: instrumentation to follow the course of an accident [NUREG-0544]

IFCF: integrated fuel cycle facility [NUREG-0544]

IFCI: integrated fuel-coolant interaction [NUREG-0544]

IFE: Institut for Energiteknikk (Norway) [NUREG-0544]

IFI: inspector followup item [NUREG-0544]

IFM: intermediate flow mixing [NUREG-0544]

IFMIS: integrated financial management information system [NUREG-0544]

IFPT: integrated fission product transport [NUREG-0544]

IFR: integral fast reactor [NUREG-0544]

IFTS: irradiated fuel transfer station, irradiated fuel transfer system [NUREG-0544]

IG: Inspector General [NUREG-0544]

IGA: intergranular attack [NUREG-0544]

IGCE: Independent Government Cost Estimate [NUREG-0544]

IGLD: International Great Lakes Datum [NUREG-0544]

IGRP: inert gas receiving and processing [NUREG-0544]

IGR&P: inert gas receiving and processing [NUREG-0544]

IGRPS: inert gas receiving and processing system [NUREG-0544]

IGSCC: intergranular stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

IGT: instrument guide tube [NUREG-0544]

IH: integrated head [NUREG-0544]

IHSI: induction heating stress improvement, induction heat stress improvement, intermediate head safety injection [NUREG-0544]

IHTS: intermediate heat transport system [NUREG-0544]

IHX: intermediate heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

IHXGV: intermediate heat exchanger guard vessel [NUREG-0544]

IIE: Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico) [NUREG-0544]

IIF: internals indexing fixture [NUREG-0544]

IIGE: Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

IIP: Incident Investigation Program, in-core instrument penetration [NUREG-0544]

IIRC: Incident Investigation Review Committee [NUREG-0544]

IIS: integrated implementation schedule [NUREG-0544]

IIT: Illinois Institute of Technology, Incident Investigation Team, Indian Institute of Technology [NUREG-0544]

IKRD: inverse kinetics rod drop [NUREG-0544]

ILC: intermediate level cell [NUREG-0544]

ILIP: in-line instrument package [NUREG-0544]

ILLW: intermediate-level liquid waste [NUREG-0544]

ILO: International Labour Organisation [NUREG-0544]

ILPR: Illinois Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

ILRT: integrated leak rate test, integrated leak rate testing [NUREG-0544]

ILSW: intermediate-level solid waste [NUREG-0544]

ILW: intermediate-level waste [NUREG-0544]

ILWC: intermediate-level waste concentrate [NUREG-0544]

ILWD: intermediate-level waste distillate [NUREG-0544]

ILWF: intermediate-level waste feed [NUREG-0544]

ILWS: intermediate-level waste storage [NUREG-0544]

IM: information management, instrumentation and measurement , integrated master [NUREG-0544]

IMA: independent management appraisal [NUREG-0544]

IMAS: impurity monitoring and analysis system [NUREG-0544]

IMC: incident management center, Inspection Manual chapter [NUREG-0544]

IMCO: Inter-Government Maritime Consultative Organization [NUREG-0544]

IMECo: Indiana & Michigan Electric Company [NUREG-0544]

IMP: instrument maintenance procedure [NUREG-0544]

IMPAC: International Merchant Authorization Card [NUREG-0544]

IMPCo: Indiana Michigan Power Company [NUREG-0544]

IMPEP: Integrated Material Performance Evaluation Program [NUREG-0544]

IMPR: Indiana & Michigan Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

IMS: in-core monitoring system, ion mobility spectrometer [NUREG-0544]

IN: information notice [NUREG-0544]

INB: Internationale Natrium-Brutreaktor-Bau, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

INC: Idaho Nuclear Corporation [NUREG-0544]

INCA: in-core analysis/analyses, inner neutron control assembly [NUREG-0544]

INCB: International Nuclear Credit Bank [NUREG-0544]

INCOT: in-core test [NUREG-0544]

IND: investigational exemption of a new drug [NUREG-0544]

INDE: inservice nondestructive examination [NUREG-0544]

INDEX: integrated nuclear data exchange [NUREG-0544]

INEC: Idaho Nuclear Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

INEEL: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly INEL) [NUREG-0544]

INEL: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now INEEL) [NUREG-0544]

INER: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (Taiwan) [NUREG-0544]

INES: international nuclear event scale [NUREG-0544]

INFCE: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation [NUREG-0544]

ININ: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico) [NUREG-0544]

INIS: International Nuclear Information System [NUREG-0544]

INITEC: Empresa Nacional de Ingeniería y Tecnología, S.A. (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

INLA: International Nuclear Law Association [NUREG-0544]

INMM: Institute of Nuclear Materials Management [NUREG-0544]

INPO: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations [NUREG-0544]

INR: immediate notification report [NUREG-0544]

INS: Immigration and Naturalization Service [NUREG-0544]

INSAG: International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group [NUREG-0544]

INSRP: Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel [NUREG-0544]

INTERATOM: Internationale Atomreaktorbau, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

INTLO: International Nuclear Technology Liaison Office [NUREG-0544]

INX: ion exchange [NUREG-0544]

I/O: input/output [NUREG-0544]

IOAA: Independent Offices Appropriation Act of 1952 [NUREG-0544]

IOE: industry operating experience [NUREG-0544]

IOERS: integrated operating experience reporting system [NUREG-0544]

IORV: inadvertently opened relief valve [NUREG-0544]

IOSRV: inadvertent opening of a safety/relief valve [NUREG-0544]

IP: inspection procedure [NUREG-0544]

I&P: inerting and preheating [NUREG-0544]

IPA: Intergovernmental Personnel Act, iterative performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

IPAC: International Participants Advisory Committee (Institute of Nuclear Power Operations) [NUREG-0544]

IPAP: integrated performance assessment process, integrated performance assessment program [NUREG-0544]

IPAS: Inspection Procedure Authority System [NUREG-0544]

IPB: illustrated parts breakdown [NUREG-0544]

IPC: Interjurisdictional Planning Committee [NUREG-0544]

IPCEA: Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association [NUREG-0544]

IPDD: initial project design description [NUREG-0544]

IPE: individual plant examination , integrated plant evaluation [NUREG-0544]

IPEEE: individual plant examination of external events [NUREG-0544]

IPF: iodine protection factor [NUREG-0544]

IPHT: in-process heat treatment [NUREG-0544]

IPIRG: International Piping Integrity Research Group [NUREG-0544]

IPL: initial program load [NUREG-0544]

IPP: independent power producer, integrated plotting package [NUREG-0544]

IPR: initial pressure regulator [NUREG-0544]

IPRDS: in-plant reliability data system [NUREG-0544]

IPRN: in-process rework notice [NUREG-0544]

IPS: Indian Point Station, interim policy statement, investment protection subsystem, Iowa Public Service Company, iron pipe size [NUREG-0544]

IPSAR: integrated plant safety assessment report [NUREG-0544]

IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection (France) [NUREG-0544]

IPTS: integrated pressurized thermal shock [NUREG-0544]

IpyC: inner pyrolytic carbon [NUREG-0544]

IR: information request, inspection report, intermediate range [NUREG-0544]

IRA: integrated review of assessment [NUREG-0544]

IRAC: Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee [NUREG-0544]

IRACT: incident response action coordination team [NUREG-0544]

IRAP: Interagency Radiological Assistance Plan, Interagency Radiological Assistance Program [NUREG-0544]

IRB: inside reactor building, Istituto Ricerche Breda, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

IRC: incident response center, Indiana Regional Cancer (Center), internal review committee [NUREG-0544]

IRE: Institut National des Radioéléments (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

IREP: integrated reliability evaluation program, interim reliability evaluation program [NUREG-0544]

IRFM: integral reactor flow model [NUREG-0544]

IRG: Interagency Review Group [NUREG-0544]

IRM: information resources management, Information Resources Management, Office of (NRC), intermediate-range monitor [NUREG-0544]

IRMP: Independent Radiation Monitoring Program [NUREG-0544]

IRN: item removal notice [NUREG-0544]

IRP: incident response plan, intermediate rotating plug [NUREG-0544]

IRPA: International Radiation Protection Association (France) [NUREG-0544]

IRPI: individual rod position indicator [NUREG-0544]

IRR: Institute for Reactor Research (Switzerland), Israeli Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

IRRAS: integrated reliability and risk analysis system [NUREG-0544]

IRS: Incident Reporting System, Inquiry and Reporting System, Institut für Reaktorsicherheit der Technischen Überwachungs-Vereine, e.V. (Germany), iodine removal system [NUREG-0544]

IRSF: interim radwaste storage facility [NUREG-0544]

IRSP: inside recirculation spray pump [NUREG-0544]

IRSR: Issue Resolution Status Report [NUREG-0544]

IRTS: inspection report tracking system [NUREG-0544]

IRVH: integrated reactor vessel head [NUREG-0544]

IRWST: in-containment refueling water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

IS: indicating switch, information system [NUREG-0544]

ISA: independent safety analysis, independent safety assessment or analysis, Instrument Society of America, integrated safety assessment [NUREG-0544]

ISAF: isotopic source adjustable fissometer [NUREG-0544]

ISAM: indexed sequential access method [NUREG-0544]

ISAP: integrated safety assessment program [NUREG-0544]

ISAS: isotopic source assay system [NUREG-0544]

ISCA: Intersociety Committee on Methods for Ambient Air Sampling [NUREG-0544]

ISCORS: Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards [NUREG-0544]

ISCP: intermediate sodium characterization package [NUREG-0544]

ISCT: important-to-safety-criteria task, inner seal collar tool [NUREG-0544]

ISD: instructional system design [NUREG-0544]

ISDF: intermediate sodium disposal facility [NUREG-0544]

ISDN: integrated services digital network [NUREG-0544]

ISE: ion-selective electrode [NUREG-0544]

ISEG: independent safety engineering group [NUREG-0544]

ISER: integral systems experimental requirement [NUREG-0544]

ISFSF: independent spent fuel storage facility [NUREG-0544]

ISFSI: independent spent fuel storage installation [NUREG-0544]

ISG: integrated scheduling group [NUREG-0544]

ISGMP: integrated scheduling group manual procedure [NUREG-0544]

ISGTR: induced steam generator tube rupture [NUREG-0544]

ISI: inservice inspection [NUREG-0544]

ISIS: integrated safeguards information system [NUREG-0544]

ISITS: integrated safety issues tracking system [NUREG-0544]

ISLH: inservice leak and hydrostatic [NUREG-0544]

ISLOCA: interfacing-systems loss-of-coolant accident [NUREG-0544]

ISMES: Istituto Sperimentale Modelli e Strutture (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

ISNF: intermediate-energy standard neutron field [NUREG-0544]

ISO: independent system operation, independent system operator, International Standardization Organization [NUREG-0544]

ISO/DWG: isometric drawing [NUREG-0544]

ISOO: Information Security Oversight Office [NUREG-0544]

ISP: industrial security plan [NUREG-0544]

ISR: intermediate sodium removal [NUREG-0544]

ISSO: Information System Security Officer [NUREG-0544]

IST: inservice test, inservice testing, integral simulation test, integral systems test [NUREG-0544]

ISTS: Improved Standard Technical Specifications [NUREG-0544]

ISV: in situ verification [NUREG-0544]

IT: information technology, information theory , instrument test, instrument tree [NUREG-0544]

I&T: inspection and test [NUREG-0544]

ITAAC: inspection, test, analysis, and acceptance criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

ITAL: Instituut voor Toepassing van Atoomenergie in de Landbouw (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

IT&AP: inspection test and analysis plan [NUREG-0544]

ITC: Information Technology Council, isothermal temperature coefficient [NUREG-0544]

ITDP: improved thermal design procedure [NUREG-0544]

ITF: interstitial transfer facility [NUREG-0544]

ITFTRIA: instrument tree flow and temperature removal instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

ITI: inspection/test instruction, ion track instrument [NUREG-0544]

ITIP: Industry Technical Information Program [NUREG-0544]

ITL: Industrial Testing Laboratories [NUREG-0544]

ITM: in-core temperature monitor, information technology management [NUREG-0544]

ITMA: irradiation test management activity [NUREG-0544]

ITMRA: Information Technology Management Reform Act [NUREG-0544]

ITMS: in-core temperature monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

ITPOP: independent, third-party oversight program [NUREG-0544]

ITR: instrument test rig [NUREG-0544]

ITRI: Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) [NUREG-0544]

ITRIA: instrument tree removable instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

ITS: Idaho Test Station, important to safety, improved technical specification, Information Technology Services, inventory tracking system [NUREG-0544]

IT/SP: instrument tree/spool piece [NUREG-0544]

ITV: intermediate test vessel [NUREG-0544]

IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [NUREG-0544]

IUPAP: International Union of Pure and Applied Physics [NUREG-0544]

IV: independent verification [NUREG-0544]

IVHM: in-vessel handling machine [NUREG-0544]

IVHM-EM: in-vessel handling machine--engineering model [NUREG-0544]

IVHX: in-vessel heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

IVIC: Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (Venezuela) [NUREG-0544]

IVO: Imatran Voima Osakeyhtio (Finland) [NUREG-0544]

IVP: integrated verification plan [NUREG-0544]

IVS: in-vessel storage [NUREG-0544]

IVSM: in-vessel storage module [NUREG-0544]

IVTM: in-vessel transfer machine [NUREG-0544]

IWF: industrial waste filter, industrial waste filtration [NUREG-0544]

IWFS: industrial waste filter system, industrial waste filtration system [NUREG-0544]

IWGFR: International Working Group on Fast Breeder Reactors [NUREG-0544]

IWRC: iron wire rope core [NUREG-0544]

IWS/IT: integrated work sequence/inspection traveler [NUREG-0544]

IWTS: industrial waste treatment system [NUREG-0544]

IX: ion exchanger [NUREG-0544]

IZ: isolation zone [NUREG-0544]

ICDF: Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility [DOELLWRpt]

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: An 893-square-mile Federal government-owned reservation in the eastern Idaho desert. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is the site of many research and test reactors and of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, where spent nuclear fuel from the U.S. Navy and from research reactors was reprocessed. [DOE/EM-0266]

ILAW: Immobilized Low Activity Waste (Hanford) [DOELLWRpt]

ILNT: Intermediate Level Non-Tritiated (SRS) [DOELLWRpt]

ILT: Intermediate Level Tritiated (SRS) [DOELLWRpt]

ILW: Intermediate Level Waste (SRS) [DOELLWRpt]

Immediate Risk Funding: A projection of funding required to ensure that actions to advert or reduce the imminent risk to the public, workers, or the environment are taken. [DOEEMGMT]

Implosion Weapon: A device in which a quantity of fissionable material, less than a critical mass, has its volume suddenly decreased by compression, so that it becomes supercritical and an explosion can take place. [ATARC]

Improvement Activity (IMP): A new initiative or on-going activity that will raise the level of safety and health (S&H) performance, above core or compliance activities, and lower the level of S&H risk at a site or facility. [DOEEMGMT]

Inadvertent intruder: Person who unknowingly comes in contact with or becomes exposed to radioactive materials or radiation associated with disposed LLRW following LLRW disposal facility closure. [TNRCC] A person who occupies a disposal site after the end of active institutional control and is unknowingly exposed to radiation from the waste through normal activities, such as agriculture, construction of dwellings, or other pursuits. [DOE/LLW-250a]

Indirect Cost: The cost incurred by an organization for common or joint objectives that cannot be identified specifically with a particular project or activity. These costs are normally allocated to direct programs on a casual/beneficial basis consistent with cost accounting standards. [DOEEMGMT]

induced radioactivity: Radioactivity produced in any material as a result of nuclear reactions, especially by absorption of neutrons. [IEER]

Industrial Hygiene (IH): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to provide protection to workers from chemical, biological, physical, and physiological hazards. [DOEEMGMT]

Industrial Land Use: Active industrial facility where groundwater may be restricted. [DOE/EM-0466]

INEEL: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [DOELLWRpt]

Industrial Safety (IS): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended for the protection of workers from physical trauma. [DOEEMGMT]

Industrial waste: Commercial low-level waste resulting from nonnuclear fuel cycle sources. These include the commercial producers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals, luminous dial manufacturers, and instruments that incorporate sealed source components (e.g., smoke detectors). [DOE-IDB97]

Industry Partnerships: Agreements between the Department of Energy (DOE) and colleges, universities, and companies to research and develop technologies that are needed to resolve the Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental problems. [DOEEMGMT]

Inert gas: A gas that does not react chemically with other substances. The inert gases are helium, neon, argon, xenon, and radon. Also occasionally used inaccurately to refer to nitrogen. [DOE/EM-0266]

Initial Financial Plan: The first allocation of budget authority for the applicable fiscal year.[DOEEMGMT]

Initial Nuclear Radiation: Nuclear radiation (essentially neutrons and gamma rays) emitted from the fireball and the cloud column during the first minute after a nuclear explosion. [ATARC]

Initiator: A device that produces a timed burst of neutrons to initiate a fission chain reaction in a nuclear weapon. Initiators made of polonium-210 and beryllium were located at the center of the fissile cores of early atomic weapons. [DOE/EM-0319] The initiator produces neutrons at just the right instant, when the assembly process has reached the stage at which the fissile material has supercritical mass. This allows some of the early stages in the chain reaction to be bypassed. As the protective shell collapses, the alpha particles combine with the beryllium powder to form huge amounts of neutrons for the chain reaction. [ATARC]

Installation: The laboratory, production plant, or other-geographically distinct site where the unit of work is principally performed or managed. [DOEEMGMT]

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM): A ballistic missile with a range of 3,400 miles or more. Conventionally, the term ICBM is used only for land-based systems, in order to differentiate them from submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), which can also be intercontinental range. [ATARC]

Institutional Controls: Non-engineering measures usually, but not always, legal controlsŃ intended to affect human activities in such a way as to prevent or reduce exposure to hazardous substances. Institutional controls include, but are not necessarily limited to: land and resource (e.g., water) use and deed restrictions; well-drilling prohibitions, building permits and well use advisories and deed notices; other legally enforceable measures. However, they are distinct from physical engineering measures such as treatment and containment systems. [DOE/EM-0466]

Institutional waste: Commercial low-level waste resulting from bioresearch, medical, and certain nonbioresearch sources. Bioresearch wastes include wastes from animal studies at universities. Medical wastes include those generated from diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on humans at hospitals. Nonbioresearch wastes include research reactor wastes; small-volume, sealed radiation sources; and accelerator targets. [DOE-IDB97]

Integrated Demonstration (ID): A program in which a set of activities is focused on the demonstration of the technology system to solve a site-specific waste management or environmental restoration problem, while addressing DOE-wide needs and compliance schedules. [DOEEMGMT]

Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System (IPABS): Future EM integrated information system. [DOEEMGMT]

Integrated Project (IP): A program in which a set of activities is focused on the coordinated development of technology in a defined area to address DOE-wide needs. [DOEEMGMT]

Interagency Agreement (IAG): A written agreement, enforceable by law, between the EPA and another Federal agency where goods and/or services are provided, whether in exchange for monetary reimbursement or where policy agreements are delineated. IAGs for CERCLA activities may function both as obligating documents and as reporting documents necessary for EPA financial and program management. [DOEEMGMT]

Interface Point: The functional, physical, or system characteristics at a common boundary between two or more project participants. [DOEEMGMT]

internal radiation dose: The dose to organs of the body from radioactive materials inside the body. It may consist of any combination of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. [IEER]

ion - Atomic particle, atom or chemical radical bearing an electric charge, either negative or positive. [CY] An atom that has lost or gained one or more orbital electrons, thus becoming electrically charged. [AT] An atom that has too many or too few electrons, causing it to have an electrical charge, and therefore, be chemically active; or, 2) An electron that is not associated (in orbit) with a nucleus. [TDHBRC]

Ion exchange resins: Synthetic material used to selectively remove dissolved contaminants such as heavy metals or radionuclides from water by replacing or exchanging them with other constituents. Resins are typically used in beads or cartridges of beads or powders through which water is pumped. [DOE/EM-0319]

Ionization Chamber A device for measuring the intensity of ionizing radiation. The radiation ionizes the gas in the chamber and the rate at which ions are collected (on oppositely-charged electrodes) is measured as an electric current. [AT]

ionize: To split off one or more electons from an atom, thus leaving it with a positive electric charge. The electrons usually attach to other atoms or molecules giving them a negative charge. [IEER]

Ionizing radiation: Radiation that is capable of breaking apart molecules or atoms. The splitting or decay of unstable atoms typically emits ionizing radiation. [DOE/EM-0266] Any radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby producing ions. Some examples are alpha, beta, gamma, X-rays, neutrons. High doses of ionizing radiation may produce severe skin or tissue damage. [TDHBRC] Electromagnetic radiation (gamma or X-ray) or particulate radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, etc.) capable of producing ions, i.e., electrically charged particles, directly or indirectly, in its passage through matter. [ATARC]

IPABS: Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System [DOELLWRpt]

Iron Fence: The most-restricted alternative case for land use. It is characterized by containing, rather than actively remediating, contaminated sites. This means that soil and buried waste sites would be capped, ground-water contamination would be controlled from spreading by hydraulic controls and barriers, and facilities would be entombed. [DOELL]

Irradiate: To expose to ionizing radiation, usually in a nuclear reactor. Targets are irradiated to produce isotopes. [DOE/EM-0266]

ISO: Insurance Service Organization

ISFSI Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation [CY]

Isomer: One of several nuclides with the same number of neutrons and protons capable of existing for a measurable time in different nuclear energy states. [LBNL]

Isometric transition: A mode of radioactive decay where a nucleus goes from a higher to a lower energy state. The mass number and the atomic number are unchanged. [LBNL]

Isotopes: Atoms of the same chemical element that differ only by the number of neutrons in their nucleus. Any of two or more variations of an element in which the nuclei have the same number of protons (i.e., the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons so that their atomic masses and weights differ. (A useful working definition is "atoms that are the same outside but different inside"). Isotopes of a single element possess almost identical chemical properties, but often different physical properties (e.g., carbon-12 and 13 are stable, carbon-14 is radioactive). Most elements have more than one naturally occurring isotope. Many more isotopes have been produced in nuclear reactors and accelerators. [DOE/EM-0466, DOE/EM-0319, IEER, AT]

Isotope separation (enrichment): The process of separating different isotopes of the same element. The three elements that have been isotopically enriched in large quantities for use in nuclear weapons production are uranium, lithium, and hydrogen. [DOE/EM-0319]

Isolation: Not defined in Texas statues or rule; in the context of high level radioactive waste disposal, isolation means "inhibiting the [environmental] transport of radioactive material so that amounts and concentrations of this material entering the accessible environment will be kept within prescribed limits." [TNRCC]

IWMF: Interim Waste Management Facility [DOELLWRpt]

IWTP: Industrial Waste Treatment Plant

|------------------------ J ------------------------|

JABE: John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers [NUREG-0544]

JAEC: Japan Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

JAEIP: Japan Atomic Energy Insurance Pool [NUREG-0544]

JAERI: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

JAERO: Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization [NUREG-0544]

JAF: James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

JAFNPP: James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

JAIF: Japan Atomic Industrial Forum [NUREG-0544]

JAJ: J.A. Jones Co. [NUREG-0544]

JANAP: joint Army-Navy-Air Force publication [NUREG-0544]

JAPC: Japan Atomic Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

JARRP: Japan Association for Radiation Research on Polymers [NUREG-0544]

JCAE: Joint Committee on Atomic Energy [NUREG-0544]

JCCCNRS: Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety [NUREG-0544]

JCL: job control language [NUREG-0544]

JCO: justification for continued operation [NUREG-0544]

JCP: Joint Committee on Printing [NUREG-0544]

JCPL: Jersey Central Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

JCP&L: Jersey Central Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

JEA: Jacksonville Electric Authority [NUREG-0544]

JEEP: joint emergency evacuation plan, joint establishment experimental pile [NUREG-0544]

JEN: Junta de Energía Nuclear (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

JEPIC: Japan Electric Power Information Center [NUREG-0544]

JET: joint European torus [NUREG-0544]

JETR: Japan Engineering Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

JFNP: Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

JFNPP: James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

JGC: Japan Gasoline Co., Ltd. [NUREG-0544]

JGCR: Japan Gas-Cooled Reactor [NUREG-0544]

JHEP: joint human error probability [NUREG-0544]

JINR: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research [NUREG-0544]

JIO: justification for interim operation [NUREG-0544]

JOFOC: justification for other than full and open competition [NUREG-0544]

JOG: Joint Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

JPDR: Japan Power Demonstration Reactor [NUREG-0544]

JPM: job performance measure [NUREG-0544]

JRR: Japanese Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

JSW: Japan Steel Works, Ltd. [NUREG-0544]

JTA: job task analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

JTG: Joint Test Group [NUREG-0544]

JUMA: Joint Utility Management Assessment Group [NUREG-0544]

JURIS: justice retrieval and inquiry system [NUREG-0544]

Jointly Funded Program: A program by which a research and development activity is funded by Office of Technology Development and the Environmental Management (EM) office that is to receive the technology.

|------------------------ K ------------------------|

K/A: knowledge and abilities [NUREG-0544]

KAEA: Kazakh Atomic Energy Agency [NUREG-0544]

KAERI: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

KAIF: Korea Atomic Industrial Forum [NUREG-0544]

KALC: krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide [NUREG-0544]

KANUPP: Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan) [NUREG-0544]

KAPL: Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

KBG: Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KBWP: Kernkraftwerk Baden-Wuerttemberg Planungsgesellschaft (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KE: Kaiser Engineers [NUREG-0544]

KEEPS: Kodak Ektaprint Electronic Publishing System [NUREG-0544]

Keff: effective multiplication factor [NUREG-0544]

KEMA: Tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen, N.V. (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

KERMA: kinetic energy released in material [NUREG-0544]

KEWA: Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KEWB: kinetic experiment on water boilers [NUREG-0544]

KFKI: Központi Fizakai Kutató Intézet (Hungary) [NUREG-0544]

KGBS: krypton gas bottling station [NUREG-0544]

KG&E: Kansas Gas & Electric [NUREG-0544]

KKB: Kernkraftwerk Brunsbuettel, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KKK: Kernkraftwerk Krummel, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KKL: Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt, A.G. (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

KKN: Kernkraftwerk Niederaichbach, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KKP: Kernkraftwerk Phillipsburg, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KMC: Kerr McGee Corp. [NUREG-0544]

KNFDI: Korea Nuclear Fuel Development Institute [NUREG-0544]

KNPP: Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

KNPS: Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station (Taiwan) [NUREG-0544]

KNU: Korean Nuclear Unit [NUREG-0544]

KPDS: key plant damage state [NUREG-0544]

KRB: Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (Germany), Kernkraftwerk RWE-Bayernwerk, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KRR: Kansai Research Reactor (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

KSAs: knowledge, skills, and abilities [NUREG-0544]

KSB: Klein, Schanzlin and Becker Aktiengesellschaft (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KSF: Karen Silkwood Fund [NUREG-0544]

KSGE: Kansas Gas & Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

KSH: Kernenergie-Gesellschaft Schleswig-Holstein, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KSTR: Kema Suspension Test Reactor (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

KTG: Kerntechnische Gesellschaft im Deutschen Atomforum, e.V. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KTI: key technical issue [NUREG-0544]

KTS: Kerntechnische Sektion der Schweizerischen Vereinigung für Atomenergie (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

KTU: key technical uncertainty [NUREG-0544]

KWG: Kernkraftwerk Graben, A.G. (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

KWL: Kernkraftwerk Lingen, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KWO: Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KWS: Kernkraftwerk Sud, G.m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

KWU: Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

K Reactor: A plutonium and tritium production reactor at the Savannah River Site, started in 1954 and shut down in 1988. The code name "K" is arbitrary. [DOE/EM-0266]

K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant: The first full scale gaseous diffusion plant in the world, built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the Manhattan Project. "K-25" is an arbitrary code name. [DOE/EM-0266]

K-capture: The capture by an atom's nucleus of an orbital electron from the first K-shell surrounding the nucleus. [LBNL]

keV: One thousand electron volts. [LBNL]

kiloton (KT): In the context of nuclear weapons, this term, which means 1,000 tons, is always used as a measure of explosive power. It is equal to the explosvie power of 1,000 tons of TNT. [IEER]

|------------------------ L ------------------------|

LA: licensing assistant, local alarm [NUREG-0544]

LACBWR: LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor [NUREG-0544]

LACE: LWR (light-water reactor) aerosol containment experiment [NUREG-0544]

LAFM: Los Alamos Fuel Model [NUREG-0544]

LALL: low-activity level liquid [system] [NUREG-0544]

LAMPRE: Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment [NUREG-0544]

LAN: local area network [NUREG-0544]

LAND: League Against Nuclear Dangers [NUREG-0544]

LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory (formerly Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) [NUREG-0544]

LAPL: Louisiana Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

LAPPES: large power plant effluent study [NUREG-0544]

LAPRE: Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment [NUREG-0544]

LAR: license amendment request, licensing action report, limited analytical review, local automatic regulation [NUREG-0544]

LASL: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (now LANL) [NUREG-0544]

LAW: low-acid waste [NUREG-0544]

LAWB: Los Alamos Water Boiler [NUREG-0544]

LBB: leak before break [NUREG-0544]

LBE: licensing-basis event [NUREG-0544]

LBL: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

LBLOCA: large-break loss-of-coolant accident [NUREG-0544]

LBP: land-based plant, lumped burnable poison [NUREG-0544]

LBPR: lumped burnable poison rod [NUREG-0544]

LBRB: leak before risk of break [NUREG-0544]

LC: level controller, local control, locked closed [NUREG-0544]

LCCC: large-component cleaning cell [NUREG-0544]

LCCV: large-component cleaning vessel [NUREG-0544]

LCHS: large-component handling system [NUREG-0544]

LCL: lower control limit [NUREG-0544]

LCM: LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) core melt [NUREG-0544]

LCO: limiting condition for operation [NUREG-0544]

LCR: large component removal, log count rate [NUREG-0544]

LCRE: lithium-cooled reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

LCRM: linear count rate meter [NUREG-0544]

LCS: leakage collection system, leakage control system, level control system, loop control system [NUREG-0544]

LCTI: large-component test installation [NUREG-0544]

LCTL: large-component test loop [NUREG-0544]

LCV: level control valve, local control valve [NUREG-0544]

LCVIP: licensee contractor vendor inspection program [NUREG-0544]

LD: letdown, lethal dose [NUREG-0544]

L/D: length to diameter [NUREG-0544]

LDCC: large-diameter component cask [NUREG-0544]

LDR: load definition report, low dose rate [NUREG-0544]

L/DRS: level and density recorder switch [NUREG-0544]

LDS: leak detection system [NUREG-0544]

LDST: letdown storage tank [NUREG-0544]

LE: left end, limit of error [NUREG-0544]

LEAC: levelized energy adjustment clause [NUREG-0544]

LED: light-emitting diode [NUREG-0544]

LEFM: linear elastic fracture mechanics [NUREG-0544]

LEID: limit of error on inventory difference [NUREG-0544]

LEL: large engineering loop, lower electrical limit [NUREG-0544]

LEMUF: limit of error on material unaccounted for [NUREG-0544]

LEO: lasers and electro-optics [NUREG-0544]

LEP: local emergency protection [NUREG-0544]

LER: licensee event report [NUREG-0544]

LERF: large early release frequency [NUREG-0544]

LERO: local emergency response organization [NUREG-0544]

LERP: large early release probability [NUREG-0544]

LES: limited early site, Louisiana Energy Services [NUREG-0544]

LESR: limited early site review [NUREG-0544]

LET: linear energy transfer [NUREG-0544]

LEU: license to export uranium, low-enriched uranium [NUREG-0544]

LFA: lead Federal agency [NUREG-0544]

LFBR: liquid fluidized bed reactor [NUREG-0544]

LFBR-CX: liquid fluidized bed reactor--critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

LFDCP: local fire detection control panel [NUREG-0544]

LFL: lower flammability limit [NUREG-0544]

LFMS: license fee management staff [NUREG-0544]

LGR: light-water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

LGS: Limerick Generating Station, lower group stop [NUREG-0544]

LH: low head [NUREG-0544]

LHC: Little Harbor Consultants, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

LHGR: linear heat generation rate [NUREG-0544]

LHM: loop-handling machine [NUREG-0544]

LHR: linear heat rate [NUREG-0544]

LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling, loop-handling system [NUREG-0544]

LHSI: low-head safety injection [NUREG-0544]

LHST: laundry and hot shower tank [NUREG-0544]

LI: level indicator [NUREG-0544]

LIC: level indicating controller, level indicator controller, loop insertion cell [NUREG-0544]

LIFO: last in, first out [NUREG-0544]

LILCO: Long Island Lighting Co. [NUREG-0544]

LIM: ligament instability model, lower inlet module [NUREG-0544]

LIMB: liquid metal breeder [NUREG-0544]

LIMSW: limit switch [NUREG-0544]

LIM : SWlimit switch [NUREG-0544]

LINAC: linear accelerator [NUREG-0544]

LIONS: Licensing and Inspection Online System [NUREG-0544]

LIRS: level indicator recording switch [NUREG-0544]

LITR: low-intensity test reactor [NUREG-0544]

LIWB: Livermore Water Boiler [NUREG-0544]

LL: liquid limit [NUREG-0544]

LLCS: low-level compaction station [NUREG-0544]

LLD: low-level dose, lower limit of detection [NUREG-0544]

LLEA: local law enforcement agency [NUREG-0544]

LLFM: low-level flux monitor [NUREG-0544]

LLLWT: low-level liquid waste tank [NUREG-0544]

LLMPP: liquid level monitor port plug [NUREG-0544]

LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

LLRT: local leak-rate test [NUREG-0544]

LLRW: low-level radioactive waste [NUREG-0544]

LLRWPAA: Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act [NUREG-0544]

LLS: low-level solid, low-low set [NUREG-0544]

LLSV: low-level storage vault [NUREG-0544]

LLSWV: low-level solid-waste storage vault [NUREG-0544]

LLT: liquid level transducer [NUREG-0544]

LLTR: large-leak test rig [NUREG-0544]

LLW: low-level radioactive waste, low-level waste [NUREG-0544]

LLWBG: low-level-waste burial ground [NUREG-0544]

LLWSV: low-level-waste storage vault [NUREG-0544]

LM: labor management, local manual [NUREG-0544]

LMEC: Liquid Metal Engineering Center [NUREG-0544]

LMFBR: liquid metal fast breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

LMFR: liquid metal fuel reactor [NUREG-0544]

LMFRE: liquid metal fuel reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

LMHX: liquid metal heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

LMP: licensing milestone plan [NUREG-0544]

LMR: liquid metal reactor [NUREG-0544]

LMS: licensing management system [NUREG-0544]

LMTD: logarithmic mean temperature difference [NUREG-0544]

LNG: liquefied natural gas, liquid natural gas [NUREG-0544]

LNGS: LaCrosse Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

LNS: liquid nitrogen system, London Nuclear Services [NUREG-0544]

LNT: linear, no-threshold [NUREG-0544]

LNW: loss of normal water [NUREG-0544]

LN2: liquid nitrogen [NUREG-0544]

LO: lock open, locked open, lube oil [NUREG-0544]

LOA: letter of agreement, line of assurance [NUREG-0544]

LOBI: loop blowdown investigation [NUREG-0544]

LOCA: loss-of-coolant accident [NUREG-0544]

LOCE: loss-of-coolant experiment [NUREG-0544]

LOCF: loss of coolant flow [NUREG-0544]

LOCP: loss-of-coolant protection [NUREG-0544]

LOCV: loss of condenser vacuum [NUREG-0544]

LOF: lack of fusion, loss of feedwater, loss of flow [NUREG-0544]

LOFA: loss-of-feedwater accident, loss-of-flow accident [NUREG-0544]

LOFC: loss of forced circulation, loss of forced cooling [NUREG-0544]

LOFT: loss-of-fluid test [NUREG-0544]

LOFW: loss of feedwater [NUREG-0544]

LOFWS: loss of flow without scram [NUREG-0544]

LOHS: loss of heat sink [NUREG-0544]

LOHSWS: loss of heat sink without scram [NUREG-0544]

LOI: loss of ignition [NUREG-0544]

LOMF: loss of main feedwater [NUREG-0544]

LOMFW: loss of main feedwater [NUREG-0544]

LOOP: loss of offsite power [NUREG-0544]

LOP: loss of offsite power, loss of power [NUREG-0544]

LOPAR: low parasitic fuel [NUREG-0544]

LOPI: loss of pipe integrity [NUREG-0544]

LOPO: low power [NUREG-0544]

LOPRA: low-power reactor assembly [NUREG-0544]

LOPS: loss-of-power start [NUREG-0544]

LOR: lower oil reservoir [NUREG-0544]

LORD: licensing online retrieval data [NUREG-0544]

LORDS: licensing online retrieval data system [NUREG-0544]

LORT: licensed operator requalification training [NUREG-0544]

LOSP: loss of offsite power, loss of station power, loss of system pressure [NUREG-0544]

LOST: lube oil storage tank [NUREG-0544]

LOU: letter of understanding, limited official use [NUREG-0544]

LOVS: loss-of-voltage signal, loss-of-voltage start [NUREG-0544]

LP: liquid penetrant, low pressure [NUREG-0544]

LPC: loop preparation cask [NUREG-0544]

LPCI: low-pressure coolant injection, low-pressure core injection [NUREG-0544]

LPCIS: low-pressure coolant injection system [NUREG-0544]

LPCS: low-pressure core spray [NUREG-0544]

LPD: linear power density, local power density [NUREG-0544]

LPDR: local public document room [NUREG-0544]

LPE: loop preparation equipment [NUREG-0544]

LPG: liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, low-pressure gas [NUREG-0544]

LPGS: Liquid Pathway Generic Study [NUREG-0544]

LPHSW: last pass heat sink welding [NUREG-0544]

LPI: low-power injection, low-pressure injection [NUREG-0544]

LPIS: low-pressure injection system [NUREG-0544]

LP&L: Louisiana Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

LPLNG: low-pressure liquefied natural gas [NUREG-0544]

LPM: licensing project manager [NUREG-0544]

LPMA: loose-parts-monitor assembly [NUREG-0544]

LPMS: loose-parts monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

LPNGP: low-pressure noble gas processing [NUREG-0544]

LPOL: low-power operating license [NUREG-0544]

LPR: Lynchburg Pool Reactor [NUREG-0544]

LPRM: local power range monitor, low-power range monitor [NUREG-0544]

LPRS: low-pressure recirculation system [NUREG-0544]

LPSI: low-pressure safety injection [NUREG-0544]

LPSIP: low-pressure safety injection pump [NUREG-0544]

LPSP: low-power set point [NUREG-0544]

LPSW: low-pressure service water [NUREG-0544]

LPT: liquid penetrant testing, low-pressure turbine [NUREG-0544]

LPTF: low-power test facility [NUREG-0544]

LPTR: Livermore Pool Type Reactor [NUREG-0544]

LPZ: low-population zone [NUREG-0544]

LR: level regulator, load reject, load rejection [NUREG-0544]

LRA: locked-rotor accident [NUREG-0544]

LRB: licensing review basis/bases [NUREG-0544]

LRC: level recorder controller, Lewis Research Center, local recovery center [NUREG-0544]

LRED: licensing reportable event determination [NUREG-0544]

LRG: license review group, licensing review group [NUREG-0544]

LRIA: level removable instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

LRL: Lawrence Radiation Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

LRM: lead reactor manufacturer, logarithmic radiation monitor [NUREG-0544]

LRP: large rotating plug [NUREG-0544]

LRPE: licensee regulatory performance evaluation [NUREG-0544]

LRRP: long-range research plan [NUREG-0544]

LRS: level recording switch, liquid radwaste system [NUREG-0544]

LRTS: liquid radwaste treatment system [NUREG-0544]

LRVOS: liner recombiner and vacuum outgassing system [NUREG-0544]

LRW: liquid radioactive waste [NUREG-0544]

LRX: large reactor critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

LS: level switch, lighting system, locked shut [NUREG-0544]

LSA: low specific activity [NUREG-0544]

LSB: last-stage blade [NUREG-0544]

LSCS: LaSalle County Station [NUREG-0544]

LSDF: large sodium disposal facility [NUREG-0544]

LSDP: Lake Superior District Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

LSFT: logic system functional test or testing [NUREG-0544]

LSI: licensed supervising instructor [NUREG-0544]

LSNM: low strategic significance special nuclear material [NUREG-0544]

LSP: level set point, lower sequential permissive [NUREG-0544]

LSR: Lynchburg Source Reactor [NUREG-0544]

LSRO: limited senior reactor operator [NUREG-0544]

LSS: Licensing Support System [NUREG-0544]

LSSA: Licensing Support System Administrator, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

LSSARP: Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel [NUREG-0544]

LSSC: less safety-significant component [NUREG-0544]

LSSP: latest scram set point [NUREG-0544]

LSSS: limiting safety system set point, limiting safety system setting [NUREG-0544]

LSTF: large-scale test facility [NUREG-0544]

LT: leak testing, level transmitter [NUREG-0544]

LTA: lead test assembly, less than adequate, low-temperature adsorber [NUREG-0544]

LTBT: Limited Test Ban Treaty [NUREG-0544]

LTC: linear translation case, load tap changer [NUREG-0544]

LTD: letdown [NUREG-0544]

LTL: lot truck load [NUREG-0544]

LTM: long-term maintenance, low-trajectory missile [NUREG-0544]

LTMD: less than minimum detectable [NUREG-0544]

LTNGP: low-temperature noble gas process [NUREG-0544]

LTOP: low-temperature overpressure protection [NUREG-0544]

LTP: long-term program [NUREG-0544]

LTR: lattice test reactor, licensing technical review, Lockheed Training Reactor [NUREG-0544]

LTS: License Tracking System, Licensing Tracking System [NUREG-0544]

LTSF: lid tank shielding facility [NUREG-0544]

LTSP: long-term seismic program [NUREG-0544]

LTV: large test vessel [NUREG-0544]

LUWAS: lowest unit with age significance [NUREG-0544]

LUXATOM: Syndicat Luxembourgeois pour l'Industrie Nucléaire (Luxembourg) [NUREG-0544]

LV: leaky valve [NUREG-0544]

LVDT: linear variable differential transducer, linear variable differential transformer, linear variable displacement transducer, linear voltage differential transformer [NUREG-0544]

LWA: limited work authorization [NUREG-0544]

LWBR: light-water breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

LWCHW: light-water-cooled, heavy-water-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

LWGR: light-water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

LWMS: liquid waste management system [NUREG-0544]

LWOP: leave without pay [NUREG-0544]

LWP: liquid waste processing [NUREG-0544]

LWPS: liquid waste processing system [NUREG-0544]

LWR: light-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

LWTS: laundry waste treatment system [NUREG-0544]

Labor Hour: The duration (usually in hours or fractions of hours) for the performance of a particular operation. [DOEEMGMT]

Landfarming: Biological degradation involving the incorporation of waste into soil. The technique relies on healthy soil microorganisms to metabolize the waste components. This chemical degradation renders waste safer, if not completely safe. [DOELL]

Landfill: Case generally described as a possible end point for small portion of LLRW that has decayed to very low levels of radioactivity or radiation levels and has been formally granted a regulatory exemption. [TNRCC]

LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory [DOELLWRpt]

Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) : These restrictions were mandated by the 1984 HSWA amendments to RCRA. They prohibit the disposal of hazardous wastes into or on the land unless the waste meets treatability standards of lower toxicity. [EPA-MW]

Land Use: The ultimate uses to be permitted for currently contaminated lands, waters, and structures at each Department of Energy installation. Land-use decisions will strongly influence the cost of environmental management. [DOE/EM-0342]

Landlord: Activities that involve the physical operation and maintenance of Department of Energy installations. Specific tasks vary but generally include providing utilities, maintenance, and general infrastructure for the entire installation. [DOE/EM-0342]

LAW: Low Activity Waste (SRS) [DOELLWRpt]

Leachfield: A subsurface structure built to distribute liquids across a suitable area for disposal. [DOELL]

Leaching: The process of removal or separation of soluble components from a solid by percolating water or other liquids through the solid.

Lead federal agency: The federal agency that owns, authorizes, regulates, or is other-wise deemed responsible for resolving an emergency and that has the authority to take whatever action is necessary to stabilize the situation. [EPALLRW]

Legacy Waste: Any waste within a complex that was generated by past weapons production or research activities and is in storage awaiting treatment or disposal. [DOE/EM-0466]

LEPC: Local Emergency Planning Committee

Lethal dose (lethal dose 50/30): The dose of radiation expected to cause death to an exposed population within 30 days to 50 percent (LD 50/30) of those exposed. Typically, the LD 50/30 is in the range from 400 to 450 rem (4 to 5 sieverts) received over a very short period of time. [NRC]

Level of Effort (LOE): A planning method for activities that cannot be measured in terms of discrete accomplishments. LOE is characterized by a sustained rate of activity for a specific period of time. LOE tasks are always on schedule, since BCWP always equals BCWS. [DOEEMGMT]

LEU: Low enriched uranium. LF: Landfills

LFRG: Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group [DOELLWRpt]

Life-Cycle Cost Estimate: The cost to complete the mission of the Environmental Management program. All the anticipated costs, associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative. [DOE/EM-0466]

light water reactor: The most common type of nuclear reactor in the world. Uses light water (ordinary water) as a moderator (to slow down neutrons in the reactor) and a coolant. Light water reactors are built in two variants: pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. [IEER] Uses ordinary water to slow down the fission process. [ATARC]

Limiting condition for operation: The section of Technical Specifications that identifies the lowest functional capability or performance level of equipment required for safe operation of the facility. [NRC]

Limiting safety system settings: Settings for automatic protective devices related to those variables having significant safety functions. Where a limiting safety system setting is specified for a variable on which a safety limit has been placed, the setting will assure that automatic protective action will correct the abnormal situation before a safety limit is exceeded. [NRC]

Linear accelerator (LINAC) An accelerator in which the accelerated particles move in a straight path. [AT]

linear energy transfer (LET): Refers to the rate of energy transfer (and thus damage) per unit at distance travelled. For example, alpha is high-LET radiation, while photons and electrons are low-LET radiation. [IEER]

Linear heat generation rate The heat generation rate per unit length of fuel rod, commonly expressed in kilowatts per foot of fuel rod (kw/ft). [NRC]

Line Item (LI) Project: Projects that are specifically reviewed and approved by Congress and have a total estimated cost greater than $2.0 million. [DOEEMGMT]

Liquid Scintillation Cocktail (LSC) : A common fluid used in medical laboratories to analyze DNA and proteins. It often uses radioactive tracers and RCRA listed hazardous materials such as Toluene and Xylene. The combination of the two make it a mixed waste. By volume it is the most common form of commercially generated (non-DOE) mixed waste (71% in a 1990 national study). [EPA-MW]

Lithium: The lightest metal, and the third lightest element. Lithium has two naturally occurring isotopes, lithium 6 and lithium 7. Lithium 6 targets are irradiated to manufacture tritium. [DOE/EM-0266]

Lithium Deuteride: Used as the fuel for the fusion bomb. A neutron is added to the lithium, producing tritium which is in turn fused with the deuteride. [ATARC]

Lithology: The gross physical character of a rock; or the microscopic study, description, and classification of rocks. [DOELL]

Little Boy: The first atomic bomb used in combat by the United States. [DOE/EM-0319] A 12.5 kiloton fission bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945. It killed 80,000 people and injured over 120,000 more. [ATARC]

LLRW: Low-Level Radioactive Waste [TNRCC]

LLRWPA: Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act [TNRCC]

LLRWPAA: Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act [TNRCC]

LLW: low-level waste (see also LLRW) [DOELLWRpt]

LLWDF: Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility [TNRCC]

Local emergency planning committee: A committee appointed by the State Emergency Response Commission, as required by Title III of SARA, to formulate a com-prehensive emergency plan for its district. [EPALLRW]

Long-lived radionuclide: For waste management purposes, a radioactive isotope with a half-life greater than approximately 30 years. [DOE/EM-0319]
Consists of or contains radionuclides with half life longer than about 35 years [TNRCC]

Long-Term Stewardship: All activities required to protect human health and the environment from hazards remaining after cleanup is complete. [DOE/EM-0466]

Loop: In a pressurized water reactor, the coolant flow path through piping from the reactor pressure vessel to the steam generator, to the reactor coolant pump, and back to the reactor pressure vessel. Large PWRs may have as many as four separate loops. [NRC]

Lop Nor: The People's Republic of China tests its nuclear weapons at Lop Nor. The first Chinese-made atom bomb (a fission device) was tested there on Oct. 16, 1964; the first guided missile on Oct. 27, 1966; and the first thermonuclear (fusion) device on Dec. 28, 1966. [ATARC]

Los Alamos National Laboratory: The U. S. Government laboratory, established in as part of the Manhattan Project, that designed the first nuclear weapons. Located about 60 miles north of Albuquerque. [DOE/EM-0266] Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory, a research center devoted to the applications of nuclear energy and to national defense, occupies a 199 sq km (77 sq mi) site in the Jemez Mountains in north central New Mexico. The laboratory, founded in 1943 as the Atomic Research Laboratory, is operated by the University of California and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Scientists at Los Alamos developed the first atomic bomb and the first U.S. hydrogen bomb. The laboratory program has now extended to the peaceful uses of atomic energy and basic research in such fields as physics, biology, chemistry, geothermal energy, and medicine. [ATARC]

Los Medanños: The area in southeastern New Mexico surrounding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site. In English, it means "dune country." [WIPPEA]

Loss of coolant accident: (LOCA) Those postulated accidents that result in a loss of reactor coolant at a rate in excess of the capability of the reactor makeup system from breaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, up to and including a break equivalent in size to the double-ended rupture of the largest pipe of the reactor coolant system. [NRC]

Low enriched uranium (LEU): Uranium with a content of the 235 U isotope greater than 0.7 percent and less than 20 percent. [DOE/EA-1172] Uranium that has been enriched until it consists of about 3 percent uranium 235 and 97 percent uranium 238. Used as nuclear reactor fuel. [DOE/EM-0266]

Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW or LLW) : A catch-all category of waste defined by U.S. law as all wastes that are not in other categories such as "high-level" waste and mill tailings; radioactivity of "low-level" wastes varies widely and includes both short- and long-lived isotopes. [IEER]

DOE Order 435.1 defines low-level waste as waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material (as defined in section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended), or naturally occurring radioactive material. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nanocuries per gram. [DOELLWRpt, DOE/EM-0466] Greater than Class C waste, Specific Performance Assessment Required waste, and Greater than Class C sealed sources are included in low-level waste. [DOE/EM-0342]

LLRW is waste that satisfies the definition of LLRW in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The LLRWPAA defines LLRW as "radioactive material that (A) is not high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material as defined in section 11e.2 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954) and;(B) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, consistent with existing law and in accordance with paragraph (A), classifies as low-level radioactive waste." In a sense, LLRW is defined by what it is not and consequently is the most broad category of waste. It encompasses materials that are slightly above natural radiation background levels to highly radioactive materials which require extreme caution when handling (Greater than Class C : GTCC). [EPA-MW]

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a general term for a wide range of wastes. Industries, hospitals and medical, educational, or research institutions; private or government laboratories; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities (e.g., nuclear power reactors and fuel fabrication plants) using radioactive materials generate low-level wastes as part of their normal operations. These wastes are generated in many physical and chemical forms and levels of contamination (see 10 CFR Part 61). [NRC]

Texas Dept of Health Bureau of Radiation Control states a very misleading definition that "most are generally short-lived and have low radioactivity." This definition is untrue. The LLRW classification has absolutely nothing to do with the degree of radioactivity or the length of halflife. Additionally, over 90% of LLW that is generated is from nuclear power plants, and includes nearly everything except for spent fuel and the reactors themselves.

Federal Law, The Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, [US Code Title 42, Ch 23, Div A, SubCh I, Sec. 2021b]
Sec. 2021b. - Definitions
(9) Low-level radioactive waste
The term ''low-level radioactive waste'' means radioactive material that -
(A) is not high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material (as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title); and
(B) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, consistent with existing law and in accordance with paragraph (A), classifies as low-level radioactive waste.

TAC § 401.004 - Texas Health and Safety Code:
Low-Level Radioactive Waste Defined
(a) Except as provided by Subsection (b), "low-level radioactive waste" means radioactive material that:
(1) is discarded or unwanted and is not exempt by board rule adopted under Section 401.106;
(2) is waste, as that term is defined by 10 C.F.R. Section 61.2; and
(3) is subject to:
- (A) concentration limits established under 10 C.F.R. Section 61.55, or compatible rules established by the department or commission, as applicable; and
- (B) disposal criteria established under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, or established by the department or commission, as applicable.
(b) "Low-level radioactive waste" does not include:
(1) high-level radioactive waste as defined by 10 C.F.R. Section 60.2;
(2) spent nuclear fuel as defined by 10 C.F.R. Section 72.3;
(3) by-product material described by Section 401.003(3)(B);
(4) naturally occurring radioactive material waste that is not oil and gas NORM waste; or
(5) oil and gas NORM waste.

Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) : LLMW is waste that contains LLRW and hazardous waste. [EPA-MW]

Low population zone (LPZ): An area of low population density often required around a nuclear installation before being built. The number and density of residents is of concern in emergency planning so that certain protective measures (such as notification and instructions to residents) can be accomplished in a timely manner. [NRC]

LTP License Termination Plan [CY]

Lucky Dragon: The Fukuryu Maru (Lucky Dragon) was a small Japanese tuna boat, fishing about 90 miles east of Bikini at the time of the BRAVO test. About two hours after the explosion a 'snow' of radioactive ash composed of vaporized coral began to fall on the ship. Within hours, the crew members began to experience burning and nausea. Upon returning to Japan, many were hospitalized and one eventually went into a coma and died. Though the U.S. denied responsibility, it sent the widow a check for 2.5 million yen "as a token of sympathy." [ATARC]

LUST: Leaking Underground Storage Tank

|------------------------ M ------------------------|

M/A: manual or automatic [NUREG-0544]

MAA: material access area [NUREG-0544]

MAAC: Mid-Atlantic Area Council [NUREG-0544]

MAAP: material access authorization program, modular accident analysis program [NUREG-0544]

MAC: maintenance action card, management advisory committee, Management Analysis Co., material accounting, maximum allowable concentration [NUREG-0544]

MACCT: multiple assembly cooling cask test [NUREG-0544]

MAD: maintenance assembly-disassembly [NUREG-0544]

MAELU: Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters [NUREG-0544]

MAG: magnetics [NUREG-0544]

MAI: miscellaneous actuation instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

MAIN: Mid-American Interpool Network [NUREG-0544]

MAIT: matrix analysis of insider threat [NUREG-0544]

MAM: management and administration manual [NUREG-0544]

MAN: Maschinenfabrik Augsberg-Nürnberg, A.G. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

MAP: maintenance action plan, maintenance assessment package, methodology assessment program [NUREG-0544]

MAPI: Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

MAPLHGR: maximum average planar linear heat-generation rate, maximum average planar linear heat-generation ratio [NUREG-0544]

MAR: maintenance action request [NUREG-0544]

MARAD: Maritime Administration [NUREG-0544]

MARCA: Mid-Continent Area Reliability Coordination Agreement [NUREG-0544]

MARCH: meltdown accident response characteristic [NUREG-0544]

MASE: microwave amplification by stimulated emission [NUREG-0544]

MAT: management advisory team [NUREG-0544]

MB: mixed bed [NUREG-0544]

MB-2: Model Boiler-Two [NUREG-0544]

MBA: material balance area [NUREG-0544]

MBO: management by objective [NUREG-0544]

MBP: monobutyl phosphate [NUREG-0544]

Mbq: megabecquerel [NUREG-0544]

MBR: material balance report [NUREG-0544]

MC: main circulator, main condenser, major component, manual chapter (NRC), metal clad, Mitsubishi Corporation [NUREG-0544]

MCA: material control and accountability, maximum credible accident, multichannel analyzer [NUREG-0544]

MC&A: material control and accounting [NUREG-0544]

MCAP: Management Corrective Action Plan [NUREG-0544]

MCB: main control board [NUREG-0544]

MCC: Materials Characterization Center, motor control center, movement control center [NUREG-0544]

MCCB: molded-case circuit breaker [NUREG-0544]

MCES: main condenser evacuation system [NUREG-0544]

MCET: materials, chemical, and environmental technology [NUREG-0544]

MCHFR: minimum critical heat flux rate, minimum critical heat flux ratio [NUREG-0544]

MCI: managed cost improvement, millicurie [NUREG-0544]

MCIG: miscellaneous control and instrumentation group [NUREG-0544]

MCIS: materials compatibility in sodium [NUREG-0544]

MCLAMS: measurement, control, LEID (limit of error of the inventory difference) and MUF (material unaccounted for) ID (inventory difference) simulation [NUREG-0544]

MCOV: maximum continuous operating voltage [NUREG-0544]

MCPR: maximum critical power ratio, minimum critical power ratio [NUREG-0544]

MCR: main control room, material certification report [NUREG-0544]

MCREC: main control room environmental control [NUREG-0544]

MCRH: main control room habitability [NUREG-0544]

MCRHS: main control room habitability system [NUREG-0544]

MCS: main circulator subsystem, master control station, Monte Carlo Sampling [NUREG-0544]

MCSS: metallic core support structure [NUREG-0544]

MCV: movable closure valve [NUREG-0544]

MD: management directive, measured discard [NUREG-0544]

MDA: minimum detectable activity [NUREG-0544]

MDAFWP: motor-driven auxiliary feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

MDB: master database [NUREG-0544]

MDC: maximum dependable capacity, minimum detectable concentration, moderator density coefficient [NUREG-0544]

MDCT: mechanical draft cooling tower [NUREG-0544]

MDEFWP: motor-driven emergency feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

MDEP: Maine Department of Environmental Protection [NUREG-0544]

MDF: mechanical design flow [NUREG-0544]

MDHR: mini-decay heat removal [NUREG-0544]

MDI: Many Diverse Interests, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

MDL: minimum detectable limit [NUREG-0544]

MDM: metal disintegration machining, modified diffusion method [NUREG-0544]

MDNBR: minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio [NUREG-0544]

MDP: master decommissioning plan [NUREG-0544]

MDR: manufacturer's date report [NUREG-0544]

MDS: megawatt demand setter [NUREG-0544]

MDU: motion detection unit [NUREG-0544]

ME: maintenance effectiveness [NUREG-0544]

M&E: material and equipment [NUREG-0544]

MEA: maintenance engineering analysis, Materials Engineering Associates [NUREG-0544]

MEAG: Metropolitan Electric Authority of Georgia [NUREG-0544]

MEC: Mid American Energy Co. [NUREG-0544]

MECAS: multienergy californium assay system [NUREG-0544]

MEED: Metropolitan Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

MEHC: Mid American Energy Holdings Co. [NUREG-0544]

MEF: median energy of fission [NUREG-0544]

MEFV: maintenance equipment floor valve [NUREG-0544]

MEGAS: multienergy gamma assay system [NUREG-0544]

MEI: maintenance effectiveness indicator, maximally exposed individual [NUREG-0544]

MEIS: minimum electrical isolation scheme [NUREG-0544]

MEL: master equipment list, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

MELB: moderate-energy line break [NUREG-0544]

MELC: moderate-energy line crack [NUREG-0544]

MEOD: maximum extended operating domain [NUREG-0544]

MEPNS: Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety (Ukraine) [NUREG-0544]

MEQ: mechanical equipment qualification [NUREG-0544]

MERIT: management evaluation and risk identification tree [NUREG-0544]

MERITS: methodically engineered, restructured, and improved technical specifications [NUREG-0544]

MERLIN: Medium-Energy, Light-Water-Moderated, Industrial Nuclear Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

MES: maintenance engineering services [NUREG-0544]

MESA: multielement skew angle [NUREG-0544]

MESF: minimum engineered safety feature [NUREG-0544]

MESL: maximum emergency service load [NUREG-0544]

METAFRAM: Métallurgie Française des Poudres, S.A. (France) [NUREG-0544]

MEU: medium-enriched uranium [NUREG-0544]

MeV: million electron volts [NUREG-0544]

MEWS: Mixed Energy Waste Study [NUREG-0544]

MF: mound facility [NUREG-0544]

MFB: main feeder bus [NUREG-0544]

MFC: master flow controller [NUREG-0544]

MFCI: molten fuel coolant interaction [NUREG-0544]

MFCS: main feedwater control system [NUREG-0544]

MFI: minimum flow interlock [NUREG-0544]

MFIS: main feedwater isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

MFIV: main feedwater isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

MFL: main feedwater line, master fuse list, maximum foreseeable loss [NUREG-0544]

MFLPD: maximum fraction of limiting power density [NUREG-0544]

MFP: main feed power, main feedwater pump, mixed fission product [NUREG-0544]

MFPG: mixed fission products generator [NUREG-0544]

MFPT: main feedwater pump turbine [NUREG-0544]

MFPTC: main feed pump turbine condenser [NUREG-0544]

MFRV: main feedwater regulation valve [NUREG-0544]

MFS: main feedwater system, mobilization for survival [NUREG-0544]

MFT: multiprogramming with a fixed number of tasks [NUREG-0544]

MFTA: multiduct fuel test assembly [NUREG-0544]

MFV: main feedwater valve, maintenance floor valve [NUREG-0544]

MFW: main feedwater [NUREG-0544]

MFWCS: main feedwater and condensate system [NUREG-0544]

MFWLB: main feedwater line break [NUREG-0544]

MFWRV: main feedwater regulating valve [NUREG-0544]

MFWV: main feedwater valve [NUREG-0544]

MG: manual group, motor generator [NUREG-0544]

M/G: motor generator [NUREG-0544]

M-G: motor generator [NUREG-0544]

MGCR: maritime gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

MGCR-CX: maritime gas-cooled reactor--critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

MGDS: mined geologic disposal system [NUREG-0544]

MGEC: Madison Gas & Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

MGVC: manual governing valve control [NUREG-0544]

MHA: maximum hypothetical accident [NUREG-0544]

MH-1A: Mobile High Power Plant No. 1A [NUREG-0544]

MHC: mechanical-hydraulic control [NUREG-0544]

MHD: magnetohydrodynamics [NUREG-0544]

MHDC: magnetohydrodynamic conversion [NUREG-0544]

MHFPR: maximum hypothetical fission-product release [NUREG-0544]

MHI: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

MHNGS: Marble Hill Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

MHP: material handling procedure [NUREG-0544]

MHTGR: modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor [NUREG-0544]

MHTS: main heat transport system [NUREG-0544]

MI: manual individual, mineral insulated [NUREG-0544]

MIBK: methyl isobutyl ketone [NUREG-0544]

MIC: microbiologically induced corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion [NUREG-0544]

MICDS: movable in-core detector system [NUREG-0544]

MIDAS: meteorological information and dose acquisition system, meteorological information and dose assessment system [NUREG-0544]

MIDS: movable instrument drive system [NUREG-0544]

M&IE: meals and incidental expenses [NUREG-0544]

MIL: material identification list, material identification log [NUREG-0544]

MIMS: metal impact monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

MINET: momentum integral network [NUREG-0544]

MIP: maintenance improvement program, master inspection plan [NUREG-0544]

MIPS: master inspection planning system [NUREG-0544]

MIS: maintenance information system , management information system [NUREG-0544]

MIST: maximum isothermal system temperature, minor isotopes safeguards technique, multiloop integral system test [NUREG-0544]

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology [NUREG-0544]

MITI: Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

MITR: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor [NUREG-0544]

MKU: Mary Kathleen Uranium, Ltd. (Australia) [NUREG-0544]

ML: manufacturing license [NUREG-0544]

ML-1: Mobile Low Power Plant No. 1 [NUREG-0544]

MLD: mean low-water datum/data, median lethal dose [NUREG-0544]

MLHGR: maximum linear heat generation rate, maximum linear heat generation ratio [NUREG-0544]

MLO: main lube oil [NUREG-0544]

MLP: main loop pump [NUREG-0544]

MLS: Medilab Select (Belgium), multi-level secure [NUREG-0544]

MLSR: Monthly Letter Status Report [NUREG-0544]

MLSV: main loop shutoff valve [NUREG-0544]

MLW: mean low water [NUREG-0544]

MLWMS: miscellaneous liquid waste management system [NUREG-0544]

MM: mechanical maintenance, modified Mercalli [NUREG-0544]

MME: Mercantile Marine Engineering and Graving Docks Co., N.V. (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

MMG: motor-motor generator [NUREG-0544]

MMI: man-machine interface, modified Mercalli intensity [NUREG-0544]

MMP: maintenance manual procedure [NUREG-0544]

MMPA: Magnetic Material Producers Association [NUREG-0544]

MMSA: man-machine systems analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

MMWEC: Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

MNCR: material nonconformance report [NUREG-0544]

MNGP: Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant [NUREG-0544]

MNP: maximum negative pressure [NUREG-0544]

MNPS: Millstone Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

MNS: McGuire Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

M&O: management and organizational [NUREG-0544]

MO: mixed oxide, modulate open, motor operator [NUREG-0544]

MOA: memorandum/memoranda of agreement [NUREG-0544]

MOC: middle of cycle, minimum operable channel [NUREG-0544]

MOD: motor-operated disconnect [NUREG-0544]

MODE: maximum organ dose equivalent [NUREG-0544]

MODEM: modulator-demodulator [NUREG-0544]

MONAL: mobile nondestructive assay laboratory [NUREG-0544]

MOOS: maintenance out of service [NUREG-0544]

MOP: maintenance outline procedure [NUREG-0544]

MOR: monthly operating report [NUREG-0544]

MORT: management oversight risk tree [NUREG-0544]

MOTA: materials open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

MOU: memorandum/memoranda of understanding [NUREG-0544]

MOV: metal oxide varister, motor-operated valve [NUREG-0544]

MOVATS: motor-operated valve analysis and test system [NUREG-0544]

MOX: mixed oxide [NUREG-0544]

MOXF: mixed-oxide fuel [NUREG-0544]

MP: magnetic particle, maintenance procedure, Midland Plant [NUREG-0544]

MPA: multiplant action, multiplant activity [NUREG-0544]

MPAI: maximum permissible annual intake [NUREG-0544]

MPBB: maximum permissible body burden [NUREG-0544]

MPC: maximum permissible concentration, Metals Properties Council, Montana Power Co., multi-purpose canister [NUREG-0544]

MPCA: maximum permissible concentration in air [NUREG-0544]

MPCW: maximum permissible concentration in water [NUREG-0544]

MPD: maximum permissible dose [NUREG-0544]

MPE: maximum permissible exposure [NUREG-0544]

MPFF: maintenance preventable functional failure [NUREG-0544]

MPL: master parts list, maximum permissible level, mechanical properties loop [NUREG-0544]

MP&L: Mississippi Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

MPO: manufacturing production order [NUREG-0544]

MPP: maximum positive pressure [NUREG-0544]

M&PP: materials and plant protection [NUREG-0544]

MPR: mechanical pressure regulator [NUREG-0544]

MPRE: medium-power reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

MPRT: multipurpose rail transport [NUREG-0544]

MPS: manpower system [NUREG-0544]

mps: meter per second [NUREG-0544]

MPS: monitoring and protection system, multipurpose sampler [NUREG-0544]

MPSC: Maine Public Service Co. [NUREG-0544]

MPT: magnetic particle testing, minimum pressurization temperature [NUREG-0544]

MPX: multiplexer [NUREG-0544]

MQE: materials and qualifications engineering, mechanical quality engineering [NUREG-0544]

MQS: motion to quash subpoena [NUREG-0544]

MR: material requisition, monitoring report [NUREG-0544]

MRB: Management Review Board [NUREG-0544]

MRBI: maintenance rule baseline inspection [NUREG-0544]

MRBT: multirod burst test [NUREG-0544]

MRC: Medical Research Council (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

MREM: millirem [NUREG-0544]

MRI: material receiving instruction [NUREG-0544]

MRMU: mobile radiological measuring unit [NUREG-0544]

MRO: medical review officer [NUREG-0544]

MRP: modification/rework package [NUREG-0544]

MRPC: motorized rotating pancake coil [NUREG-0544]

MRR: material receiving report, medical research reactor [NUREG-0544]

MRS: manipulator repair shop, manufacturer's record sheet, monitored retrievable storage [NUREG-0544]

MRSS: main and reheat steam system [NUREG-0544]

MS: main steam, manual sequential, margin of safety, milestone [NUREG-0544]

M/S: maintenance/surveillance [NUREG-0544]

MSA: management self-assessment, material surveillance assembly, mechanical signature analysis/analyses, mines safety appliance [NUREG-0544]

MSAR: mines safety appliance research [NUREG-0544]

MSB: main steamline break, multi-assembly sealed basket [NUREG-0544]

MSBE: molten salt breeder experiment [NUREG-0544]

MSBR: molten salt breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

MSCA: mixed spectrum critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

MSCI: molten steel coolant interaction [NUREG-0544]

MSG: modular steam generator [NUREG-0544]

MSGTR: multiple steam generator tube rupture [NUREG-0544]

MSHA: Mine Safety and Health Administration [NUREG-0544]

MSICV: main steam isolation check valve [NUREG-0544]

MSIP: modified stabilization in place [NUREG-0544]

MSIS: main steam isolation signal [NUREG-0544]

MSIV: main steam isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

MSIVLCS: main steamline isolation valve leakage control system [NUREG-0544]

MSL: main steamline, maximum still-water level, mean sea level [NUREG-0544]

MSLA: main steamline accident [NUREG-0544]

MSLB: main steamline break [NUREG-0544]

MSLD: mass spectrometer leak detector [NUREG-0544]

MSLI: main steamline isolation [NUREG-0544]

MSLIVSS: main steamline isolation valve sealing system [NUREG-0544]

MSLRDS: main steamline rupture detection system [NUREG-0544]

MSM: master/slave manipulator, modified source multiplication [NUREG-0544]

MSNM: special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance [NUREG-0544]

MSPB: Merit System Protection Board [NUREG-0544]

MSR: material status report, maximum steam rate, moisture separator reheater, molten salt reactor [NUREG-0544]

MSRE: molten salt reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

MSRP: Multiple System Responses Program [NUREG-0544]

MSRV: main steam relief valve [NUREG-0544]

MSS: main steam system, main support structure, management systems section, Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, mixed spectrum superheater, modified scram system [NUREG-0544]

MSSC: more safety-significant component [NUREG-0544]

MSSCE: mixed spectrum superheater critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

MSSR: mixed spectrum superheat reactor, main steam safety relief (valve) [NUREG-0544]

MSSS: main steam supply system, main steam support structure [NUREG-0544]

MSSV: main steam safety valve, main steam shutoff valve [NUREG-0544]

MSV: mean square voltage [NUREG-0544]

MS&W: maintenance shop and warehouse [NUREG-0544]

MT: magnetic particle test, magnetic particle testing, material transfer, materials test, melt through [NUREG-0544]

MTBF: mean time between failures [NUREG-0544]

MTC: moderator temperature coefficient, multi-assembly transfer cask [NUREG-0544]

M&TE: measuring and test equipment [NUREG-0544]

MTER: multitest evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

MTF: mean time to failure [NUREG-0544]

MTG: main turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

MT/G: main turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

MTI: maintenance team inspection, mandatory team inspection, Mechanical Technology, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

MTL: materials test loop, Mobiltherm light [NUREG-0544]

MTOS: magnetic tape operations system [NUREG-0544]

MTPF: maximum total peaking factor [NUREG-0544]

MTR: materials testing reactor [NUREG-0544]

MTS: module tracking system [NUREG-0544]

MTT: microwave theory and techniques [NUREG-0544]

MTTF: mean time to failure [NUREG-0544]

MTTR: mean time to repair, mean time to replacement [NUREG-0544]

MTU: metric ton of uranium, metric ton unit, module test unit [NUREG-0544]

MU: makeup [NUREG-0544]

MUF: material unaccounted for [NUREG-0544]

MUG: MOV Users Group [NUREG-0544]

MU&P: makeup and purification [NUREG-0544]

MUR: management update and retrieval, mockup reactor [NUREG-0544]

MUSE: Musicians United for Safe Energy [NUREG-0544]

MUT: makeup tank [NUREG-0544]

MUTN: MOVATS Users Technical Notice [NUREG-0544]

MUX: multiplexer [NUREG-0544]

MVP: mechanical vacuum pump [NUREG-0544]

MVS: multiple virtual storage [NUREG-0544]

MVT: multiprogramming with a variable number of tasks [NUREG-0544]

MW: megawatt [NUREG-0544]

MWDC: multiple weld data card [NUREG-0544]

Mwe: megawatt electric [NUREG-0544]

MWHT: miscellaneous waste holdup tank [NUREG-0544]

MWO: maintenance work order [NUREG-0544]

MWS: makeup water system [NUREG-0544]

MWST: makeup water storage tank, miscellaneous waste storage tank [NUREG-0544]

Mwt: megawatt thermal [NUREG-0544]

MW-yr: megawatt-year [NUREG-0544]

MYAP: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

MYAPS: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station [NUREG-0544]

MZFR: Mehrzweck Forschungsreaktor (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

m: metastable [DOELLWRpt]

m3: cubic meters [DOELLWRpt]

Mach Stem: The shock front formed by the merging of the incident and reflected shock fronts from an explosion. [ATARC]

Macroencapsulation: A process using molten polyethylene (or similar material) to surround items such as debris with radioactive surface contamination or pieces of con-taminated lead, thereby rendering the hazardous constituents immobile and unable to leach into the surrounding environment. [EPALLRW]

MACT Rule: MACT Rule applies to hazardous waste incinerators, cement kilns, and light weight aggregate kilns and sets the emission standards for D/F, Hg, Sb, As, Be, Cr, HCl/Cl2, CO, and HC. The rules requires continuous emissions monitoring, tied in with operational performance controls and a feed shutoff. The EPA plans to issue the final MACT Rule in 1998. [DOE/EM-0342]

Magenta Dolomite: The upper of the two dolomite layers within the Rustler Formation that are locally water-bearing. [WIPPEA]

Magnetic confinement In fusion research, the use of shaped magnetic fields to confine a plasma. [AT]

magnitude (earthquake) A measure of the total energy released by an earthquake. It is commonly measured in numerical units on the Richter scale. Each unit, e.g. 7, is different from an adjacent unit by a factor of 30. [WIPPEA]

Major Accomplishments Description: The description of the major accomplishments for a unit of work during the reporting period. [DOEEMGMT]

Major Item of Equipment (MIE): Capital equipment not related to construction, or a group of automatic data processing (ADP) components having a total estimated purchase value of $1,000,000 or more, including related capital costs. (See Major System)[DOEEMGMT]

Major Systems Acquisition (MSA) (See Strategic Systems)

Major System (formerly Major Project)
A special type of line item project that is a single stand-alone effort within a project mission area that is a primary means to advance the Department's strategic goals. Designation of a major system is determined by the Secretary, based on cost ($100 to 400 million), risk factors, international implications, stakeholder interest, and national security. [DOEEMGMT]

Major Threshold: A variance threshold that is used to isolate values that fall outside set criteria. [DOEEMGMT]

Manhattan Engineer District (MED): Established in August 1942, this district of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was the agency authorized to oversee the design, production, and testing of the first nuclear weapons. On January 1, 1947, the district transferred authority over nuclear weapons stewardship to the civilian authority of the newly established Atomic Energy Commission; the district was abolished later that year. [DOE/EM-0319]

Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946. The Hanford Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were created for this effort. The project was named for the Manhattan Engineer District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [DOE/EM-0466] The Manhattan Project was the code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. The program was under the leadership of Gen. Leslie Groves, and theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The main laboratory was built on an isolated mesa at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The first atomic bomb was tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. [ATARC]

MARSSIM - Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual. Guidance developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Defense that provides a statistical methodology for evaluating radiation survey data. [CY]

MARV: The maneuvering reentry vehicle (MARV) is one of the latest developments in nuclear weapons delivery systems. MARVs are designed either to deliver a nuclear warhead with pinpoint accuracy, or to enable the warhead to avoid enemy detection and destruction through evasive maneuvers. MARVs are expected to have an accuracy of 36.6 m (120 ft) after a flight of 1,609 km (1,000 mi). MARVs designed for evasive maneuvers employ such techniques as small steering rockets, internal weight shifting, and movable flaps or fins. [ATARC]

Mass defect The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the sum of the masses of its constituent nucleons. It is related to the binding energy of the nucleus by Einstein's equation E=mc2. [AT] The mass of an atom's nucleus is less than the sum of its constituents' masses. [ATARC]

Mass-energy equation: The equation developed by Albert Einstein, which is usually given as E=mc2, showing that, when the energy of a body changes by an amount E (no matter what form the energy takes), the mass, m, of the body will change by an amount equal to E/c2. The factor c2, the square of the speed of light in a vacuum (3x108 meters/second), may be regarded as the conversion factor relating units of mass and energy. The equation predicted the possibility of releasing enormous amounts of energy by the conversion of mass to energy. It is also called the Einstein Equation. [NRC]

mass number (symbolized A): The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in a nucleus. [IEER]

Mass spectrometer An analytical instrument in which accelerate positive ions of a material are separated electromagnetically according to their charge to mass ratios. Different species can be identified and accurate measurements made of their relative concentrations. [AT]

Matched sales: These are uranium sales under the Suspension Agreement that must comprise an equal amount of Russian natural uranium and newly produced domestic uranium. [DOE/EA-1172]

Materials in Inventory Initiative: Established in February 1995 by the Department of Energy to quantify surplus materials and identify potential associated concerns. This initiative encompassed materials in storage that are not currently in use, that have not been used for a period of at least one year, and that are not expected to be used within the next year. Categories of materials to be reviewed include: scrap metals, enriched and natural uranium, lithium, sodium, chemicals, plutonium and other Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards System-tracked materials, and lead. [DOELL]

Materials in inventory: Materials that are not currently in use (i.e., have not been used during the last year and are not expected to be used within the coming year) and have not been designated as waste or set aside by the Nuclear Weapons Council for national defense purposes. For nuclear materials, 'not currently in use' is synonymous with 'inactive' per DOE Order 5660.1B. [DOE/EM-0319]

Maximum dependable capacity (gross): Dependable main-unit gross generating capacity, winter or summer, whichever is smaller. The dependable capacity varies because the unit efficiency varies during the year due to temperature variations in cooling water. It is the gross electrical output as measured at the output terminals of the turbine generator during the most restrictive seasonal conditions (usually summer). [NRC]

Maximum dependable capacity (net): Gross maximum dependable generating capacity less the normal station service loads.[NRC]

MCLs: Maximum Contaminant Levels (Drinking Water Standards)

MCL - Maximum concentration limit, the regulatory limit for various constituents, usually organics and inorganics; there are different levels for different media, such as air, soil, and water. The MCL cannot be exceeded. [CY]

Megawatt /Megawatt hour (MWh): One million (106) watts or watt-hours. [NRC]

Metallurgical Laboratory (Met. Lab): Located at the University of Chicago, and led by Enrico Fermi, began work towards a controlled chain reaction. Chicago Pile Number One or CP-1 went critical on December 2, 1942. They continued to work on further investigation of nuclear reactions. The most vocal protest over the bomb's use came from the Met. Lab and was led by Leo Szilard. [ATARC]

metric ton: 1,000 kilograms of about 2,204 pounds. The usual U.S. ton measurement, called a short ton, is 2,000 pounds. [IEER]

MeV: One million electron volts. [LBNL] A unit of energy equivalent to 1.6 -6 erg. Approximately 200 MeV of energy are produced for every nucleus that undergoes fission.

mi: mile [DOELLWRpt]

micron: One one-millionth of a meter. [IEER]

Midgetman: Recommended for development by the bipartisan Presidential Commission on Strategic Forces, Midgetman is a new, small, highly mobile, single-warhead intercontinental ballistic missile. While the development and eventual deployment of Midgetman is expected to strengthen the land-based segment of the U.S. nuclear defense triad, it is also expected to influence or alter arms control negotiations. The single-warhead Midgetman would be fully effective only if limitations were set on the total number of warheads. [ATARC]

MIKE Test, The: On November 1, 1952 a 10.4 megaton thermonuclear explosion, code-named MIKE, at Eniwetok Atoll demonstrated the release of energy from nuclear fusion. The apparatus was an experimental device, not a weapon, that had been constructed on the basis of the principles developed by Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam. The island of Elugelab in the Eniwetok Atoll on which the test was conducted, was completely vaporized. [ATARC]

Milestone: An important or critical event that must occur in the project cycle to achieve project objectives. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Actual Date: The date when a milestone is accomplished. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Category: The status category for a milestone that further defines the progress of ongoing activities. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Comments: A narrative explanation of milestone status on an exception basis. If a milestone is overdue or has a forecast delay or forecast early status, the comments provide other information required by the program or project manager. The information may include an explanation for the projected delay; the status of negotiations with regulators, including date of agreement; the enforcement status, including existing or projected Notices of Violation (NOVs) or fines and penalties; or a revised forecast date. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Decrement Date: The projected date a milestone can be accomplished assuming that the decrement level funding is provided for the unit of work. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Description: Information about a milestone in a form that is understandable to a lay person. The milestone description more fully describes a milestone if the milestone title is not sufficient. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Forecast Date: The date when an Operations/Field Office Project Manager expects to accomplish a milestone if this date is different from the planned date. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Keyword: A word used to categorize a milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Level: The Baseline Change Control Board level or change authority level for a milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Number: An optional alphanumeric identifier for a milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Planned Date: The date when a milestone is planned to be accomplished. For enforceable agreements, the planned date is the date recorded in the agreement. For other baselines milestones, the planned date is the baseline date and therefore, can only be changed through a Baseline Change Control Board action. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Planning Date: The projected date on which the milestone can be accomplished assuming that the planning level funding is provided for the unit of work. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Regulatory Driver Reference: The specific reference or source document for the regulatory requirement that applies to the completion of the milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Status: An evaluation of the milestone planned, actual, and forecast dates against the as-of date.

Milestone Target Date: The protected date a milestone can be accomplished assuming that the target level funding is provided for the unit of work. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Title: A brief descriptive title identifying the milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milestone Type: An alphabetic code indicating the type of milestone. [DOEEMGMT]

Milliroentgen: One thousandth of a roentgen, R. (1 mR = 10-3R) [NRC]

Mill tailings: Naturally radioactive residue from the processing of uranium ore. Although the milling process recovers about 93 percent of the uranium, the residues (or tailings), contain several naturally occurring radioactive elements, including uranium, thorium, radium, polonium, and radon. [EPALLRW]
A slurry of about 40 percent solids (including radioactive particles and chemically hazardous metals) and 60 percent liquid, primarily water. [IEER]
The sand-like materials left over from separating uranium from its ore. More than 99 percent of the ore becomes tailings. Mill tailings, which are one type of 11 e(2) byproduct material, typically contain about 85 percent of the radioactivity present in unprocessed ore. [DOE/EM-0319]
See also: "Uranium Mill Tailings"

Milk: To elute a cow. [LBNL]

MIMS: Manifest Information Management System [TNRCC]

Mined geologic disposal: See geologic repository. [DOE/EM-0266]

Minigenerator: A trademark of Union Carbide Corporation that is used to identify radioisotope generator systems for educational use. [LBNL]

Minimal Action: An alternative scenario that completely rescopes projects and activities to minimize costs while maintaining Base Case human health and environmental risks and without the restrictions of current environmental regulations or agreements. One of three alternative cases analyzed as part of the Baseline Report. [DOELL]

Minimum treatment (for LLW) The least amount of treatment required to allow on-site disposal or transportation to another site for disposal. [EPALLRW]

Minor Threshold: A variance threshold that is used to isolate those values that fall between negligible and critical parameters. [DOEEMGMT]

Minuteman Missile: Minuteman was one of the earliest intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) developed by the United States. Of the three versions of Minuteman that have been deployed, only Minuteman III is still in service. The Minuteman III is susceptible to reduction under the terms of the 1991 START treaty, although the treaty does not specify the actual weapons by name. Cuts in the number of Minuteman III warheads are, therefore, anticipated. [ATARC]

Mixed Transuranic Waste (MTRU) : MTRU contains both Transuranic (TRU) and hazardous wastes. Approximately 55% of DOE's TRU is MTRU. [EPA-MW]

Mixed Waste (MW) : MW contains both hazardous waste (as defined by RCRA and its amendments) and radioactive waste (as defined by AEA and its amendments). It is jointly regulated by NRC or NRC's Agreement States and EPA or EPA's RCRA Authorized States. The fundamental and most comprehensive statutory definition is found in the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) where Section 1004(41) was added to RCRA: "The term 'mixed waste' means waste that contains both hazardous waste and source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954." [EPA-MW]

Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW): DOE Order 435.1 defines mixed low-level waste as waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. [DOE/ LLW DispCapRpt Rev2]

Mixed oxide fuel: A mixture of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide used to fuel a reactor. Often it is abbreviated as "MOX." Conventional fuel is made of pure uranium oxide. [NRC]

Moderator: A material, such as ordinary water, heavy water, or graphite, that is used in a reactor to slow down high-velocity neutrons, thus decreasing the likelihood of fission. [NRC] A material used to reduce neutron energy (for fissioning if in a reactor) by elastic scattering. [DOE-IDB97]

Moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity: The change in reactivity per degree change in moderator temperature due to the property of the reactor moderator to slow down fewer neutrons as its temperature increases. This acts to stabilize power reactor operations. [NRC]

Molecules: Larger structures formed by the bonding of atoms. [DOE/EM-0266]

monitoring well - A hole drilled into the ground with a pipe inserted to allow for the collection of groundwater samples. [CY]

MOX: A fuel composed of a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium dioxide. [IEER] See Mixed Oxide Fuel

Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle (MIRV): A package of two or more warheads which can be carried by a single ballistic missile but are deliverable to separate targets. [ATARC]

Multi-purpose canister - Also MPC. A canister containing spent fuel assemblies or high level waste that is certified for dry storage, transporting offsite and for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) disposal repository. [CY]

mR/hr: millirem per hour [DOELLWRpt]

MRS facility: A proposed facility for the monitored retrievable storage of spent nuclear fuel from commercial power plants. Such a facility would permit continuous monitoring, management, and maintenance of these wastes and provide for their ready retrieval for further processing or disposal. [DOE-IDB97] MRS has also been implemented in other waste management concepts, such as assured isolation.

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet

Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): The present situation in which the superpowers have the ability to inflict an unacceptable degree of damage upon each other even after absorbing a first strike; a condition which deters both sides from initiating hostilities. [ATARC]

MX Missile: The United States MX (MX‚missile experimental) program has had a long and controversial history. Beginning in the 1960s, U.S. military experts anticipated growing improvement in the accuracy and number of Soviet missile systems, to the point where they would be able to attack and destroy the concrete underground silos within which the land-based U. S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) were housed. It therefore seemed necessary that new missiles should be deployed in such a way that they would be invulnerable to Soviet attack. [ATARC]

|------------------------ N ------------------------|

NA: not applicable, not available [NUREG-0544]

N/A: not applicable [NUREG-0544]

NAA: neutron activation analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

NAB: nuclear assembly building [NUREG-0544]

NAC: national agency check, Nuclear Assurance Corporation [NUREG-0544]

NACE: National Association of Corrosion Engineers [NUREG-0544]

NAD: nuclear accident dosimetry [NUREG-0544]

NAEC: North Anna Environmental Coalition [NUREG-0544]

NAESCO: North Atlantic Energy Service Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement [NUREG-0544]

NAGRA: Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfälle (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

NAI: sodium iodide [NUREG-0544]

NAIG: Nippon Atomic Industry Group Co., Ltd. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

NAN: Nuclear Awareness Network [NUREG-0544]

NANT: National Academy for Nuclear Training [NUREG-0544]

NAPA: National Academy of Public Administration [NUREG-0544]

NAPCA: National Air Pollution Control Administration [NUREG-0544]

NAPS: North Anna Power Station [NUREG-0544]

NAPSIC: North American Power Systems Interconnection Committee [NUREG-0544]

NAPUS: nuclear auxiliary power unit system [NUREG-0544]

NARA: National Archives and Records Administration [NUREG-0544]

NARADCom: Natick Research and Development Command [NUREG-0544]

NARM: naturally occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material [NUREG-0544]

NARUC: National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners [NUREG-0544]

NAS: National Academy of Sciences, nonreactor assessment staff [NUREG-0544]

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NUREG-0544]

NASAP: Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program [NUREG-0544]

NAS-NRC: National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council [NUREG-0544]

NASE: National Academies of Science [NUREG-0544]

NASUCA: National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates [NUREG-0544]

NAWAS: national warning system [NUREG-0544]

NB: nuclear blank, nuclear boiler [NUREG-0544]

NBGEL: New Bedford Gas and Edison Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

NBL: New Brunswick Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

NBP: New Brunswick Power (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

NBR: nuclear boiler rated [NUREG-0544]

NBS: National Bureau of Standards (now National Institute of Standards and Technology) [NUREG-0544]

NBSR: National Bureau of Standards Reactor [NUREG-0544]

NC: neutron controller, normally closed, nuclear construction [NUREG-0544]

NCA: neutron control assembly [NUREG-0544]

NCAI: National Congress of American Indians [NUREG-0544]

NCBR: near-commercial breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

NCF: no containment failure [NUREG-0544]

NCIG: Nuclear Construction Issues Group (EPRI) [NUREG-0544]

NCP: network control program [NUREG-0544]

NCR: nonconformance report, nonconforming condition report, notification-of-change report [NUREG-0544]

NCRERP: North Carolina Radiation Emergency Response Plan [NUREG-0544]

NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection [NUREG-0544]

NCRP(M): National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements [NUREG-0544]

NCRWS: National Campaign for Radioactive Waste Safety [NUREG-0544]

NCS: national communications system, nuclear criticality safety [NUREG-0544]

NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications [NUREG-0544]

NCSAG: Nuclear Cross Section Advisory Group [NUREG-0544]

NCSCR: North Carolina State College Reactor [NUREG-0544]

NCSL: National Conference of State Legislatures [NUREG-0544]

NCSS: neutron control subsystem [NUREG-0544]

NCSUR: North Carolina State University Reactor [NUREG-0544]

NCV: non-cited violation [NUREG-0544]

NCVP: natural circulation verification program [NUREG-0544]

ND: negative declaration, normally deenergized [NUREG-0544]

NDA: no detectable activity, nondestructive analysis, nondestructive assay [NUREG-0544]

NDC: nuclear data committee [NUREG-0544]

NDCT: natural draft cooling tower [NUREG-0544]

NDE: nondestructive examination [NUREG-0544]

NDHX: natural draft heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

NDL: nuclear data link [NUREG-0544]

NDRC: National Defense Research Council [NUREG-0544]

NDT: nil ductility temperature, nil ductility transition, nondestructive testing [NUREG-0544]

NDTT: nil ductility transition temperature [NUREG-0544]

NE: normally energized, nuclear engineering [NUREG-0544]

NEA: Northeast Energy Alliance, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD), Nuclear Engineering Associates [NUREG-0544]

NEB: Nuclear Energy Board (Ireland) [NUREG-0544]

NEC: National Electrical Code, Nuclear Energy Center [NUREG-0544]

NECAP: Nutmeg Electric Companies Atomic Project [NUREG-0544]

NECNP: New England Coaliltion on Nuclear Pollution [NUREG-0544]

NECO: Nuclear Engineering Company [NUREG-0544]

NECSS: Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey [NUREG-0544]

NEDS: nuclear employee data system [NUREG-0544]

NEES: New England Electric System [NUREG-0544]

NEGEA: New England Gas and Electric Association [NUREG-0544]

NEI: Nuclear Energy Institute (formerly NUMARC and USCEA) [NUREG-0544]

NEIL: Nuclear Electric Insurance Limited [NUREG-0544]

NEJAC: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council [NUREG-0544]

NELIA: Nuclear Energy Liability Insurance Association [NUREG-0544]

NELPIA: Nuclear Energy Liability Property Insurance Association [NUREG-0544]

NEMA: National Electrical Manufacturers Association [NUREG-0544]

NENE: Northeast Nuclear Energy Co. [NUREG-0544]

NEO: nuclear engineering and operations [NUREG-0544]

NEP: New England Plant [NUREG-0544]

NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act [NUREG-0544]

NEPCO: New England Power Company [NUREG-0544]

NEPIA: Nuclear Energy Property Insurance Association [NUREG-0544]

NERA: National Economic Research Associates, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

NERC: National Electric Reliability Council, National Environment Resource Council (United Kingdom), Nuclear Energy Research Centre (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

NERHL: Northeastern Radiological Health Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

NERP: nuclear experience review program [NUREG-0544]

NERV: nuclear emulsion recovery vehicle [NUREG-0544]

NERVA: nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application [NUREG-0544]

NESC: National Electric Safety Code, Nuclear Energy Software Center [NUREG-0544]

NESCWS: nonessential services chilled water system [NUREG-0544]

NESDIP: Nestor Shielding and Dosimetry Improvement Program [NUREG-0544]

NESF: normal engineered safety feature [NUREG-0544]

NESP: National Environmental Studies Project [NUREG-0544]

NEST: nuclear emergency search team [NUREG-0544]

NETR: Nuclear Engineering Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

NEU: Northeastern Utilities (Company) [NUREG-0544]

NEUSSN: Northeastern U.S. Seismic Network [NUREG-0544]

NEUT: Northeast Utilities [NUREG-0544]

NEVP: Nevada Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

NEW: Nuclear Energy Women [NUREG-0544]

NEWS: Nuclear Engineering Workstation Simulator [NUREG-0544]

NEWSTAR: nuclear energy waste space transportation and removal [NUREG-0544]

NF: neutron flux [NUREG-0544]

NFC: no further consequences [NUREG-0544]

NFCA: nonfuel core array [NUREG-0544]

NFI: Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association [NUREG-0544]

NFRRC: nuclear fuel recovery and receiving center [NUREG-0544]

NFS: network file system, Nuclear Fuel Services Co. [NUREG-0544]

NFSA: new fuel storage area [NUREG-0544]

NG: nitroglycerin, noble gas [NUREG-0544]

NGA: Nationale Gesellschaft für Förderung der Industriellen Atomtechnik (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

NGE: North Georgia Electric Membership Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NGF: Natural Guard Fund [NUREG-0544]

NGN: Next Generation Network [NUREG-0544]

NGSF: noble gas storage facility [NUREG-0544]

NHPA: National Historic Preservation Act [NUREG-0544]

NHY: New Hampshire Yankee [NUREG-0544]

NI: never incorporated, nuclear instrument, nuclear instrumentation, nuclear island [NUREG-0544]

NIAC: Nuclear Industry Assessment Committee, Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada [NUREG-0544]

NIC: Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group, Nuclear Industry Consortium (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

NICWB: nuclear island cooling water building [NUREG-0544]

NIDA: National Institute on Drug Abuse [NUREG-0544]

NIH: National Institutes of Health (U.S. Public Health Service) [NUREG-0544]

NII: Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

NIM: nuclear instrument module [NUREG-0544]

NiMo: Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NIOBE: numerical integration of the Boltzmann equation [NUREG-0544]

NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S. Public Health Service) [NUREG-0544]

NIPA: notice of initiation of procurement action [NUREG-0544]

NIPS: Northern Indiana Public Service Co. [NUREG-0544]

NIRA: Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

NIRB: Nuclear Insurance Rating Bureau [NUREG-0544]

NIRL: negligible individual risk level [NUREG-0544]

NIRMA: Nuclear Information and Records Management Association, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

NIRNS: National Institute for Research in Nuclear Science (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

NIRS: National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan), Nuclear Information and Resource Service [NUREG-0544]

NIS: Network Information Service, Nevada Inspection Service, Newly Independent States, nuclear instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

NISCO: Nuclear Inspection Services Company [NUREG-0544]

NISP: National Industrial Security Program [NUREG-0544]

NISPOM: National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual [NUREG-0544]

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards) [NUREG-0544]

NJBPU: New Jersey Board of Public Utilities [NUREG-0544]

NJOAL: New Jersey Office of Administrative Law [NUREG-0544]

NLI: National Lead Industries, Nuclear Industries, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

NMA: National Mining Association [NUREG-0544]

NMAC: Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center (Electric Power Research Institute) [NUREG-0544]

NMCC: Nuclear Material Control Center (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

NMDB: nuclear maintenance database [NUREG-0544]

NMEC: Northern Michigan Electric Cooperative, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

NMED: nuclear material events database [NUREG-0544]

NMIS: nuclear materials information system, nuclear materials inventory system [NUREG-0544]

NMMSS: nuclear materials management and safeguards system [NUREG-0544]

NMP: national meter programming, Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NMPNS: Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

NMRG: Nuclear Managers Review Group [NUREG-0544]

NMS: national measurement system, neutron monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

NMSS: Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

NMST: new materials system test [NUREG-0544]

NMT: nuclear medicine technologist [NUREG-0544]

NN: nearest neighbor, nearest neighboring [NUREG-0544]

NNC: National Nuclear Corporation, Ltd. (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

NNCSC: National Neutron Cross Section Committee [NUREG-0544]

NNDC: National Nuclear Data Center [NUREG-0544]

NNEC: National Nuclear Energy Commission (Brazil) [NUREG-0544]

NNECO: Northeast Nuclear Energy Co. [NUREG-0544]

NNESCO: Northeast Nuclear Energy Services Co. [NUREG-0544]

NNI: nonnuclear instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

NNIS: nonnuclear instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

NNPA: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 [NUREG-0544]

NNPS: Norco Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

NNS: nonnuclear safety [NUREG-0544]

NNSA: National Nuclear Safety Administration (China) [NUREG-0544]

NNSDD: Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company [NUREG-0544]

NNTP: network news transfer protocol [NUREG-0544]

NNWSI: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation [NUREG-0544]

NO: normally open [NUREG-0544]

NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NUREG-0544]

NOAC: Nuclear Operations Analysis Center [NUREG-0544]

NOD: notice of deviation [NUREG-0544]

NOED: notice of enforcement discretion [NUREG-0544]

NOI: notice of indication [NUREG-0544]

NOL: Naval Ordnance Laboratory, normal operating loss [NUREG-0544]

NON: notice of nonconformance [NUREG-0544]

NOP: normal operating procedure [NUREG-0544]

NORCUS: Northwest College and University Association for Science [NUREG-0544]

NORM: naturally occurring radioactive material [NUREG-0544]

NOS: not otherwise specified [NUREG-0544]

NOUE: notice of unusual event, notification of unusual event [NUREG-0544]

NOV: notice of violation [NUREG-0544]

NOWUS: normal operation with unscram [NUREG-0544]

NP: negative pressure, nuclear power [NUREG-0544]

NPA: nuclear plant analyzer [NUREG-0544]

NPAR: nuclear plant aging research [NUREG-0544]

NPC: Nuclear Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

NPCA: National Paint and Color Association [NUREG-0544]

NPCC: Northeast Power Coordinating Council [NUREG-0544]

NPD: national policy debate, Nuclear Power Demonstration (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

NPDB: nuclear plant data bank [NUREG-0544]

NPDES: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System [NUREG-0544]

NPE: nuclear plant engineering, nuclear power experience [NUREG-0544]

NPEC: Nuclear Power Engineering Committee [NUREG-0544]

NPEP: Nuclear Plant Equipment Procurement Working Group [NUREG-0544]

NPF: nuclear power facility [NUREG-0544]

NPG: Nuclear Power Group, The (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

NPGS: nuclear power generating station [NUREG-0544]

NPIS: nuclear plant island structure [NUREG-0544]

NPO: nuclear plant operator [NUREG-0544]

NPP: nuclear performance plan, nuclear power plant [NUREG-0544]

NPPD: Nebraska Public Power District [NUREG-0544]

NPR: National Performance Review, new production reactor, nonpower reactor [NUREG-0544]

NPRCG: Nuclear Public Relations Contact Group (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

NPRDS: Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (INPO) [NUREG-0544]

NPRF: Northrop Pulse Radiation Facility [NUREG-0544]

NPS: nominal pipe size, normal pressurizer spray, Nuclear Power Service (Westinghouse), numerical plotting system [NUREG-0544]

NPSH: net positive suction head [NUREG-0544]

NPSI: Nuclear Power Service Incorporated [NUREG-0544]

NPSRA: Nuclear-Powered Ship Research Association (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

NPSRS: nuclear power safety reporting system [NUREG-0544]

NPT: national pipe thread, Nonproliferation Treaty [NUREG-0544]

NPTF: nuclear proof test facility [NUREG-0544]

NPZ: nickel-plated Zircaloy 4 [NUREG-0544]

NQAA: Nuclear Quality Assurance Agency [NUREG-0544]

NQAM: nuclear quality assurance manual [NUREG-0544]

NQAP: nuclear quality assurance plan [NUREG-0544]

NR: narrow resonance, nonconformance report [NUREG-0544]

NRA: Nuclear Regulatory Administration, Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Ukraine) [NUREG-0544]

NRAP: naturally radioactive product [NUREG-0544]

NRB: nonconformance review board [NUREG-0544]

NRC: National Research Council, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. [NUREG-0544]

NRCAR: NRC Acquisition Regulation [NUREG-0544]

NRCC: National Research Council (Canada), Northern Rockies Cancer Center [NUREG-0544]

NRDC: National Resources Defense Council [NUREG-0544]

NRDS: Nuclear Rocket Development Station [NUREG-0544]

NRE: nuclear research emulsion [NUREG-0544]

NREP: National Reliability Evaluation Program, neutron resonance escape probability [NUREG-0544]

NRHE: nonregenerative heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

NRHX: nonregenerative heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

NRIM: narrow resonance infinite mass [NUREG-0544]

NRL: Naval Research Laboratory (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

NRPB: National Radiological Protection Board [NUREG-0544]

NRR: Naval Research Reactor, Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

NRRO: nuclear radiation-resistant oil [NUREG-0544]

NRT: national response team [NUREG-0544]

NRTS: National Reactor Test Station [NUREG-0544]

NRU: National Reactor Universal [NUREG-0544]

NRW: nonradioactive waste [NUREG-0544]

NRWV: nonradioactive waste vent [NUREG-0544]

NRX: National Research Reactor, nuclear engine reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

NS: near side, normally shut, nuclear ship [NUREG-0544]

NSA: National Security Agency, Nuclear Safety Agency, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Nuclear Systems Associates [NUREG-0544]

NSAC: Nuclear Safety Analysis Center [NUREG-0544]

NSC: National Security Council, net-section collapse, net-suction collapse, Nuclear Safety Concern [NUREG-0544]

NSCR: Nuclear Science Center Reactor [NUREG-0544]

NSCW: nuclear service cooling water [NUREG-0544]

NSDM: national security decision memorandum/memoranda [NUREG-0544]

NSEP: National Security Emergency Preparedness [NUREG-0544]

NSF: National Sanitation Foundation, National Science Foundation, Nuclear Science Foundation [NUREG-0544]

NSFP: nonsodium fire protection [NUREG-0544]

NSHC: no-significant-hazards consideration [NUREG-0544]

NSHE: no-significant-hazards evaluation [NUREG-0544]

NSI: national security information [NUREG-0544]

NSIAC: Nuclear Strategic Issues Advisory Committee (NEI) [NUREG-0544]

NSIC: Nuclear Safety Information Center [NUREG-0544]

NSIP: Nuclear Safe Issues Program [NUREG-0544]

NSLD: No Seismic Limit Duration [NUREG-0544]

NSMH: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook [NUREG-0544]

NSO: nuclear station operator [NUREG-0544]

NSOA: nuclear safety operational analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

NSP: Northern States Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

NSPP: nuclear safety pilot plant [NUREG-0544]

NSPS: nuclear safety protection system [NUREG-0544]

NSQAC: Nuclear Supplier Quality Assurance Committee [NUREG-0544]

NSTC: National Science and Technology Center [NUREG-0544]

NSR: neutron source reactor, non-safety-related [NUREG-0544]

NSRA: Nuclear Safety Research Association (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

NSRB: Nuclear Safety Review Board [NUREG-0544]

NSRG: Nuclear Safety Review Group [NUREG-0544]

NSRL: Nuclear Structure Research Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

NSRR: nuclear safety research reactor [NUREG-0544]

NSRRC: Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee [NUREG-0544]

NSRS: nuclear safety review staff [NUREG-0544]

NSS: nuclear steam system [NUREG-0544]

NSSM: national security study memorandum/memoranda [NUREG-0544]

NSSS: nuclear steam supply system, nuclear steam system supplier [NUREG-0544]

NSSSS: nuclear steam supply shutoff system [NUREG-0544]

NSTF: Nuclear Science and Technology Facility [NUREG-0544]

NSUM: neutron shuffler uranium monitor [NUREG-0544]

NSW: nuclear service water [NUREG-0544]

NSWMA: National Solid Waste Management Association [NUREG-0544]

NSWS: nuclear service water system [NUREG-0544]

NT: neutron transmitter [NUREG-0544]

NTCP: near-term construction permit [NUREG-0544]

NTE: not to exceed [NUREG-0544]

NTEU: National Treasury Employees Union [NUREG-0544]

NTF: nuclear test facility [NUREG-0544]

NTIS: National Technical Information Service [NUREG-0544]

NTOL: near-term operating license [NUREG-0544]

NTP: National Toxicology Program, normal temperature and pressure, nuclear test plant [NUREG-0544]

NTR: nuclear test reactor, nuclear testing reactor [NUREG-0544]

NTS: Nevada Test Site [NUREG-0544]

NTSB: National Transportation Safety Board [NUREG-0544]

NU: Northeast Utilities [NUREG-0544]

NUBARG: Nuclear Utility Backfitting and Reform Group [NUREG-0544]

NUCLENOR: Centrales Nucleares del Norte, S.A. (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

NUCLIT: Nucleare Italiana (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

NUCPR: nuclear procedure requirement [NUREG-0544]

NUDE: nuclear data evaluation [NUREG-0544]

NUDOCS: Nuclear Documents System [NUREG-0544]

NUDOCS/AD: Nuclear Documents System/Advanced Design [NUREG-0544]

NUFCOR: Nuclear Fuels Corp. of South Africa [NUREG-0544]

NUGEQ: Nuclear Utility Group on Equipment Qualification [NUREG-0544]

NUGSBO: Nuclear Utility Group on Station Blackout [NUREG-0544]

NUMAC: Nuclear Management and Control [NUREG-0544]

NUMARC: Nuclear Management and Resources Council (now NEI) [NUREG-0544]

NUMEC: Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NUMS: nuclear materials security [NUREG-0544]

NUPEC: Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center [NUREG-0544]

NUPIC: Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee [NUREG-0544]

NUPLEX: Nuclear Utilities Plant Life Extension Steering Committee [NUREG-0544]

NURE: national uranium resource evaluation [NUREG-0544]

NUREG: NRC technical report designation (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) [NUREG-0544]

NUREG/BR: NUREG brochure [NUREG-0544]

NUREG/CP: NUREG conference proceedings [NUREG-0544]

NUREG/CR: NUREG contractor report [NUREG-0544]

NUREG/GR: NUREG grantee report [NUREG-0544]

NUREG/IA: NUREG international agreement report [NUREG-0544]

NUS: Nuclear Utilities Service [NUREG-0544]

NUSCO: Northeast Utilities Service Company [NUREG-0544]

NUSMG: Nuclear Utilities Software Management Group [NUREG-0544]

NUSS: nuclear safety standard (International Atomic Energy Agency) [NUREG-0544]

NUTAC: Nuclear Utility Task Action Committee [NUREG-0544]

NVH: nitrogen vent header [NUREG-0544]

NVLAP: National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program [NUREG-0544]

NW: normal waste [NUREG-0544]

NWC: normal water chemistry [NUREG-0544]

NWCC: neutron well coincidence counter [NUREG-0544]

NWL: normal water leg [NUREG-0544]

NWP: Nuclear Waste Project [NUREG-0544]

NWPA: Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 [NUREG-0544]

NWPAA: Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 [NUREG-0544]

NWR: nuclear work request [NUREG-0544]

NWS: National Weather Service [NUREG-0544]

NWTRB: Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board [NUREG-0544]

NYD: New York mean tide data [NUREG-0544]

NYGAS: New York Gas Group [NUREG-0544]

NYPA: New York Power Authority [NUREG-0544]

NYPIRG: New York Public Interest Research Group [NUREG-0544]

NYSADA: New York State Atomic and Space Development Authority [NUREG-0544]

NYSEG: New York State Electric & Gas Corp. [NUREG-0544]

NYSERDA: New York State Energy Research and Development Authority [NUREG-0544]

Nagasaki: At 11:02 a.m. on August 9, 1945 a plutonium implosion bomb, Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki. The yield was 22 kilotons. The damage was less extensive, due partly to the geography of the Nagasaki area and partly to the fact that the bomb was dropped about 2 miles off target. Of the 286,000 people living in Nagasaki at the time of the blast, 74,000 were killed and another 75,000 sustained injuries. [ATARC]

Nash Draw: A shallow 8-kilometer- (5-mile-) wide valley open to the southwest located to the west of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site. [WIPPEA]

N Reactor: The ninth and last production reactor built at the Hanford Site. The N Reactor operated from 1963 through 1987. The code name "N" stands for "New." [DOE/EM-0319]

National Defense Authorization Act: The federal law, enacted in 1994 and amended in 1995, that required the Secretary of Energy to prepare the Baseline Report. [DOELL]

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): The Clear Air Act (CAA) limits for release of hazardous pollutants for which no ambient air quality standard is applicable. [DOEEMGMT]

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA): NEPA is the basic national charter for protection of the environment. Enacted in 1970, that requires the Federal government to consider the environmental impacts of, and alternatives to, major proposed actions in its decisionmaking processes. It establishes policy, sets goals (in Section 101), and provides means (in Section 102) for carrying out the policy. Section 102(2) contains "action-forcing" provisions to ensure that Federal agencies follow the letter and spirit of the Act. For major Federal actions that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment, Section 102(2)(C) of NEPA requires Federal agencies to prepare a detailed statement that includes an environmental impact statement for proposed action and other specified information. [DOE/EM-0466] Its main purpose is to provide environmental information to decision makers so that their actions are based on an understanding of the potential environmental consequences of a proposed action and its reasonable alternatives. [DOE/EA-1172]

National Priorities List (NPL): The Environmental Protection Agency's list of the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites identified for possible long-term remedial action under CERCLA. The list is based primarily on the score a site receives from the EPA Hazard Ranking System described in 40 CFR 300, Appendix A. EPA must update the NPL at least once a year. [DOE/EM-0466]

National registry of radiation workers: Established by the National Radiological Protection Board in 1976. This is a register of the health records of radiation workers. [AT]

National Technical Means (NTM): Intelligence gathering systems under national control, such as photo-reconnaissance satellites and ground based radars, used to monitor compliance with agreed arms limitations [ATARC]

Natural circulation: The circulation of the coolant in the reactor coolant system without the use of the reactor coolant pumps. The circulation is due to the natural convection resulting from the different densities of relative cold and heated portions of the system. [NRC]

Naturally Occuring or Accelerator Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM) : Radioactive materials not covered under the AEA that are naturally occurring or produced by an accelerator. Accerlerators are used in sub-atomic particle physics research. These materials have been traditionally regulated by States. A subset of NARM is NORM. NARM waste with more than 2 nCi/g of 226Ra or equivalent is commonly referred to as discrete NARM waste; below this threshold, the waste is referred to as diffuse NARM waste. NARM waste is not covered under the AEA, not a form of LLW, and is not regulated by NRC. [EPA-MW]

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) : NORM is a subset of NARM and refers to materials not covered under the AEA whose radioactivity has been enhanced (radionuclide concentrations are either increased or redistributed where they are more likely to cause exposure to man) usually by mineral extraction or processing activities. Examples are exploration and production wastes from the oil and natural gas industry and phosphate slag piles from the phosphate mining industry. This term is not used to describe or discuss the natural radioactivity of rocks and soils, or background radiation, but instead refers to materials whose radioactivity is technologically enhanced by controllable practices. Sometimes it is referred to as TENORM. [EPA-MW, EPALLRW]

TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code:
(26) "Naturally occurring radioactive material waste" or "NORM waste" means solid, liquid, or gaseous material or combination of materials, excluding source material, special nuclear material, and by-product material, that: (A) in its natural physical state spontaneously emits radiation; (B) is discarded or unwanted; and (C) is not exempt by department rule adopted under Section 401.106.
(27) "Oil and gas NORM waste" means solid, liquid, or gaseous material or combination of materials, excluding source material, special nuclear material, and by-product material, that: (A) in its natural physical state spontaneously emits radiation; (B) is discarded or unwanted; (C) is not exempt by department rule adopted under Section 401.106; and (D) constitutes, is contained in, or has contaminated oil and gas waste as that term is defined in Section 91.1011 of the Natural Resources Code. Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 678, <§> 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1989.

Natural uranium: Uranium that has not been through the enrichment process. It is made of 99.3 percent uranium-238, 0.7 percent uranium-235, and a trace of uranium-234 (the isotopic composition of natural uranium). [DOE/EM-0319, NRC]

Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program: A joint DOE and Department of Navy program responsible for activities relating to the use of nuclear power in surface warships and submarines. [DOE/EM-0319]

NEAC Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee [CY]

Near-Surface Disposal Facility: A land disposal facility in which radioactive waste is disposed of in or within the upper 30 meters of the earth's surface. [DOE/LLW-250a]

Negative Float: In a Critical Path Method (CPM) network, the float associated with a continuous sequence of activities and events (milestones) wherein the early finish (that is, could finish) time is later than the late finish (must finish) time. [DOEEMGMT]

NEI Nuclear Energy Institute [CY]

Net summer capability: The steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by tests at the time of summer peak demand. [NRC]

Neutrino: An electrically neutral particle with negligible mass. It is produced in many nuclear reactions such as in beta decay. [LBNL]

Neutron: An elementary, uncharged particle slightly heavier than a proton that comprises part of an atomic nucleus. Neutrons are required to initiate the fission process, and large numbers of neutrons are produced by both fission and fusion reactions. Together with protons, neutrons form the nuclei of all atoms. Being neutral, a neutron can approach a nucleus without being deflected by the positive electric field, so it can take part in many types of nuclear interaction. In isolation neutrons are radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 12 minutes by beta emission into a proton. [AT] Uranium and plutonium atoms fission when they absorb neutrons. The chain reactions that make nuclear reactors and weapons work thus depend on neutrons. Man-made elements can be manufactured by bombarding other elements with neutrons in production reactors. [DOE/EM-0319]

Neutron activation: The process of irradiating a material with neutrons so that the material itself is transformed into a radioactive nuclide.

Neutron Bomb: The neutron bomb differs from standard nuclear weapons insofar as its primary lethal effects come from the radiation damage caused by the neutrons it emits. It is also known as an enhanced-radiation weapon (ERW). The augmented radiation effects mean that blast and heat effects are reduced so that physical structures, including houses and industrial installations, are less affected. Because neutron radiation effects drop off very rapidly with distance, there is a sharper distinction between areas of high lethality and areas with minimal radiation doses. [ATARC]

Neutron capture: The process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs or captures a neutron. [NRC]

Neutron chain reaction: A process in which some of the neutrons released in one fission event cause other fissions to occur. There are three types of chain reactions: (1) Nonsustaining chain reaction--An average of less than one fission is produced by the neutrons released by each previous fission (reactor subcriticality). (2) Sustaining chain reaction--An average of exactly one fission is produced by the neutrons released by each previous fission (reactor criticality). (3) Multiplying chain reaction--An average of more than one fission is produced by the neutrons released by precious fission (reactor supercriticality). [NRC]

Neutron flux: A measure of the intensity of neutron radiation in neutrons/cm2-sec. It is the number of neutrons passing through 1 square centimeter of a given target in 1 second. Expressed as nv, where n = the number of neutrons per cubic centimeter and v = their velocity in centimeters per second. [NRC]

Neutron Generator: Device resembling a particle accelerator that produces a timed burst of neutrons to initiate a fission chain reaction in a nuclear weapon. Neutron generators located outside the fissile pit supplanted initiators. [DOE/EM-0319]

Neutron generation: The release, thermalization, and absorption of fission neutrons by a fissile material and the fission of that material producing a second generation of neutrons. In a typical nuclear power reactor system, there are about 40,000 generations of neutrons every second. [NRC]

Neutron leakage: Neutrons that escape from the vicinity of the fissionable material in a reactor core. Neutrons that leak out of the fuel region are no longer available to cause fission and must be absorbed by shielding placed around the reactor pressure vessel for that purpose. [NRC]

Neutron Radiation: In fission bombs the neutrons are produced in the fission process. They are emitted from the highly excited fission products. The way that neutrons interact with matter is quite different from the way that gamma rays interact. Neutrons have negligible interaction with atomic electrons. Their only direct interaction is with nuclei. Neutron interaction in the human body can produce ionizing radiation and subsequent doses of radiation. [ATARC]

Neutron source: A radioactive material (decays by neutron emission) that can be inserted into a reactor to ensure that a sufficient quantity of neutrons are available to register on neutron detection equipment for power level indication. [NRC]

Neutron yield The average numbers of fission neutrons emitted per fission. Usually per thermal neutron absorbed in Uranium-235. [AT]

Neutron, thermal: A neutron that has (by collision with other particles) reached an energy state equal to that of its surroundings, typically on the order of 0.025 eV (electron volts). [NRC]

Nevada Offsites: Underground nuclear tests conducted at eight locations in five different states (Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico) from 1957 to 1973 as part of the Plowshare program to develop peaceful (industrial and scientific) applications for nuclear explosives and the Vela Uniform program to improve the capability of detecting, monitoring, and identifying underground nuclear detonations. [DOE/EM-0466]

Nevada Test Site: A 1,350-square-mile area of the southern Nevada desert that has been the site of most of the U.S. underground and atmospheric tests since it opened in 1951. The site is some 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. [DOE/EM-0266]

New Obligational Authority: Funds appropriated by Congress and signed into law by the President, which are available for obligation. The amount does not include prior year carryover funds, such as uncosted obligations or unobligated amounts, nor funds held in reserve by Headquarters, the Department of Energy (DOE), or the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). See Budget Authority. [DOEEMGMT]

NMED: New Mexico Environment Department. [NSCEHC]

Noble gas: A gaseous chemical element that does not readily enter into chemical combination with other elements. An inert gas. Examples are helium, argon, krypton, xenon and radon. [NRC]

No Further Action: After consulting with stakeholders and regulatory agencies (whether the Environmental Protection Agency, other Federal agencies, or State and local agencies), the Office of Environmental Management may determine that no further action is appropriate. Sites reported a number of elements that have been determined as or are forecasted to require no further action. [DOELLWRpt]

No Radioactivity Added Policy: A Department of Energy policy that forbids the release of materials originating in radiological control areas unless they are proven to be uncontaminated. [DOELL]

Nonfuel components: Nuclear reactor core parts and hardware, excluding the nuclear fuel itself. Such components include shrouds, control rods, fuel channels, in-core chambers, support tubes, and dummy fuel rods. [DOE-IDB97]

Nonionizing radiation: Nonionizing radiation Ń Radiation that has lower energy levels and longer wave lengths. It is not strong enough to affect the structure of atoms it contacts but can heat tissue and can cause harmful biological effects. Examples include radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and infrared light. [EPALLRW]

Nonproliferation: Efforts to prevent or slow the spread of nuclear weapons and the materials and technologies used to produce them. [DOE/EM-0266]

Nonpower reactor: Reactors used for research, training, and test purposes, and for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial uses. [NRC]

Non-stochastic effect: The health effects, the severity of which vary with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a deterministic effect (also called a deterministic effect) (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established on Apr. 4, 1949, by representatives from 12 nations (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982) who gathered in Washington, D.C., to sign the North Atlantic Treaty, which had as its purpose the deterring of potential Soviet aggression in Europe. The signing of the treaty paved the way for the first peacetime alliance participated in by the United States. [ATARC]

Notice of Intent (NOI): A notice printed in the Federal Register announcing that a federal agency is going to prepare an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. [DOE/EA-1172]

Nozzle: As used in PWRs and BWRs, the interface for fluid (inlet and outlet) between reactor plant components (pressure vessel, coolant pumps, steam generators, etc.) and their associated piping systems. [NRC]

Nuclear force: A powerful short-ranged attractive force that holds together the particles inside an atomic nucleus. [NRC]

Nuclear Freeze Movement: The nuclear freeze movement advocates an agreement between the United States and the USSR to halt (freeze) the production and deployment of nuclear weapons and delivery systems. First formulated in 1980 by Randall Forsberg, director of the Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies in Brookline, Mass., the freeze proposal attracted growing support in the United States during the next two years, when the administration of President Reagan was increasing military spending and preparing to deploy more nuclear missiles in Europe. A series of antinuclear protests culminated in a vast demonstration by nearly half a million people from the United States and other countries in New York City on June 12, 1982. [ATARC]

Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization: An Environmental Management subprogram that manages the transfer to Environmental Management of the responsibilities and facilities that formerly belonged to the nuclear weapons program. Several sites already have been transferred to Environmental Management for deactivation and subsequent cleanup. As other sites are transferred to Environmental Management, the existing resources (funding and personnel) also will be transferred to Environmental Management. [DOELL]

Nuclear reactor: A device in which a fission chain reaction can be initiated, maintained, and controlled. Its essential components are fissionable fuel, moderator, shielding, control rods, and coolant. [LBNL] (see Reactor)

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): An independent agency of the Federal government created by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which abolished AEC and transferred its regulatory function to the NRC. Specifically, the NRC is responsible for ensuring that activities associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants, and medical, industrial, and research applications, are carried out with adequate protection of the public health and safety, the environment, and national security . Responsible for regulation of commercial nuclear power reactors; nonpower research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials as waste.
At full complement, the NRC has five Commissioners nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate; the President designates one of the Commissioners as Chairman. NRC regulates all commercial AEA materials. Except in a few cases, NRC does not regulate DOE. NRC does not regulate NARM. [DOE/EM-0319, EPA-MW]

Nuclear Safety (NS): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that involve radioactive or fissionable materials in such form that a nuclear hazard potentially exists to the employees or the general public. [DOEEMGMT]

Nuclear steam supply system: The reactor and the reactor coolant pumps (and steam generators for a pressurized water reactor) and associated piping in a nuclear power plant used to generate the steam needed to drive the turbine generator unit. [NRC]

Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA): Public Law 97-425. The federal law that provides for the development of geologic repositories for disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel and establishes a program of research, development, and demonstration regarding disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel. [DOE/EM-0319]

Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act: Title IV, Subtitle A of P.L. 100-203, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987. Prior to this Act, the DOE was required to select three candidate sites for the first national high-level waste repository. Under the amendments, the only candidate site DOE may consider for a permanent high-level waste repository is at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. They also authorized construction of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility to store spent fuel and prepare it for delivery to the repository. Dry cast interim storage at Skull Valley, Utah was later proposed in 1996. [DOE/EM-0466]

Nuclear Weapons Complex: The chain of foundries, uranium enrichment plants, reactors, chemical separation plants, factories, laboratories, assembly plants, and test sites that produced nuclear weapons. Sixteen major U.S facilities in 12 states formed the nuclear weapons complex. [DOE/EM-0466]

Nuclear Winter: A potential consequence of nuclear war, where smoke from burning cities would cause a severe worldwide drop in temperatures, lasting for weeks or months with large scale ecological impacts. [ATARC]

Nucleon Any particle that comprises the nucleus; that is, a proton or a neutron. [LBNL, ATARC]

Nucleonics: The science, technology, and application of nuclear energy. [LBNL]

Nucleus: The cluster of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom that determines its identity and chemical and nuclear properties. [DOE/EM-0319] The nucleus of an atom is the central core that comprises almost all the weight of the atom. All atomic nuclei (except H1, which has a single proton) contain both protons and neutrons. [IEER]

Nuclide: Any species of atom that exists for a measurable length of time. A nuclide can be distinguished by its atomic weight, atomic number, and energy state. [LBNL]. A general term referring to all known isotopes, both stable (279) and unstable (about 5,000), of the chemical elements. [TDHBRC]

|------------------------ O ------------------------|

OA: oil to air, operating authorization [NUREG-0544]

OAB: Országos Atomenergia John Urban: Bizottság (Hungary) [NUREG-0544]

OAC: office allegation coordinator [NUREG-0544]

OAD: operational availability date [NUREG-0544]

OAI: outside air intake [NUREG-0544]

OAR: operational assessment and readiness [NUREG-0544]

OARP: operator accelerated retraining program [NUREG-0544]

OAS: Organization of Agreement States [NUREG-0544]

OATP: operational acceptance test procedure [NUREG-0544]

OBA: operating-basis accident [NUREG-0544]

OBE: Office of Business Economics , operating-basis earthquake [NUREG-0544]

OBERS: Office of Business Economics Research Service [NUREG-0544]

OBRA-90: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 [NUREG-0544]

OC: Office of the Controller (NRC), operating curve, operations center [NUREG-0544]

OCA: Office of Congressional Affairs (NRC), overcooling accident [NUREG-0544]

OCAA: Office of Commission Appellate Adjudication (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OCB: oil collection basin, oil-operated circuit breaker [NUREG-0544]

OCDE: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques (France) [NUREG-0544]

OCDRE: Organic-Cooled Deuterium Reactor Experiment (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

OCFO: Office of the Chief Financial Officer [NUREG-0544]

OCI: oxide control and indication [NUREG-0544]

OCIMS: Operations Center Information Management System [NUREG-0544]

OCIO: Office of the Chief Information Officer (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OCLC: Online Computer Library Center, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

OCM: Office of the Commission (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OCNPP: Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

OCR: operational control record [NUREG-0544]

OCRE: Ohio Citizens for Responsible Energy [NUREG-0544]

OCRWM: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management [NUREG-0544]

OD: outside diameter [NUREG-0544]

ODCM: offsite dose calculation manual [NUREG-0544]

ODCWT: outer-diameter creeping wave technique [NUREG-0544]

ODF: onsite decontamination facility [NUREG-0544]

ODSCC: outer-diameter stress-corrosion cracking, outside-diameter stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

OE: oceanic engineering , Office of Enforcement (NRC), operating engineer, operating experience [NUREG-0544]

OEC: Ohio Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [NUREG-0544]

OEDO: Office of the Executive Director for Operations (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OEM: original equipment manufacturer [NUREG-0544]

OER: operating event report [NUREG-0544]

OERTS: operational events report tracking system [NUREG-0544]

OFA: optimized fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

OFPP: Office of Federal Procurement Policy [NUREG-0544]

OFZS: Österreichisches Forschungszentrum Siebersdorf, G.m.b.H. (Austria) [NUREG-0544]

OG: off-gas, owners group [NUREG-0544]

OGC: Office of the General Counsel (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OGE: Office of Government Ethics [NUREG-0544]

OGI: off-gas isolation [NUREG-0544]

OGR: ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Graphite Reactor [NUREG-0544]

OGS: off-gas system [NUREG-0544]

OGST: overthread guide sleeve tool [NUREG-0544]

OGTB: off-gas treatment building [NUREG-0544]

OH: Ontario Hydro (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

OHER: Office of Health and Environmental Research (U.S. Department of Energy) [NUREG-0544]

OHLH: overhead heavy-load handling [NUREG-0544]

OHRS: overflow heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

OHST: overhead storage tank [NUREG-0544]

OHTCS: outer head temperature control system [NUREG-0544]

OI: Office of Investigations (NRC), operating instruction, optical isolator, outstanding item [NUREG-0544]

OIC: online instrument and control [NUREG-0544]

OIG: Office of the Inspector General (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

OIP: Office of International Programs (NRC), operating internal pressure [NUREG-0544]

OJT: on-the-job training [NUREG-0544]

OL: operating license, operating limit, operator license [NUREG-0544]

OLIP: online instrument package [NUREG-0544]

OLMCPR: operating limit maximum critical power ratio [NUREG-0544]

OLTS: operator licensing tracking system [NUREG-0544]

OM: operations manager, oxide melt [NUREG-0544]

O/M: oxygen to metal [NUREG-0544]

O&M: operation and maintenance, Operations and Maintenance Committee of ASME [NUREG-0544]

OMB: Office of Management and Budget [NUREG-0544]

OMCA: organic-moderated critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

OMM: operation and maintenance manual [NUREG-0544]

OMR: organic-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

O&MR: operation and maintenance report, operations and maintenance reminder [NUREG-0544]

OMRCA: organic-moderated reactor critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

OMRE: organic-moderated reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

OMRR: Ordnance Material Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ONCA: outer neutron control assembly [NUREG-0544]

ONE: Operations Notification and Evaluation (form) [NUREG-0544]

ONS: Oconee Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

OOS: out of sequence, out of service [NUREG-0544]

OOSC: onsite operations support center [NUREG-0544]

OOSS: operations officer support system [NUREG-0544]

OP: Office of Personnel (NRC), oxygen pressure [NUREG-0544]

OPA: Office of Public Affairs (NRC), operational performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

OPAC: online payment and collection [NUREG-0544]

OPCTR: Operations Center [NUREG-0544]

OPDRV: operation with a potential for draining the reactor vessel [NUREG-0544]

OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries [NUREG-0544]

OPEN: Organisation des Producteurs d'Energie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

OPERA: out-of-pile expulsion and reentry apparatus [NUREG-0544]

OPF: Official Personnel File [NUREG-0544]

OPFM: outlet plenum feature model [NUREG-0544]

OPL: Omega Point Laboratories [NUREG-0544]

OPM: Office of Personnel Management [NUREG-0544]

OPPD: Omaha Public Power District [NUREG-0544]

OPR: offsite procurement request, open pool reactor [NUREG-0544]

OPS: Offshore Power Systems , operational protection system, overpressure protection system, overpressurization protection system [NUREG-0544]

OPST: out-of-pile systems test [NUREG-0544]

OPT: optimization [NUREG-0544]

OPX: off-premise extension [NUREG-0544]

OpyC: outer pyrolytic carbon [NUREG-0544]

OQA: operations quality assurance [NUREG-0544]

OQAP: operational quality assurance plan [NUREG-0544]

OR: onsite representative, operating reactor [NUREG-0544]

ORA: orifice rod assembly [NUREG-0544]

O-RAP: operational reliability assurance program [NUREG-0544]

ORAT: operational readiness assessment team [NUREG-0544]

ORAU: Oak Ridge Associated Universities [NUREG-0544]

ORB: outside reactor building [NUREG-0544]

ORC: online reactivity computer, operational review committee, operations review committee [NUREG-0544]

ORE: occupational radiation exposure [NUREG-0544]

ORFM: outlet region feature model [NUREG-0544]

ORGDP: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [NUREG-0544]

ORIC: Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron [NUREG-0544]

ORISE: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education [NUREG-0544]

ORLA: operating reactor licensing action [NUREG-0544]

ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

ORO: offsite response organization [NUREG-0544]

ORR: operational readiness review [NUREG-0544]

ORRR: Oak Ridge Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

ORRT: operations readiness review team [NUREG-0544]

ORSORT: Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology [NUREG-0544]

ORU: Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

OS: operating system [NUREG-0544]

OSART: operational safety assessment review team [NUREG-0544]

OSC: Office of Special Counsel, Oncology Services Corporation, operational support center [NUREG-0544]

OSG: operations support group [NUREG-0544]

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Act, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. Department of Labor) [NUREG-0544]

OSI: open systems interconnection [NUREG-0544]

OSIP: operational support information program [NUREG-0544]

OSM: optical storage media [NUREG-0544]

OSP: Office of State Programs (NRC), operational surveillance program [NUREG-0544]

OSRC: Offsite Review Committee [NUREG-0544]

OSRE: Operational Safeguards Response Evaluation, operational security response effectiveness [NUREG-0544]

OSS: operational storage site [NUREG-0544]

OST: Office of Science and Technology [NUREG-0544]

OSTI: operational safety team inspection [NUREG-0544]

OSTR: Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor [NUREG-0544]

OSU: Oregon State University [NUREG-0544]

OSUR: Ohio State University Reactor [NUREG-0544]

OSVS: Outlier Seismic Verification Sheet [NUREG-0544]

OT: operating temperature, operational technology [NUREG-0544]

OTA: Office of Technology Assessment, open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

OTC: once-through cooling [NUREG-0544]

OTIS: once-through integral system [NUREG-0544]

OTM: overspeed trip mechanism [NUREG-0544]

OTR: organic test reactor [NUREG-0544]

OTSG: once-through steam generator [NUREG-0544]

OTSR: once-through superheat reactor [NUREG-0544]

OTTS: operations training and technical services [NUREG-0544]

OUO: official use only [NUREG-0544]

OWCP: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs [NUREG-0544]

OWFN: One White Flint North [NUREG-0544]

OWP: operations work procedure [NUREG-0544]

OWR: Omega West Reactor [NUREG-0544]

OWRR: Office of Water Resources Research [NUREG-0544]

OZD: Offshore Zone of Deformation [NUREG-0544]

Oak Ridge (ORNL): A 58-square-mile reservation near Knoxville, Tennessee. Oak Ridge was established as part of the Manhattan Project in 1943 to produce enriched uranium. Today it is the location of K-25 and Y-12 plants and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (which was initially referred to by the arbitrary code name, "X-10."). [DOE/EM-0266]

Obligations: See Budget Obligations. [DOEEMGMT]

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, it oversees and regulates workplace health and safety. [DOE/EA-1172]

Occupational Medical Services (MS): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to provide a comprehensive occupational medical program. [DOEEMGMT]

OCRWM: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA, P.L. 97-425) established a system for selecting a geologic repository for permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. This is the DOE office for oversight of this task.

Office of Environmental Management: An office of the Department of Energy that was created in 1989 to oversee the Department's waste management and environmental cleanup efforts. Originally called the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it was renamed in 1993. [DOE/EM-0319]

OMB Passback: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised funding allowance to DOE based on their review of DOE's budget. After the passback is received, the Secretary reviews the passback and may appeal if additional funding is necessary. [DOEEMGMT]

OMB Request: A submittal of the overall Departmental budget to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in early September for review and consolidation into the President's Budget to Congress. [DOEEMGMT]

OMB Reserves: The dollars kept in abeyance by direction of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These dollars are usually released in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year. [DOEEMGMT]

Open Space Land Use: Posted areas are reserved generally as buffer or wildlife management zones. Native Americans or other authorized parties may be allowed permits for occasional surface area use. Access to or use of certain areas may be prevented by passive barriers (e.g., where soil is capped). Limited hunting or livestock grazing may be allowed. [DOE/EM-0466]

Operable: A system, subsystem, train, component, or device is operable or has operability when it is capable of performing its specified functions, and when all necessary attendant instrumentation, controls, electrical power, cooling or seal water, lubrication or other auxiliary equipment that are required for the system, subsystem, train, component or device to perform its functions are also capable of performing their related support functions. [NRC]

Operable Unit: Organizational unit used to cleanup a site. It may address geographical portions of a site, specific site problems, or initial phases of an action. It may also consists of any set of actions performed over time or any actions that are concurrent but located in different parts of a site. [DOE/EM-0342]

Operating Expense (OE): Operational activities and small items, which are not intended to be capitalized; that is, they cost less than $25,000 (Smedley memo of August 1996) and have a useful life of less than 2 years. Also applies to maintenance and repair activities and to salaries and wages not charged to capital equipment or construction activities. [DOEEMGMT]

Operational mode: An operational mode corresponds to any one inclusive combination of core reactivity condition, power level, and average reactor coolant temperature. [NRC]

Operations/Field Office: A designation of the major Departmental offices responsible for the day-to-day management of designated functional activities. [DOEEMGMT]

Operations/Field Office Code: The unique identifier for a Department of Energy (DOE) field organization or program management organization. [DOEEMGMT]

Operations/Field Office Manager: The Department of Energy (DOE) Operations/Field Office Program or Project Manager responsible for the work covered by an ADS or TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Operations waste: Generally waste from previous DOE operations and current DOE activities. [EPALLRW]

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS): The hierarchical arrangement of a company's management organization graphically depicting the reporting relationships. Normally, the OBS is limited to managerial positions but may depict lower organizational levels. The structure may also show subcontract relationships depending upon the purpose of the OBS. [DOEEMGMT]

Outyears: The budget years beyond the planning year. For the FY 1998 budget, the budget year is FY 1998, the planning is FY 1999, and the outyears are FY 2000 and beyond. [DOE/EM-0342]

Out Years Description: A description of the work planned for the out years that comprise the planning window of an ADS for each funding level. [DOEEMGMT]

Outlays: Payments, as issued checks or disbursed cash from the Treasury of the United States, that satisfy obligations. [DOEEMGMT]

Overfeeding: Introduction of additional uranium in the enrichment cascades at the gaseous diffusion plants for the purpose of reducing the amount of electricity needed or number of SWU required to enrich uranium to any desired assay. [DOE/EA-1172]

Overpack: Concrete canister designed to provide structural stability to LLRW during isolation or disposal and sized to accommodate at least fourteen 55-gallon drums or two steel boxes (see also canister) [TNRCC]

Overpressure: The transient pressure, usually expressed in pound per square inch, exceeding the ambient pressure, manifested in the shock wave from an explosion. The peak overpressure is the maximum value of the overpressure at a given location and is generally experienced at the instant the shock wave reaches that location. [ATARC]

Oversight Committee: The congressional committee charged with the general oversight of the operation of an agency, a department, or an organizational unit. [DOEEMGMT]

|------------------------ P ------------------------|

PA: performance assessment, personnel area, pressure alarm, Privacy Act, protected area, public address, purge alarm [NUREG-0544]

PAA: primary auxiliary area [NUREG-0544]

PAB: preliminary as built, primary auxiliary building [NUREG-0544]

PABX: private automatic branch exchange [NUREG-0544]

PAC: Pilgrim Area Collaborative, protection auxiliary cabinet, public affairs coordinator [NUREG-0544]

PACC: protected air-cooled condenser [NUREG-0544]

PACE: plant acquisition and construction equipment [NUREG-0544]

PACP: Pacific Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

PACV: postaccident containment venting [NUREG-0544]

PAD: performance analysis and design [NUREG-0544]

PADS: Personnel Access Data System, plant alarm and display system [NUREG-0544]

PAEC: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

PAG: protective action guideline [NUREG-0544]

PAHL: pressure alarm, high limit [NUREG-0544]

PAHR: postaccident heat removal [NUREG-0544]

PAIC: public address intercommunications system [NUREG-0544]

PAIP: public affairs and information program [NUREG-0544]

PAL: permissive action link, personnel airlock, programmer assistance and liaison, prototype application loop [NUREG-0544]

PAM: postaccident monitoring [NUREG-0544]

PAMI: postaccident monitoring instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

PAMS: postaccident monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

PANE: People Against Nuclear Energy [NUREG-0544]

PANL: plant annunciators list [NUREG-0544]

PAO: postulated abnormal occurrence, Privacy Act Officer, public affairs officer [NUREG-0544]

PAP: plant administrative procedure, power ascension program [NUREG-0544]

PAPAS: pin and pellet assay system [NUREG-0544]

PAPUC: Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission [NUREG-0544]

PAR: passive autocatalytic recombiner, Pennsylvania Advanced Reactor, performance autocatalytic report, Pool Atómico Português (Portugal), protective action recommendation, purchasing approval request [NUREG-0544]

PARD: postaccident radioactivity depletion [NUREG-0544]

PARR: Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor, postaccident radioactivity removal [NUREG-0544]

PARV: power-activated relief valve, power-actuated relief valve [NUREG-0544]

PAS: Privacy Act statement, probabilistic analysis staff [NUREG-0544]

PASNY: Power Authority of the State of New York [NUREG-0544]

PASS: postaccident sampling system [NUREG-0544]

PAT: performance appraisal team, plutonium air transportable, preplaced aggregate technique [NUREG-0544]

PATP: power ascension testing program, power ascension test program [NUREG-0544]

PATRAM: packaging and transportation of radioactive material [NUREG-0544]

PAX: private automatic exchange [NUREG-0544]

PB: pipe break, proportional band [NUREG-0544]

PBAPS: Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station [NUREG-0544]

PBE: prompt burst excursion, prompt burst experiment [NUREG-0544]

PBF: power burst facility [NUREG-0544]

PBI: performance-based instruction [NUREG-0544]

PBNP: Point Beach Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

PBR: pebble bed reactor, Plum Brook Reactor [NUREG-0544]

PBRE: pebble bed reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

PBRF: Plum Brook Reactor Facility [NUREG-0544]

PBS: pressure boundary subsystem, project breakdown structure [NUREG-0544]

PBTF: pump bearing test facility [NUREG-0544]

PBX: private branch exchange [NUREG-0544]

PC: personal computer, plant computer, polar crane, pressure controller, process computer, professional communication , protective clothing, protective coating [NUREG-0544]

PCA: pool critical assembly, primary control assembly, primary coolant activity [NUREG-0544]

PCAM: punched card accounting machine [NUREG-0544]

PCAS: primary central alarm station [NUREG-0544]

PCB: power circuit breaker, printed circuit board [NUREG-0544]

PC&BS: project controls and budget services [NUREG-0544]

PCC: plutonium concentrator concentrate, primary component cooling, process chemistry cell [NUREG-0544]

PCCGC: primary containment combustible gas control [NUREG-0544]

PCCS: passive containment cooling system [NUREG-0544]

PCCV: precracked Charpy V-notch [NUREG-0544]

PCD: plutonium concentrator distillate, power control device [NUREG-0544]

PCDC: plutonium canister decontamination cell [NUREG-0544]

PCDIS: plant control, data, and instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

PCETF: power conversion equipment test facility [NUREG-0544]

PCHRS: passive containment heat removal system, primary containment hydrogen recombiner system [NUREG-0544]

PCI: pellet/cladding interaction, personnel contamination incident, Prestressed Concrete Institute, primary containment isolation [NUREG-0544]

PCIE: President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency [NUREG-0544]

PCIL: plant computer input list [NUREG-0544]

PCIOMR: preconditioning interim operating management recommendation [NUREG-0544]

PCIS: primary containment isolation system [NUREG-0544]

PCIV: primary containment isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

PCL: permissible contamination limit [NUREG-0544]

PCLDI: prototype closed-loop development installation [NUREG-0544]

PCLS: prototype closed-loop system [NUREG-0544]

PCLT: prototype closed-loop test [NUREG-0544]

PCM: pending contractual matter, power cooling mismatch [NUREG-0544]

PCMI: pellet/cladding mechanical interaction [NUREG-0544]

PCN: procedure change notice [NUREG-0544]

PCP: post-construction permit, primary coolant pump, process control program, program control procedure [NUREG-0544]

PCPS: pool cooling and purification system [NUREG-0544]

PCPV: primary containment purge valve [NUREG-0544]

PCR: plant change request, procedure change request, protective coating report [NUREG-0544]

PCRB: personnel and control room building [NUREG-0544]

PCRDL: primary control rod driveline [NUREG-0544]

PCRDM: primary control rod drive mechanism [NUREG-0544]

PCRM: primary certified reference material [NUREG-0544]

PCRS: primary control rod system [NUREG-0544]

PCRV: prestressed concrete reactor vessel [NUREG-0544]

PCS: passive containment system, plant computer system, plant control system, power conversion system, pressure control system, primary coolant system, process computer system, process control sheet [NUREG-0544]

PCSG: Pipe Crack Study Group [NUREG-0544]

PCT: peak centerline temperature, peak cladding temperature, pellet/cladding temperature [NUREG-0544]

PCTF: plant component test facility [NUREG-0544]

PCTR: physical constant test reactor [NUREG-0544]

PCV: pressure control valve, pressurizer control valve [NUREG-0544]

PD: population density, population distribution, project director, pump discharge [NUREG-0544]

PDA: predocketed application, preliminary design acceptance, preliminary design analysis, preliminary design approval, preliminary design assessment, preliminary design authorization [NUREG-0544]

PDAS: plant data acquisition system [NUREG-0544]

PDB: plant damage bin [NUREG-0544]

PDC: predocketed construction, preliminary design criterion/criteria, principal design criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

PDCO: plant design control office [NUREG-0544]

PDD: Presidential Decision Directive, projected decision date, prospective decision date [NUREG-0544]

PDES: preliminary draft environmental statement [NUREG-0544]

PDF: plant design factor, probability density function, project design flood [NUREG-0544]

PDH&DS: plant data handling and display system [NUREG-0544]

PDHS: plutonium decontamination and hot shop [NUREG-0544]

PDI: Performance Demonstration Initiative [NUREG-0544]

PDIL: power-dependent insertion limit [NUREG-0544]

PDL: power distribution limit [NUREG-0544]

PDMS: postdefueling monitored storage [NUREG-0544]

PDP: positive displacement pump, Process Development Pile, project definition phase [NUREG-0544]

PDR: preliminary design report, pressurized deuterium reactor, public document room [NUREG-0544]

PDRP: program data requirement plan [NUREG-0544]

PDS: plant damage state, plant data system, power distribution system, predocketed special , project decision schedule, project descriptive summary [NUREG-0544]

PDT: performance discharge test [NUREG-0544]

PDTS: permanently defueled technical specification [NUREG-0544]

PE: power engineering , project engineer [NUREG-0544]

PEAP: procurement engineering assessment plan [NUREG-0544]

PECO: Philadelphia Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

PEDS: protective equipment decontamination section [NUREG-0544]

PEF: potential enforcement finding [NUREG-0544]

PEIS: programmatic environmental impact statement [NUREG-0544]

PEL: power electronics [NUREG-0544]

PEMA: Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency [NUREG-0544]

PENELEC: Pennsylvania Electric Company [NUREG-0544]

PEO: patrol emergency officer, plant equipment operator [NUREG-0544]

PEP: performance enhancement program [NUREG-0544]

PEPCO: Potomac Electric Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

PEPR: precision encoder and pattern recognition [NUREG-0544]

PER: problem event report, procurement evaluation request [NUREG-0544]

PERMS: process and effluent radiological monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

PERMSS: process and effluent radiological monitoring and sampling system [NUREG-0544]

PERT: program evaluation and review technique, program evaluation report technique [NUREG-0544]

PET: performance evaluation team, permanent equipment transfer [NUREG-0544]

PETA: plutonium equipment transfer area [NUREG-0544]

PETN: pentaerythritol tetranitrate [NUREG-0544]

PETS: procedure for evaluating technical specifications [NUREG-0544]

PETTE: post-emergency tabletop exercise [NUREG-0544]

PEWS: plutonium equipment warm shop [NUREG-0544]

PF: partition factor, prefilter, Progressive Foundation, proposed finding, protection factor, purge fan [NUREG-0544]

PFCS: primary flow control system [NUREG-0544]

PFD: process flow diagram [NUREG-0544]

PFDAS: plant fire detection and alarm system [NUREG-0544]

PFE: plenum fill experiment [NUREG-0544]

PFES: proposed final environmental statement [NUREG-0544]

PFG: paper flow group, piping and filter gallery [NUREG-0544]

PFPCDS: plant fire protection carbon dioxide subsystem [NUREG-0544]

PFPHS: plant fire protection Halon subsystem [NUREG-0544]

PFPS: plant fire protection system [NUREG-0544]

PFPWS: plant fire protection water subsystem [NUREG-0544]

PFR: Prototype Fast Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

PFS: peripheral fixed shim, private fuel storage [NUREG-0544]

PFSF: private fuel storage facility [NUREG-0544]

PG: particulate and gas [NUREG-0544]

PGA: peak ground acceleration [NUREG-0544]

PGCC: power generation control complex [NUREG-0544]

P&GD: policy and guidance directive [NUREG-0544]

PGDS: pressurized gas distribution system [NUREG-0544]

PG&E: Pacific Gas & Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

PGG: power generation group [NUREG-0544]

PGP: procedures generation package [NUREG-0544]

PGQ: potentially generic question [NUREG-0544]

PHA: pulse-height analyzer [NUREG-0544]

PHERMEX: pulsed high-energy radiographic machine-emitted x-ray [NUREG-0544]

PHF: plug-handling fixture [NUREG-0544]

PHGA: peak horizontal ground acceleration [NUREG-0544]

PHR: process heat reactor [NUREG-0544]

PHS: Public Health Service [NUREG-0544]

PHSPS: preservation, handling, storage, packaging, and shipping [NUREG-0544]

PHTS: primary heat transport system [NUREG-0544]

PHWR: pressurized heavy-water-moderated and -cooled reactor, pressurized heavy-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

PI: performance indicator, physical inventory, plasticity index, position indication, pressure indicator, process instrumentation, proportional integral, purge isolation [NUREG-0544]

P&I: piping and instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

PIA: pressure indicator alarm [NUREG-0544]

PIC: pressure-indicating controller, pressurized ion chamber, public information center [NUREG-0544]

PICAN: Prairie Island Coalition Against Nuclear Storage [NUREG-0544]

PID: partial initial decision, piping and instrumentation diagram [NUREG-0544]

P&ID: piping and instrumentation diagram [NUREG-0544]

PID: position indication device, project identification, proportional integral derivative [NUREG-0544]

P&ID: piping and instrumentation diagram, piping and instrumentation drawing, process and instrumentation diagram [NUREG-0544]

PIDS: project identification summary [NUREG-0544]

PIE: postirradiation examination, postirradiation experiment [NUREG-0544]

PIF: pool irradiation facility, problem identification form, pressure-injected footing [NUREG-0544]

PIL: Plant Issues List (now the Plant Issues Matrix) [NUREG-0544]

PIM: Plant Issues Matrix (formerly the Plant Issues List) [NUREG-0544]

PIMS: pooled inventory management system [NUREG-0544]

PIN: piping interference notification, potential interference notification [NUREG-0544]

PING: particulate, iodine, and noble gas [NUREG-0544]

PINGP: Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant [NUREG-0544]

PINSTECH: Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology [NUREG-0544]

PIO: public information officer [NUREG-0544]

PIOTA: postirradiation open test assembly, proximity-instrumented open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

PIP: Performance Indicator Program, performance improvement plan, performance improvement program, position indication probe, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Implementation Plan, problem investigation plan, prototypic inlet piping [NUREG-0544]

PIPPAP: pile for producing power and plutonium [NUREG-0544]

PIR: Petrolite Irradiation Reactor, plant internal report, problem identification report, problem investigation report [NUREG-0544]

PIRG: Public Interest Research Group [NUREG-0544]

PIRR: pipe inspection round robin [NUREG-0544]

PIRT: phenomena identification and ranking table [NUREG-0544]

PIS: pressure-indicating switch, process instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

PISA: Project Integrated Safety Assessment [NUREG-0544]

PISC: Program for the Inspection of Steel Components [NUREG-0544]

PIV: pressure-indicating valve, pressure isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

PIXIE: proton-induced x-ray emission [NUREG-0544]

PL: panel left, piping load, plastic limit, public law [NUREG-0544]

PLATR: Pawling lattice test rig [NUREG-0544]

PLBR: prototype large breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

PLC: power-line carrier [NUREG-0544]

PLCEA: part-length control element assembly [NUREG-0544]

PLCEDM: part-length control element drive mechanism [NUREG-0544]

PLEX: plant life extension [NUREG-0544]

PLOCAP: post-loss-of-coolant-accident protection [NUREG-0544]

PLR: policy and labor relations [NUREG-0544]

PLS: precautions, limitations, and set points [NUREG-0544]

PLT: Princeton Large Torus [NUREG-0544]

PM: photomultiplier, pressure multiplier, preventive maintenance, program manager, project manager, protective measure [NUREG-0544]

PMA: personnel management analyst, plastic moderated assembly [NUREG-0544]

PMC: programmable machine controller, Project Management Corporation, protective measures coordinator [NUREG-0544]

PME: process and manufacturing engineering [NUREG-0544]

PMF: probable maximum flood [NUREG-0544]

PMH: probable maximum hurricane [NUREG-0544]

PMI: plant manager instruction [NUREG-0544]

PMIS: plant monitoring and information system, precision mechanisms in sodium [NUREG-0544]

PML: probable maximum loss [NUREG-0544]

PMM: pedestal-mounted manipulator [NUREG-0544]

PMNP: platform-mounted nuclear plant [NUREG-0544]

PMOG: plutonium maintenance and operating gallery [NUREG-0544]

PMP: preoperational monitoring program, preventive maintenance procedure, probable maximum precipitation, program manual procedure [NUREG-0544]

PMR: plant modification request, project manager report [NUREG-0544]

PMS: performance measurement system, plant monitoring system, primary makeup system, probable maximum surge, program management staff [NUREG-0544]

PMT: photomultiplier tube, postmaintenance testing [NUREG-0544]

PMU: plant makeup [NUREG-0544]

PMW: probable maximum wind [NUREG-0544]

PMWP: probable maximum winter precipitation [NUREG-0544]

PMY: professional man-year [NUREG-0544]

PN: plant normal, preliminary notification [NUREG-0544]

PNA: pulsed neutron activation [NUREG-0544]

PNE: peaceful nuclear explosion [NUREG-0544]

PNET: Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty [NUREG-0544]

PNL: Pacific Northwest Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

PNO: preliminary notification of occurrence [NUREG-0544]

PNPP: Palisades Nuclear Power Plant, Perry Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

PNR: Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office [NUREG-0544]

PNS: preliminary notification of safeguard [NUREG-0544]

PNSRC: plant nuclear safety review committee [NUREG-0544]

PNWL: Pacific Northwest Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

PO: project officer, purchase order [NUREG-0544]

POA: provisional operating authorization [NUREG-0544]

POAH: point of adding heat [NUREG-0544]

POD: point of discharge, probability of detection, PWR (pressurized-water reactor) oxide decontamination [NUREG-0544]

PODCI: probability of detection and correct interpretation [NUREG-0544]

POF: probability of failure [NUREG-0544]

POG: piping and operating gallery [NUREG-0544]

POGE: Portland General Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

POGO: Project on Government Oversight [NUREG-0544]

POIS: prototype online instrument system [NUREG-0544]

POL: possession-only license, provisional operating license [NUREG-0544]

POM: position modulator [NUREG-0544]

POP: peak overpressure, proof of principle [NUREG-0544]

POPR: prototype organic power reactor [NUREG-0544]

POPS: pressurizer overpressure protection system [NUREG-0544]

POQAP: plant operational quality assurance procedure [NUREG-0544]

POR: plant operations review, plutonium organic recycle [NUREG-0544]

PORACC: principle of radiation and contamination control [NUREG-0544]

PORC: plant operations review committee [NUREG-0544]

PORV: pilot-operated relief valve, power-operated relief valve [NUREG-0544]

POS: plant operating system, plant operational state, point of sale [NUREG-0544]

POSA: preliminary operating safety analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

POTC: Power Operations Training Center [NUREG-0544]

PP: primary pressure [NUREG-0544]

PPA: plutonium preparation area, power plant attendant, Princeton-Pennsylvania Proton Accelerator, probabilistic performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

PPC: Pennsylvania Power Co., plutonium process cell, plutonium product cell, pore pressure cell [NUREG-0544]

PPDD: preliminary project design description [NUREG-0544]

PPDI: plant process display instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

PPDIL: pre-power-dependent insertion limit [NUREG-0544]

PPE: personnel program effectiveness [NUREG-0544]

PPFR: plutonium product filter room [NUREG-0544]

PPG: policy and planning guidance [NUREG-0544]

PPH: primary pump house [NUREG-0544]

PPIS: plant protection and instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

PP&L: Pennsylvania Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

PPL: Plasma Physics Laboratory, plutonium product loadout, priority placement list [NUREG-0544]

ppm: part per million [NUREG-0544]

PPM: procedure preparation manual [NUREG-0544]

PPMIP: plant performance and management improvement program [NUREG-0544]

PPNM: physical protection of nuclear materials [NUREG-0544]

PPP: point-to-point protocol, portable plotting package [NUREG-0544]

PPPG: policy, planning, and program guidance [NUREG-0544]

PPR: plant performance review [NUREG-0544]

PPS: plant protection system, plant protective system, plutonium product storage, primary power system [NUREG-0544]

pps: pulse per second [NUREG-0544]

PPSAS: program planning and status assessment system [NUREG-0544]

PPSP: power plant siting program [NUREG-0544]

PPSPS: plutonium product shipping preparation station [NUREG-0544]

PPSV: plutonium product storage vault [NUREG-0544]

PQAD: plant quality assurance director [NUREG-0544]

PQAM: project quality assurance manager [NUREG-0544]

PQAP: project quality assurance plan [NUREG-0544]

PQR: procedure qualification record [NUREG-0544]

PR: Philippine Reactor, plant recovery, power range, press release, pressure recorder, procurement request, proposed rule [NUREG-0544]

PRA: Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, plutonium recycle acid, probabilistic risk analysis/analyses, probabilistic risk assessment [NUREG-0544]

PRAF: probabilistic risk assessment fundamentals [NUREG-0544]

PRATTP: probabilistic risk assessment technology transfer program [NUREG-0544]

PRB: plant review board, procedure review board [NUREG-0544]

PRBSG: pseudo-random binary sequence generator [NUREG-0544]

PRC: Planning Research Corp., plutonium rework cell, pressure recorder controller [NUREG-0544]

PRCF: plutonium recycle critical facility [NUREG-0544]

PRD: potentially reportable deficiency [NUREG-0544]

PRDC: Power Reactor Development Co. [NUREG-0544]

PRE: processing refabrication experiment [NUREG-0544]

PREACS: penetration room exhaust air cleanup system, pump room exhaust air cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

PRF: penetration room filtration [NUREG-0544]

PRG: procedure review group [NUREG-0544]

PRHR: passive residual heat removal [NUREG-0544]

PRISIM: plant risk status information management [NUREG-0544]

PRISM: power reactor inherently safe module [NUREG-0544]

PRL: postulated rupture location [NUREG-0544]

PRM: personal radiation monitor, petition for rulemaking, power range monitor, process radiation monitor, proposal for rulemaking [NUREG-0544]

PRMS: process radiation monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

PRNC: Puerto Rico Nuclear Center [NUREG-0544]

PROM: programmable read-only memory [NUREG-0544]

PROS: Professional Reactor Operator Society [NUREG-0544]

PRR: Pawling Research Reactor, Philippines Research Reactor, pressure rise rate, Puerto Rico Reactor [NUREG-0544]

PRRWS: public risk reduction worksheet [NUREG-0544]

PRS: pressure response spectrum/spectra, process radiation sampler [NUREG-0544]

PRSC: plutonium rework sample cell [NUREG-0544]

PRT: pressurized relief tank, prompt relief trip [NUREG-0544]

PRTR: plutonium recycle test reactor [NUREG-0544]

PRTS: pressurizer relief tank system [NUREG-0544]

PRV: pressure relief valve [NUREG-0544]

PRVS: penetration room ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

PRWRA: Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority [NUREG-0544]

PS: Pilgrim Station, policy statement, power supply, pressure switch, pressurizer surge [NUREG-0544]

PSA: personnel and service area, plant-specific action, probabilistic safety analysis/analyses, probabilistic safety assessment [NUREG-0544]

PSAR: preliminary safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

PSB: personnel services building, plant service building [NUREG-0544]

PSC: plant safety committee, plutonium stripping concentrate, Public Service Commission, Public Service Co. of Colorado [NUREG-0544]

PSCD: plutonium stripping concentration distillate [NUREG-0544]

PSCS: plant supervisory control subsystem [NUREG-0544]

PSD: power spectral density, power spectrum density [NUREG-0544]

PSDAR: post-shutdown decommissioning activities report [NUREG-0544]

PSDD: preliminary system design description [NUREG-0544]

PSDF: power spectrum density function [NUREG-0544]

PSE: pressurized subcritical experiment [NUREG-0544]

PSE&C: power supply engineering and construction [NUREG-0544]

PSE&G: Public Service Electric & Gas Co. [NUREG-0544]

PSER: preapplication safety evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

PSF: performance shaping factor, personnel security file, plutonium stripper feed, poolside facility [NUREG-0544]

PSH: pressure switch, high [NUREG-0544]

PSHA: probabilistic seismic hazard assessment [NUREG-0544]

PSI: preservice inspection, prioritization of safety issues [NUREG-0544]

PSID: preliminary safety information document [NUREG-0544]

PSIN: Public Service Co. of Indiana, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

PSMD: Public Service of Maryland [NUREG-0544]

PSMS: plant safety monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

PSNH: Public Service Co. of New Hampshire [NUREG-0544]

PSNM: Public Service Co. of New Mexico [NUREG-0544]

PSNP: Pebble Springs Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

PSOK: Public Service Co. of Oklahoma [NUREG-0544]

PSP: physical security plan, primary sodium pump [NUREG-0544]

PSPGV: primary sodium pump guard vessel [NUREG-0544]

PSPL: Puget Sound Power and Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

PSQ: personnel security questionnaire [NUREG-0544]

PSR: Pennsylvania State University Research Reactor, peripheral shim rod, permanent side reflector, plant status report, primary system relief, procurement status report [NUREG-0544]

PSR&D: primary sodium removal and decontamination [NUREG-0544]

PSRM: post-scram reactivity monitor [NUREG-0544]

PSS: primary sampling system, probabilistic safety study, process sampling system [NUREG-0544]

PSSA: preclosure systems safety analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

PSSAR: preliminary standard safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

PSSP: primary sodium sampling package [NUREG-0544]

PSSPS: primary sodium storage and processing system [NUREG-0544]

PST: pressure suppression tank, primary surge tank [NUREG-0544]

PSTF: pressure suppression test facility, proximity sensor test facility, pump seal test facility [NUREG-0544]

PSTG: plant-specific technical guidelines [NUREG-0544]

PSU: Publication Sales Unit [NUREG-0544]

PSUR: Pennsylvania State University Reactor [NUREG-0544]

PSV: pressurizer safety valve [NUREG-0544]

PSW: plant service water [NUREG-0544]

PSWG: plant-specific writers guide [NUREG-0544]

PSWS: potable and sanitary water system [NUREG-0544]

PT: penetrant test, penetrant testing, periodic test, periodic testing, phototransistor, pool temperature, preoperational test, preoperational testing, pressure and temperature, pressure transmitter [NUREG-0544]

P/T: pressure and temperature [NUREG-0544]

PTC: passive thermal control, post-turnover change [NUREG-0544]

PTE: part-time equivalent, physics test exception [NUREG-0544]

PTFG: Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Training Focus Group [NUREG-0544]

PTI: pipe test insert, plugging temperature indicator [NUREG-0544]

PTL: Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

PTM: plant temporary modification [NUREG-0544]

PTP: peak to peak, preoperational test program, proximity test plug [NUREG-0544]

PTR: performance trend report, pool test reactor, pool training reactor, pressure tube reactor, programmer trouble report, proof test reactor [NUREG-0544]

PTS: pressurized thermal shock [NUREG-0544]

PTSE: pressurized thermal shock experiment [NUREG-0544]

PTSF: pressurized thermal shock facility [NUREG-0544]

PT/SP: pressure tube-to-spool piece [NUREG-0544]

PTSR: pressure tube superheat reactor [NUREG-0544]

PTSTF: pressurized thermal shock test facility [NUREG-0544]

PUA: plant-unique analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

PUAAG: plant-unique analysis-applications guide [NUREG-0544]

Pub. : L.Public Law [NUREG-0544]

PUC: Public Utility Commission [NUREG-0544]

PUD: paired uranium detectors, public utility district [NUREG-0544]

PULSTAR: pulsed training assembled reactor [NUREG-0544]

PUP: peak underpressure, plutonium utilization program [NUREG-0544]

PUR: Purdue University Reactor [NUREG-0544]

PURPA: Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 [NUREG-0544]

PUSPATI: Pusat Penyelidikan Atom Tun Ismail (Malaysia) [NUREG-0544]

PV: photovoltaic, pressure valve, pressure vessel [NUREG-0544]

PVC: polyvinyl chloride [NUREG-0544]

PVHA: probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment [NUREG-0544]

PVLC: penetration valve leakage control [NUREG-0544]

PVNGS: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

PVORT: pump and valve operability review team [NUREG-0544]

PVRC: Pressure Vessel Research Committee [NUREG-0544]

PVS: plant vent stack, pressure vessel simulation [NUREG-0544]

PVTI: piping and valve test insert [NUREG-0544]

PW: potable water [NUREG-0544]

P&W: Pratt and Whitney [NUREG-0544]

PWG: principal working group (NEA) [NUREG-0544]

PWHA: plutonium waste-handling area [NUREG-0544]

PWHT: postweld heat treatment [NUREG-0544]

PWR: pipe whip restraint, pressurized-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

PWROG: Pressurized-Water Reactor Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

PWSCC: primary water stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

PWST: protected water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

PyC: pyrolytic carbon [NUREG-0544]

PZR: pressurizer [NUREG-0544]

PZR : LCSpressurizer level control system, PCSpressurizer pressure control system [NUREG-0544]

Pad: A flat concrete or asphalt surface used for the temporary storage of wastes. Its purpose is to keep wastes from leaching into the soil. [DOE/EM-0266]

Pantex Plant: The United States' final assembly plant for nuclear weapons, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo. [DOE/EM-0266]

Parent: A radionuclide that upon radioactive decay or disintegration yields a specific nuclide (the daughter). [NRC]

Passive Stewardship: Includes ongoing custodial controls such as land or resource use restrictions; permanent markers, signs, or restrictions at a site; or public records, deed restrictions, and archived information. [DOE/EM-0466]

pathways - The means by which contaminants move. Possible pathways include air, surface water, groundwater, plants and animals. [CY]

pathway analysis: An analysis of the ways in which toxic or radioactive substances can reach human beings from a factory, place, or process in which they are made, used, stored or dumped via air, water, soil, the food chain, or some combination of these pathways. [IEER]

PCBs: A group of commercially produced organic chemicals used since the 1940s in industrial applications throughout the nuclear weapons complex. Most notably, PCBs are found in many of the gaskets and large electrical transformers and capacitors in the gaseous diffusion plants. PCBs have been proven to be toxic to both humans and laboratory animals. "PCB" is an abbreviation of the full name, "polychlorinated biphenyls." [DOE/EM-0266]

Percent Complete Method: A subjective evaluation of completed work effort, used to determine the BCWP on specific tasks. [DOEEMGMT]

Performance Assessment (radiological performance assessment): An analysis of a LLW disposal facility's ability to contain the waste to determine reasonable expectations for performance of the facility over time. [EPALLRW]

Performance: See BCWP. [DOEEMGMT]

Performance Baseline: The part of a program or project that is supported by well defined scopes of work, schedules, and cost estimates. [DOEEMGMT]

Performance-based Regulation: Required results or outcome of performance rather than a prescriptive process, technique, or procedure. [NRC]

Performance Measurement: A methodology that evaluates project status and provides a basis for management decisions. Performance measurement establishes a relationship between planned costs and planned schedule and actual accomplishments and actual costs. [DOEEMGMT]

Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB): See BCWS. [DOEEMGMT]

Performing Organizations: The laboratories and prime contractors involved in a project. [DOEEMGMT]

Personnel monitoring: The use of portable survey meters to determine the amount of radioactive contamination on an individual, or the use of dosimetry to determine an individual's occupational radiation dose. [NRC]

photon: The indivisible unit, or quantum, of electro-magnetic radiation. The energy of the photons determines the nature of the radiation, from radio waves at the lowest energy levels, up through infra-red, visible, and ultra-violet light, to X-or gamma-rays, which have energy high enough to ionize atoms. [IEER]

Physiographic: Geographic regions based on geologic setting. [WIPPEA]

picocuries - Measurement of radioactivity. A picocurie is one million millionth, or a trillionth, of a curie, and represents about 2.2 radioactive particle disintegration's per minute. [CY]

Pig: A colloquial term describing a container (usually lead or depleted uranium) used to ship or store radioactive materials. The thick walls of this shielding device protect the person handling the container from radiation. Large containers used for spent fuel storage are commonly called casks. [NRC]

Pile A colloquial term describing the first nuclear reactors. It is called a pile because the earliest reactors were "piles" of graphite and uranium blocks. [NRC]

Pitcheblende: Uranium oxide (U3O8) It is the main component of high-grade African or domestic uranium ore and also contains other oxides and sulfides, including radium, thorium, and lead components. [DOELL]

Planned special exposure: An infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to, the annual dose limits (see 10 CFR 20.1003 and §20.1206). [NRC]

Planning Hours: The projected labor-hours needed to complete a TTP task by month. [DOEEMGMT]

Planning Level Funding: One of the three funding levels used in the development of the ADS by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). Funding at the planning level meets all legal requirements and other priority activities. Activities not required by law are justified by reason of program, technical considerations, cost effectiveness, or efficiency. [DOEEMGMT]

Planning Package: A unit of future work that is not yet divided into fully defined work packages. It consists of a work definition for elements defined to the lowest practical breakdown level, an approximate schedule for performing the work, and a time-phased budget. Planning packages allow a reasonably accurate budget to be established for a control account. [DOEEMGMT]

Planning Window: The consecutive fiscal years for which baseline documentation is required. [DOEEMGMT]

Planning Year : The first fiscal year in the planning window. [DOEEMGMT]

Planning Year Description: A detailed description at each funding level of the planned work within the scope of an ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

Plutonium: A highly toxic, heavy, radioactive metallic element with the atomic number 94, pure plutonium is a silvery metal that is heavier than lead.. A manmade fissile element, it is produced artificially by neutron bombardment of uranium. Plutonium has 15 isotopes with atomic masses ranging from 232 to 246 and half lives from 20 minutes to 76 million years. Only five are produced in significant quantities: plutonium-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242. Plutonium-239 is the most important plutonium isotope as it is fissile and is used in nuclear weapons and some reactors. One the other hand, plutonium-240 is unsuitable for use in nuclear weapons and reactor fuel. Thus, in a reactor whose main purpose is plutonium production, the rate at which plutonium-240 is formed controls the length of time fuel is allowed to remain under irradiation. Plutonium is categorized according to plutonium-240 content, as follows super-grade has 2-3% Pu-240; weapons-grade has less than 7% Pu-240; fuel-grade has 7-18% (or sometimes given as 7-19%) Pu-240; and reactor-grade has 18% or greater (or 19% or greater) Pu-240. Despite what the name implies, "reactor-grade" plutonium has been used successfully to make a nuclear bomb. Material rich in the plutonium-239 isotope is preferred for manufacturing nuclear weapons, although any plutonium can be used. Plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years. [IEER, DOE/EM-0342]

Plutonium residues: Materials left over from the processing of plutonium that contain enough plutonium to make its recovery economically worthwhile. [DOE/EM-0266]

Plutonium pit: A vernacular term that refers to the spherical core of a thermonuclear weapon. This pit is the "trigger" of the primary portion of the weapon that, when compressed, reaches a critical mass and begins a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction. [DOE/EM-0266]

Pocket Dosimeter: A small ionization detection instrument that indicates radiation exposure directly. An auxiliary charging device is usually necessary.

Poison, neutron: In reactor physics, a material other than fissionable material, in the vicinity of the reactor core that will absorb neutrons. The addition of poisons, such as control rods or boron, into the reactor is said to be an addition of negative reactivity. [NRC]

Pollution Prevention Category: The type of pollution prevention activity associated with the Federal Agency Pollution Abatement Plan (OMB Circular A-106) project, if applicable. [DOEEMGMT]

Pollution Prevention Program: The use of materials, processes, and practices, including recycling activities, that reduces or eliminates the generation and release of pollutants, contaminants, hazardous substances, and waste into land, water, and air. The overall objective of the program, which was established by the Office of Environmental Management in 1991, is to minimize pollutant generation and release by implementing cost-effective technologies, practices, and policies. [DOELL]

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): A group of commercially produced organic chemicals used since the 1940s in industrial applications throughout the nuclear weapons complex. Polychlorinated biphenyls are found in many gaskets and large electrical transformers and capacitors in the gaseous diffusion plants. They have been proven to be toxic to both humans and laboratory animals. [DOELL]

Pondcrete: The process of mixing materials from ponds with concrete to immobilize waste constituents in the material. [DOELL]

Pool reactor: A reactor in which the fuel elements are suspended in a pool of water that serves as the reflector, moderator, and coolant. Popularly called a "swimming pool reactor," it is used for research and training, not for electrical generation. [NRC]

positron: An elementary particle with a positive electric charge, but in other respects identical with an electron. [IEER]

Possession-only license: A form of license that allows possession but not operation. [NRC]

potash: The common industrial term for potassium in various chemical combinations with sodium, magnesium, chlorine, and sulfate. [WIPPEA]

Potentially Responsible Party: A designation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act that identifies a user or past user of a facility as having legal responsibility for contamination at a site. [DOELL]

Pounds per Square Inch (psi): A measure of nuclear blast overpressure or dynamic pressure, used to calculate the effects of a nuclear detonation or the ability of a structure to withstand a nuclear blast. [ATARC]

Power defect: The total amount of reactivity added due to a given change in power. It can also be expressed as the integrated power coefficient over the range of the power change. [NRC]

Power coefficient of reactivity: The change in reactivity per percent change in power. The power coefficient is the summation of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity, the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity, and the void coefficient of reactivity. [NRC]

Power reactor: A reactor designed to produce heat for electric generation, as distinguished from reactors used for research, for producing radiation or fissionable materials, or for reactor component testing. [NRC]

Preferred route: A preferred route is an interstate highway or an alternate route des-ignated by the state in accordance with DOT guidelines. [EPALLRW]

Present Value: The dollar sum that, when available now and invested at a prevailing interest rate, will equal a given value at a defined date in the future. [DOELL]

Present value estimate: Estimate of costs that accounts for the schedule of activities that incur costs, the effects of inflation, and the time value of money. For comparing projects that have very different schedules and cash flow profiles, Present Value estimates are the best representation of the relative costs of the projects. [TNRCC]

President's Budget: The proposal sent by the President to Congress each year as required by the Budget and Accounting Act of l921, as amended. [DOEEMGMT]

Pressure vessel: A strong-walled container housing the core of most types of power reactors. It usually also contains the moderator, neutron reflector, thermal shield, and control rods. [NRC]

Pressurized water reactor (PWR) A light-water power reactor in which heat is transferred from the core to an exchanger by high temperature water kept under high pressure in the primary system. Steam is generated in a secondary circuit. Many reactors producing electric power are pressurized water reactors. [NRC]

Pressurizer: A tank or vessel that acts as a head tank (or surge volume) to control the pressure in a pressurized water reactor. [NRC]

Primary: The fission part of a fusion bomb. The 'match' which ignites the fusion reaction. [ATARC]

Primary system A term that may be used for referring to the reactor coolant system. [NRC]

Principal Investigator: The individual responsible for the day-to-day technical conduct of work covered by a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Privatization: An alternative Environmental Management business strategy to the traditional Management & Operating approach which involves the purchase of an end product or service obtained via an open fixed price competition. Under privatization, the contractor is responsible for completing and finishing the work to deliver the product/service. If facilities are involved, they are contractor-owned/contractor-operated and privately financed. [DOE/EM-0342]

Processing: Storage, extraction of material, transfer, volume reduction, compaction, or other separation and preparation of low-level radioactive waste for reuse or disposal, including a treatment or activity that renders the waste less hazardous, safer for transport, or amenable to recovery, storage, or disposal [TNRCC]

Production expense: Production expenses are a component of generation expenses that includes costs associated with operation, maintenance, and fuel. [NRC]

Production reactor: A nuclear reactor that is designed to produce manmade isotopes- to produce fissile or other materials or to perform irradiations on an industrial scale. Tritium and plutonium are made in production reactors for nuclear weapons. The United States has 14 such reactors: nine at the Hanford Site and five at the Savannah River Site. Some research reactors are also used to produce isotopes. [DOE/EM-0266]

Program Analyst Comments: The program analyst's comments on the outcome of a "what-if" scenario on cost and schedule values. [DOEEMGMT]

Program Direction: Activities that include salaries and benefits for all federal Full-Time Equivalents at Headquarters and the field offices. [DOE/EM-0342]

Program Direction Program (PD): An Environmental Management (EM) program that manages and coordinates EM's administrative, financial management, and strategic planning functions. [DOEEMGMT]

Program Execution Guidance (PEG): A document issued annually by Headquarters program offices to the Field that describes milestones, scopes of work, and schedules, that details requirements, and that references funding in accordance with the initial Approved Funding Program (AFP) and allotment. [DOEEMGMT]

Program Management: Activities that include planning, monitoring, and reporting of ongoing activities, cost-schedule tracking, clerical, other administrative support, and grants to states and localities. [DOE/EM-0342]

Program and Project Scheduling: The prioritization of environmental management activities and the expenditures related to them. One of the three alternative cases analyzed as part of the Baseline Report. [DOELL]

Program Secretarial Officer (PSO): The individual responsible for a Department of Energy (DOE) office and its facilities. [DOEEMGMT]

Progress Tracking System (PTS): The standard reporting tool for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE). PTS tracks program activities, accomplishments, and resources on a monthly basis through data at the Operations Office and Headquarters. PTS provides a consistent method of reporting program progress and has been designed to provide a comprehensive and uniform system for reporting technical, cost, and schedule progress and to provide a database that allows EM to respond to internal and external requests for information. [DOEEMGMT]

Programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS): A broad-scope EIS that identifies and assesses the environmental impacts of a federal program. [EPALLRW]

Project Control System: The contractor management system that includes planning, scheduling, budgeting, estimating, work authorization, cost accumulation, performance measurement, reporting, change control, and other functions used to plan and control the work. [DOEEMGMT]

Project Scope: The element of the project baseline that defines the technical objective and general approach in support of the program's mission. This element includes measurable items that are formally established and controlled. [DOEEMGMT]

Project Title: The full name of the Strategic System, the Major System, the Integrated Demonstration, or the Integrated Project associated with an ADS or TTP, if applicable. [DOEEMGMT]

Proliferation: The process by which nations acquire nuclear weapons. [ATARC]

Proportional counter: A radiation instrument in which an electronic detection system receives pulses that are proportional to the number of ions formed in a gas-filled tube by ionizing radiation. [NRC]

proton: An elementary particle with a positive electric charge and a mass that is given the value 1 on the scale of atomic weights. [IEER]

PSDAR Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report [CY]

PUREX: An acronym for Plutonium-Uranium Extraction, the name of the chemical process usually used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and irradiated targets. Also refers to the first plant at the Hanford Site built to use this process. The PUREX plant operated from 1956 to 1972 and from l973 to 1988. [DOE/EM-0266]

|------------------------ Q ------------------------|

QA: quality assurance [NUREG-0544]

QAA: quality assurance audit [NUREG-0544]

QAC: quality assurance checklist, quality assurance criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

QAI: quality assurance instruction [NUREG-0544]

QAIP: quality assurance inspection procedure [NUREG-0544]

QAIRG: quality assurance installation review group [NUREG-0544]

QAM: quality assurance manual [NUREG-0544]

QA&O: quality assurance and operations [NUREG-0544]

QAP: quality assurance procedure, quality assurance program [NUREG-0544]

QAPI: quality assurance program index [NUREG-0544]

QAPP: quality assurance program plan [NUREG-0544]

QA/QC: quality assurance/quality control [NUREG-0544]

QAR: quality assurance requirement, quality assurance representative [NUREG-0544]

QC: quality control [NUREG-0544]

QCI: quality control instruction [NUREG-0544]

QCIP: quality control inspection procedure [NUREG-0544]

QCIR: quality control inspection report [NUREG-0544]

QCP: quality control procedure [NUREG-0544]

QCS: Quad-Cities Station [NUREG-0544]

QDO: quantitative design objective [NUREG-0544]

QDPS: qualified display processing system [NUREG-0544]

QE: quality engineer [NUREG-0544]

QF: quality factor, quality form [NUREG-0544]

QHO: qualitative health objective, quantitative health objective [NUREG-0544]

QHR: quality history record [NUREG-0544]

QIT: quality improvement team [NUREG-0544]

QLR: quick-look report [NUREG-0544]

QMP: qualification maintenance program, quality management program [NUREG-0544]

QO: quick opening [NUREG-0544]

QOBV: quick-opening blowdown valve [NUREG-0544]

QPM: quality program manager [NUREG-0544]

QPT: quadrant power tilt [NUREG-0544]

QPTR: quadrant power tilt ratio [NUREG-0544]

QR: quality revalidation [NUREG-0544]

QS: quench spray [NUREG-0544]

QSC: quality systems certificate [NUREG-0544]

QSP: quality systems program [NUREG-0544]

QSPDS: qualified safety parameter display system [NUREG-0544]

QSR: quarterly statistical report [NUREG-0544]

QSTF: quarter-scale test facility [NUREG-0544]

QTC: Quality Technology Co. [NUREG-0544]

QTP: quality test plan [NUREG-0544]

QV: quality verification [NUREG-0544]

QVFI: quality verification functional inspection [NUREG-0544]

QVI: quality verification inspection [NUREG-0544]

Q-value (Disintegration energy): The amount of energy released in a particular nuclear disintegration. This is usually expressed in MeV/disintegration.

QA/QC: Quality Assurance/Quality Control [TNRCC]

Quality factor: The factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) is to be multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses, on a common scale for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage (rem or sievert) to an exposed individual. It is used because some types of radiation, such as alpha particles, are more biologically damaging internally than other types. [NRC]

Quantum theory: The concept that energy is radiated intermittently in units of definite magnitude, called quanta, and absorbed in a like manner.[NRC]

|------------------------ R ------------------------|

RA: reduction of area [NUREG-0544]

RA: regional administrator, Robotics and Automation Council [NUREG-0544]

R/A: reliability/availability [NUREG-0544]

RAB: reactor auxiliary building [NUREG-0544]

RABNVS: reactor auxiliary building normal ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

RABSRVS: reactor auxiliary building switchgear room ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

RABV: reflood assist bypass valve [NUREG-0544]

RAC: radiological assessment coordinator, regional assistance committee, report of abnormal condition [NUREG-0544]

RACES: Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service [NUREG-0544]

RACS: rod action control system [NUREG-0544]

rad: radiation absorbed dose [NUREG-0544]

RAD: rapid access data [NUREG-0544]

RADCON: radiologic control [NUREG-0544]

RADS: radiation and dosimetry service [NUREG-0544]

RAI: request for additional information [NUREG-0544]

RAIP: requester's approval in principle [NUREG-0544]

RAM: radioactive material, random access memory, reliability, availability, and maintainability [NUREG-0544]

RAMS: regulatory activities manpower system [NUREG-0544]

RANNP: Research Applied to National Needs Program [NUREG-0544]

RAOC: relaxed axial offset control [NUREG-0544]

RAP: radiological assistance plan, reliability assurance plan, remedial action program, restart action plan [NUREG-0544]

RAPS: radioactive argon processing system [NUREG-0544]

RAPTUS: rapid thorium-uranium system [NUREG-0544]

RAREF: radiation and repair engineering facility [NUREG-0544]

RARP: reliability assessment research program [NUREG-0544]

RAS: reactor analysis and safety, recirculation actuation signal, remote acquisition station [NUREG-0544]

RASCAL: Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis [NUREG-0544]

RAT: radiological assessment team, radiological assistance team, reserve auxiliary transformer [NUREG-0544]

RATI: readiness assessment team inspection, restart assessment team inspection [NUREG-0544]

RAW: risk assessment worth [NUREG-0544]

RB: reactor building [NUREG-0544]

RBA: radial blanket assembly [NUREG-0544]

RBAL: reprocessing building analytical laboratory [NUREG-0544]

RBC: reactor building cooling [NUREG-0544]

RBCCW: reactor building closed-cooling water [NUREG-0544]

RBCLCW: reactor building closed-loop cooling water [NUREG-0544]

RBCLCWS: reactor building closed-loop cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

RBCR: reprocessing building control room [NUREG-0544]

RBCS: reactor building cooling system [NUREG-0544]

RBCU: reactor building cooling unit [NUREG-0544]

RBCW: reactor building cooling water [NUREG-0544]

RBE: relative biological effectiveness [NUREG-0544]

RBEDT: reactor building equipment drain tank [NUREG-0544]

RBESI: reactor building exhaust system isolation [NUREG-0544]

RBFC: reactor building fan cooler [NUREG-0544]

RBHS: reactor building heating system [NUREG-0544]

RBM: rod-block monitor [NUREG-0544]

RBOF: receiving basin for offsite fuel [NUREG-0544]

RBP: reactor building protection [NUREG-0544]

RBPVS: reactor building purge ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

RBS: reactor building spray, River Bend Station [NUREG-0544]

RBSI: reactor building spray injection [NUREG-0544]

RBSR: reactor building spray recirculation, reactor building spreading room, reprocessing building spreading room [NUREG-0544]

RBTL: reactor building truck lock [NUREG-0544]

RBVI: reactor building ventilation isolation [NUREG-0544]

RBVPRM: reactor building vent process radiation monitor [NUREG-0544]

RC: reactor cavity, reactor coolant, recording controller, rigid confinement [NUREG-0544]

RCA: Radiation Control Agency, radiological controlled area, reactor coolant activity, root cause analysis [NUREG-0544]

RCAP: root cause analysis program [NUREG-0544]

RCB: reactor containment building [NUREG-0544]

RCBHT: reactor coolant bleed holdup tank [NUREG-0544]

RCBT: reactor coolant bleed tank [NUREG-0544]

RCC: Radiochemical Centre Ltd. (U.K.), reactor closed-cooling, rod cluster control [NUREG-0544]

RCCA: rod cluster control assembly [NUREG-0544]

RCCS: reactor cavity cooling system [NUREG-0544]

RCDT: reactor coolant drain tank [NUREG-0544]

RCE: reactor compatibility experiment [NUREG-0544]

RCEP: Radiological Contingency and Emergency Plan [NUREG-0544]

RCFC: reactor containment fan cooler [NUREG-0544]

RCG: radioactivity concentration guide, recommended concentration guide [NUREG-0544]

RCGM: reactor cover gas monitor [NUREG-0544]

RCIC: reactor core isolation coolant, reactor core isolation cooling [NUREG-0544]

RCICS: reactor core isolation cooling system [NUREG-0544]

RCIS: rod control and information system [NUREG-0544]

RCL: reactor coolant loop [NUREG-0544]

RCLC: reactor coolant letdown cooler [NUREG-0544]

RCM: reliability-centered maintenance, Response Coordination Manual [NUREG-0544]

RCMU: reactor coolant makeup [NUREG-0544]

RCN: Reactor Centrum Nederland (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

RCP: radiological control program, reactor characterization program, reactor coolant pump [NUREG-0544]

RCPB: reactor coolant pressure boundary [NUREG-0544]

RCPS: reactor coolant pump system [NUREG-0544]

RCRA: Resources Conservation and Recovery Act [NUREG-0544]

RCS: reactor coolant system [NUREG-0544]

R&CS: radiological and chemical support [NUREG-0544]

RCSI: reactor coolant system integrity [NUREG-0544]

RCSIL: rapid communication service information letter [NUREG-0544]

RCSS: reactor core subsystem [NUREG-0544]

RCT: response coordination team, rework/completion tag [NUREG-0544]

RC&T: radiation control and test [NUREG-0544]

RCTS: reactor coolant treatment system [NUREG-0544]

RCTWS: railroad car and truck wash station [NUREG-0544]

RCV: radiation control valve [NUREG-0544]

RCW: raw cooling water, reactor cooling water, recirculating cooling water [NUREG-0544]

RD: random driver, receipt day, requirements document, restricted data [NUREG-0544]

R&D: research and development [NUREG-0544]

RDA: rod drop accident [NUREG-0544]

RDAT: remote data acquisition terminal [NUREG-0544]

RDAU: remote data acquisition unit [NUREG-0544]

RDDM: reactor deck development mockup [NUREG-0544]

RDH: radioactive drain header [NUREG-0544]

RDO: regional duty officer [NUREG-0544]

RDOS: real-time disk operating system [NUREG-0544]

RDP: reactor development program [NUREG-0544]

RDS: reactor depressurization system [NUREG-0544]

RDSD: reliability design support document [NUREG-0544]

RDT: reactor development and technology, reactor drain tank [NUREG-0544]

RE: radiation equipment, rare earth, right end [NUREG-0544]

REA: radiologic engineering assessment, recycle acid, rod ejection accident, Rural Electrification Administration [NUREG-0544]

REAC: Radiological Emergency Assistance Center (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) [NUREG-0544]

REBA: relativistic electron beam accelerator [NUREG-0544]

REC: radiant energy conversion [NUREG-0544]

RECC: radiological effluent control commitment [NUREG-0544]

RECHAR: recombiner charcoal adsorber [NUREG-0544]

RECS: radiological emergency communications system [NUREG-0544]

RECW: reactor enclosure cooling water [NUREG-0544]

REETS: radiological effluent and environmental technical specification [NUREG-0544]

REHR: reactor heat removal [NUREG-0544]

REI: request for engineering investigation [NUREG-0544]

REIC: Radiation Effects Information Center [NUREG-0544]

REIRS: Radiation Exposure and Information Reporting System [NUREG-0544]

REL: radiation evaluation loop, reactor equipment limited [NUREG-0544]

REM: realistic evaluation model [NUREG-0544]

rem: roentgen equivalent man [NUREG-0544]

REMODCM: radiological effluent monitoring and offsite dose calculation manual [NUREG-0544]

REMP: radiological environmental monitoring program [NUREG-0544]

REP: radiological emergency plan, resonance escape probability [NUREG-0544]

rep: roentgen equivalent physical [NUREG-0544]

RER: radiation effects reactor, radioactive effluent release, regulatory effectiveness review, representative for experiment review, risk evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

RERC: radiological emergency response coordination [NUREG-0544]

RERO: radiological emergency response operation [NUREG-0544]

RERP: radiological emergency response planning [NUREG-0544]

RERS: reactor enclosure recirculation system [NUREG-0544]

RERTR: reduced enrichment for research and test reactors [NUREG-0544]

RES: Nuclear Regulatory Research, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

RES : INSPresident inspector [NUREG-0544]

RESAR: reference safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

RESC: reactor subcriticality [NUREG-0544]

RESL: Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

RETS: radiological effluent technical specification, radiological environmental technical specification [NUREG-0544]

REVAB: relief valve augmented bypass [NUREG-0544]

REW: recycle water [NUREG-0544]

RF: radiofrequency, release factor, reply finding [NUREG-0544]

RFA: Regulatory Flexibility Act, removable fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

RFC: recirculation flow control, request for comments [NUREG-0544]

RFCS: recirculation flow control system [NUREG-0544]

RFI: radio frequency interference, request for information [NUREG-0544]

RFIC: request for information or clarification [NUREG-0544]

RFN: remote filter niche [NUREG-0544]

RFO: refueling outage [NUREG-0544]

RFP: reactor feed pump, request for procurement, request for proposal, reversed field pinch, Rocky Flats Plant [NUREG-0544]

RFPA: request for procurement action [NUREG-0544]

RFPT: reactor feed pump turbine [NUREG-0544]

RFQ: request for quotation [NUREG-0544]

RFT: revisable format text [NUREG-0544]

RFW: reactor feedwater [NUREG-0544]

RFX: reversed field experiment [NUREG-0544]

RG: regulated gallery, regulatory guide [NUREG-0544]

R.G.: regulatory guide [NUREG-0544]

RG&E: Rochester Gas & Electric Corp. [NUREG-0544]

RGM: radiogas monitor [NUREG-0544]

RGR: rare-gas recovery [NUREG-0544]

RH: relative humidity [NUREG-0544]

RHC: reactor head cooling [NUREG-0544]

RHR: residual heat removal [NUREG-0544]

RHRP: residual heat removal pump [NUREG-0544]

RHRS: residual heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

RHRSW: residual heat removal service water [NUREG-0544]

RHT: recycle holdup tank [NUREG-0544]

RHTS: reactor heat transport system [NUREG-0544]

RHX: regenerative heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

RI: radiation indicator, reactor island, Region I--King of Prussia, Pennsylvania (NRC), resident inspector, resonance integral [NUREG-0544]

R&I: removal and installation [NUREG-0544]

RIA: reactivity-initiated accident, reactivity insertion accident, regulatory impact analysis or analyses, removable instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

RIAEC: Rhode Island Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

RIB: recruitment, incentives, and benefits [NUREG-0544]

RICO: Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act [NUREG-0544]

RIDR: receipt inspection data report [NUREG-0544]

RIDS: receiving inspection data status , regulatory information distribution system [NUREG-0544]

RIE: Replacement Item Evaluation [NUREG-0544]

RIENA: Rassegra Internazionale Elettrònica Nucleare ed Aerospaziale (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

RIF: reduction in force [NUREG-0544]

RIG: risk-based inspection guide [NUREG-0544]

RII: receiving inspection instruction, Region II--Atlanta, Georgia (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

RIIC: rotary inertia included case [NUREG-0544]

RIII: Region III--Lisle, Illinois (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

RIL: research information letter [NUREG-0544]

RIM: relative importance measure [NUREG-0544]

RIMS: regional input-output modeling system [NUREG-0544]

RINA: Registro Italiano Navale (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

RIOPR: Rhode Island Open Pool Reactor [NUREG-0544]

RIOT: remote input-output terminal [NUREG-0544]

RIP: reactor internal pump, receiving inspection plan [NUREG-0544]

RIPBR: risk-informed, performance-based regulation [NUREG-0544]

RIPS: radioisotope power supply [NUREG-0544]

RIR: radiological incident report, receipt inspection report, risk increase ratio [NUREG-0544]

RIRP: Regulatory Issue Resolution Plan [NUREG-0544]

RIS: reporting identification symbol, reservoir-induced seismicity [NUREG-0544]

RISC: reduced instruction set computer [NUREG-0544]

RISS: reactor internals subsystem [NUREG-0544]

RITS: regulatory information tracking system, resource information tracking system [NUREG-0544]

RIV: reactor isolation valve, Region IV--Arlington, Texas (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

RJE: remote job entry [NUREG-0544]

RKS: Raadet foer Kaernkraftsaekerhet (Sweden) [NUREG-0544]

RL: reactor licensing, refracted longitudinal [NUREG-0544]

RLE: review-level earthquake [NUREG-0544]

RLO: Records Liaison Officer [NUREG-0544]

RLOP: reactor licensing operating procedure [NUREG-0544]

RLR: radioactive lighting rod [NUREG-0544]

RM: radiation monitor, radiation monitoring, radiometric monitor, reactor manufacturer, remote manual, rulemaking [NUREG-0544]

RMAAS: reactivity monitoring and alarm system [NUREG-0544]

RMBCS: Rocky Mountain Bank Card System [NUREG-0544]

RMC: Radiation Management Corporation, remote manual control [NUREG-0544]

RM&C: reactor monitoring and control [NUREG-0544]

RMCS: reactor makeup control system, reactor manual control system [NUREG-0544]

RME: reasonable maximum exposure [NUREG-0544]

RMF: reactivity measurement facility [NUREG-0544]

RMIEP: risk methodology integration and evaluation program [NUREG-0544]

RMP: risk management plan [NUREG-0544]

RMRM: radioactive materials reference manual [NUREG-0544]

RMS: radiation monitoring system, radiological monitoring system, regulatory manpower system, remote manual switch [NUREG-0544]

RMW: reactor makeup water [NUREG-0544]

RMWS: reactor makeup water storage [NUREG-0544]

RMWST: reactor makeup water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

RMWT: reactor makeup water tank, reactor makeup water transfer [NUREG-0544]

RNA: ribonucleic acid [NUREG-0544]

RNB: research nuclear battery, return to nucleate boiling [NUREG-0544]

RNDT: reference nil ductility temperature [NUREG-0544]

RNWP: reduced notch worth procedure [NUREG-0544]

RO: reactor operator, regional office , remain open, reportable occurrence, restriction orifice, reverse osmosis [NUREG-0544]

ROD: release order directive [NUREG-0544]

ROI: region of interest [NUREG-0544]

ROM: read only memory [NUREG-0544]

ROP: record of purchase [NUREG-0544]

ROS: requisition on stores [NUREG-0544]

ROSA: Rig of Safety Assessment [NUREG-0544]

ROSENERGO-ATOM: Nuclear Power Utility (Russia) [NUREG-0544]

ROSPA: risk-based operational safety performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

ROW: requisition on warehouse, right of way [NUREG-0544]

RP: radiation protection, reactor pool, reactor pressure, reactor project, release point [NUREG-0544]

RPAM: regional public affairs manager [NUREG-0544]

RPAO: regional public affairs officer [NUREG-0544]

RPAS: reactor protection actuating signal [NUREG-0544]

RPB: reactor pressure boundary [NUREG-0544]

RPC: Radiation Policy Council, Radiation Protection Committee, remote process cell, rod pattern controller, rotating pancake coil [NUREG-0544]

RPCB: reactor power cutback [NUREG-0544]

RPCC: remote process crane cave [NUREG-0544]

RPCS: reactor plant control system [NUREG-0544]

RPCWS: reactor plant cooling water system [NUREG-0544]

RPD: reactor plant designer [NUREG-0544]

RPDF: radiation protection design feature [NUREG-0544]

RPE: radiation protection engineer, resource planning and evaluation [NUREG-0544]

RPF: region peaking factor, right panel front [NUREG-0544]

RPG: radiation protection guide, report program generator [NUREG-0544]

RPI: relative position indication, rod position indicator [NUREG-0544]

RPIS: rod position indication system, rod position information system [NUREG-0544]

RPM: radiation protection manager [NUREG-0544]

RPO: radiation protection officer [NUREG-0544]

RPP: radiation protection plan [NUREG-0544]

RPPS: reactor plant and process sampling [NUREG-0544]

RPS: radiation protection supervisor, Reactor Program System, reactor protection system, regulatory performance summary [NUREG-0544]

RPST: reaction products separator tank [NUREG-0544]

RPT: radiation protection technician, reactor for physical and technical, recirculation pump trip [NUREG-0544]

RPV: reactor pressure vessel [NUREG-0544]

RPVI: reactor pressure vessel integrity [NUREG-0544]

RPVRI: reactor pressure vessel reflective insulation [NUREG-0544]

R&QA: reliability and quality assurance [NUREG-0544]

RQD: rock-quality designation [NUREG-0544]

RR: receiving report, review report, review request [NUREG-0544]

RRA: Radiation Research Associates, Inc., risk-reduction analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

RRC: radiation recorder controller, reactor recirculation cooling [NUREG-0544]

RRD: retendering receipt day [NUREG-0544]

R&RE: radiation and repair engineering [NUREG-0544]

RRG: regulatory response group, regulatory review group, research review group [NUREG-0544]

RRI: resident reactor inspector [NUREG-0544]

RRP: reactor recirculation pump, reactor refueling plug [NUREG-0544]

RRPI: relative rod position indication, rotary relative position indicator [NUREG-0544]

RRR: Raleigh Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

RRRC: Regulatory Requirements Review Committee [NUREG-0544]

RRS: reactor recirculation system, reactor refueling system, reactor regulating system, required response spectrum/spectra, resin regeneration subsystem [NUREG-0544]

RRTF: Regulatory Reform Task Force [NUREG-0544]

RRW: risk reduction worth [NUREG-0544]

RS: radiation source, reactor safeguards, reactor safety, reactor system, recirculation spray, reference section [NUREG-0544]

RSA: remote shutdown area [NUREG-0544]

RSAO: Regional State Agreements Officer [NUREG-0544]

RSARR: Republic of South Africa Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

RSB: reactor service building [NUREG-0544]

RSC: radiation safety committee, reactor safety coordinator, reactor site criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

RSCE: reserve shutdown control equipment [NUREG-0544]

RSCM: reserve shutdown control material [NUREG-0544]

RSCS: reactor sequence control system, rod sequence control system [NUREG-0544]

RSCW: Research Reactor, State College of Washington [NUREG-0544]

RSD: relative standard deviation, responsible system designer [NUREG-0544]

RSE: reserve shutdown equipment [NUREG-0544]

RSEP: Robinson Steam Electric Plant [NUREG-0544]

RSH: resin sluice header [NUREG-0544]

RSHX: recirculation spray heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

RSI: reactor siting index [NUREG-0544]

RSIC: Radiation Shielding Information Center [NUREG-0544]

RSK: Reaktorsicherheitskommission (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

RSLO: regional State liaison officer [NUREG-0544]

RSNGS: Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

RSO: radiation safety officer, reactor system outline [NUREG-0544]

RSP: reactivity surveillance procedure, remote shutdown panel, rotating shield plug [NUREG-0544]

RSPE: recruitment, staffing, and position evaluation [NUREG-0544]

RSR: radiological safety review, reactor safety research, reference safety report [NUREG-0544]

RSS: reactor safety study, reactor shutdown system, relay setting sheet, remote shutdown system, reserve shutdown system [NUREG-0544]

RSSF: retrievable surface storage facility [NUREG-0544]

RSSMAP: Reactor Safety Study Methodology Application Program [NUREG-0544]

RSST: reserve station service transformer [NUREG-0544]

RSW: raw service water [NUREG-0544]

RT: radiographic test, reactor trip, reference temperature [NUREG-0544]

RTB: reactor trip breaker [NUREG-0544]

RTC: regional training center, removable top closure [NUREG-0544]

RTCB: reactor trip circuit breaker, run to cladding breach [NUREG-0544]

RTD: resistance temperature detector, resistance temperature device, Roentgen Technische Dienst B.V. (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

RTDP: reactor technology development plan, revised thermal design procedure [NUREG-0544]

RTE: relocation tabletop exercise, residual total elongation [NUREG-0544]

RTG: radioactive thermoelectric generator, radioisotope thermoelectric generator [NUREG-0544]

RTGB: reactor turbine generator board [NUREG-0544]

RTL: radioisotope transport loop [NUREG-0544]

RTM: reactor trip module, regulatory technical memorandum/memoranda, Response Technical Manual [NUREG-0544]

Rtndt: reference temperature nil ductility [NUREG-0544]

RTNSS: regulatory treatment of nonsafety systems [NUREG-0544]

RTO: reactor trip override [NUREG-0544]

RTP: rated thermal power, restart test program [NUREG-0544]

RTS: reactor trip system, refueling water transfer and storage [NUREG-0544]

RTSS: reactor trip switchgear system [NUREG-0544]

RTT: reference transition temperature [NUREG-0544]

RTV: room temperature vulcanizing [NUREG-0544]

R&U: repairs and utilities [NUREG-0544]

RV: Reactor Venezolano (Venezuela), reactor vessel, release valve, relief valve [NUREG-0544]

RVC: reactor volume control, remote valve control [NUREG-0544]

RVDP: relief valve discharge piping [NUREG-0544]

RVHVS: reactor vessel head vent system [NUREG-0544]

RVID: Reactor Vessel Integrity Database [NUREG-0544]

RVIS: reactor vessel instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

RVLIS: reactor vessel level instrumentation system [NUREG-0544]

RVLM: reactor vessel level monitoring [NUREG-0544]

RVRLIS: reactor vessel refueling level indication system [NUREG-0544]

RVS: reactor vessel system [NUREG-0544]

RVSS: reactor vessel support structure [NUREG-0544]

RVUH: reactor vessel upper head [NUREG-0544]

RW: raw water, Ringsdorff-Werke, G.m.b.H. (Germany), river water [NUREG-0544]

RWA: radwaste area [NUREG-0544]

RWB: rod withdrawal block [NUREG-0544]

RWC: reactor water cleanup [NUREG-0544]

RWCS: reactor water cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

RWCU: reactor water cleanup [NUREG-0544]

RWDS: radwaste disposal system [NUREG-0544]

RWE: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk, A.G. (Germany), rod withdrawal error [NUREG-0544]

RWL: reactor water level, rod withdrawal limiter [NUREG-0544]

RWM: rod worth minimizer [NUREG-0544]

RWN: room work notification [NUREG-0544]

RWP: radiation work permit, radwaste work permit [NUREG-0544]

RWPC: radwaste process cell [NUREG-0544]

RWPH: river water pump house [NUREG-0544]

RWR: radioactive waste reduction [NUREG-0544]

RWS: radwaste system [NUREG-0544]

RWSF: radwaste solidification facility [NUREG-0544]

RWSP: refueling water storage pool [NUREG-0544]

RWSS: radwaste sample station [NUREG-0544]

RWST: refueling water storage tank [NUREG-0544]

RWT: radiation worker training, refueling water tank [NUREG-0544]

RWTA: river water treatment area [NUREG-0544]

RWTS: regenerant waste treatment subsystem [NUREG-0544]

RWV: radioactive waste vent [NUREG-0544]

RY: reactor-year [NUREG-0544]

RA: Remedial Action

Rad (Radiation Absorbed Dose) : One rad is defined as the absorption of 100 ergs per gram of material. It amounts to approximately one ionization per cubic micron, equivalent to 0.01 joules per kg. [IEER, AT] The rad is a unit used to measure a quantity called absorbed dose. It refers to the amount, or dose, of ionizing radiation actually absorbed by any material, including human tissue. The unit is being replaced by the SI unit, the Gray (Gy), equal to 100 rads. [DOE/EA-1172, EPA-MW, AT]

Radiac: An acronym derived from "radioactivity detection, indication, and computation." It is a generic term. [TDHBRC]

Radiation : Particles or waves from atomic or nuclear processes. Ionizing radiation, which is capable of breaking up atoms or molecules, is comprised of highly energetic and penetrating x-rays and gamma rays and lesser penetrating particles. Beta particles are simply energetic electrons and alpha particles are helium nuclei both arising from the nucleus of a decaying atom. The alpha particle is the easiest of these radiations to stop and the gamma rays are the most difficult to shield against. A piece of paper can stop an alpha particle, but it may take as much as many inches of lead shielding to stop most of the x- rays or gamma rays in a beam. Depending on the dose, kind of radiation, and observed endpoint, the biological effects of radiation can differ widely. Ionizing radiation has been proven to cause cancer at high doses and is assumed to cause cancer and other deleterious health effects at low doses. The splitting, or decay, of unstable atoms emits ionizing radiation.[EPA-MW, DOE/EM-0266]

Radiation chemistry The study of influence of radiation on chemical properties and reactions, and its applications. See Radiochemistry. [AT]

Radiation Protection (RP): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to control exposure of workers and the public to radioactivity. [DOEEMGMT]

Radiation sickness (syndrome) The acute non-stochastic effects caused by a large dose of radiation to the whole body, such as might be received in a reactor accident or from a nuclear weapon explosion or its fall-out. The symptoms and their outcome vary with dose size, ranging from temporary nausea to death. [AT]
The complex of symptoms characterizing the disease known as radiation injury, resulting from excessive exposure (greater than 200 rads or 2 gray) of the whole body (or large part) to ionizing radiation. The earliest of these symptoms are nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair (epilation), hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy. In severe cases, where the radiation exposure has been approximately 1,000 rad (10 gray) or more, death may occur within two to four weeks. Those who survive 6 weeks after the receipt of a single large dose of radiation to the whole body may generally be expected to recover. [NRC]

Radiation Standards: Exposure standards, permissible concentration, rules for safe handling, regulations for transportation, regulations for industrial control of radiation, and control of radioactive material by legislative means. [TDHBRC]

Radiation Warning Symbol: An officially prescribed symbol (a magenta or black trefoil) on a yellow background that must be displayed where certain quantities of radioactive materials are present or where certain doses of radiation could be received. [TDHBRC]

Radioactive: Of, caused by, or exhibiting radioactivity. [DOE/EM-0466]

Radioactive Cloud: An all-inclusive term for the cloud of hot gases, smoke, dust, and other particulate matter from the weapon itself and from the environment. It is carried aloft in conjunction with the rising fireball produced by the detonation of a nuclear weapon. [ATARC]

Radioactive contamination: Deposition of radioactive material in any place where it may harm persons, equipment, or the environment. [EPALLRW]

Radioactive dating: A technique for estimating the age of an object by measuring the amounts of various radioisotopes in it. [LBNL]

Radioactive equilibrium In a decay chain if the half-life of a daughter product is much shorter than that of its parent, the daughter is continuously replaced by the decay of the parent. So, unless it is separated out and measured independently, the daughter appears to decay with the same half-life as the parent.[AT]

Radioactivity: The spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an atom. Radionuclides lose particles and energy through the process of radioactive decay. [DOE/EM-0466] This is usually in the form of beta or alpha radiation, together with gamma radiation. Beta or alpha emission results in transformation of the atom into a different element, changing the atomic number by +1 or -2 respectively. [IEER] The property possessed by certain nuclides of spontaneously emitting alpha or beta particles and, sometimes, gamma radiation by the disintegration of atomic nuclei. The units for the rate of decay of radioactive nuclides are the curie, Ci (3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second exactly), or, in SI units, the becquerel, Bq (1 disintegration per second). [DOE-IDB97]

Radioactive series: A succession of nuclides, each of which transforms by radioactive disintegration into the next until a stable nuclide results. The first member is called the parent, the intermediate members are called daughters, and the final stable member is called the end product. [NRC]

Radiation source: Usually a sealed source of radiation used in teletherapy and industrial radiography, as a power source for batteries (as in use in space craft), or in various types of industrial gauges. Machines, such as accelerators and radioisotope generators, and natural radionuclides may be considered sources. [NRC]

Radiobiology The branch of science dealing with the interactions of radiation or radioactive substances with biological systems. [AT]

Radiochemistry That part of chemistry which deals with radioactive materials, including the production of radionuclides etc. by processing irradiated or naturally occurring radioactive materials. This is use of radioactivity in the investigation of chemical problems. See also Radiation chemistry. [AT]

Radiography A method of non-destructive testing in which a beam of penetrating radiation is passed through the object under examination, where the dense parts absorb more radiation. The resulting variations of radiation intensity can be recorded on photographic film or as numbers in a computer. Medical diagnostic X-rays and industrial gamma-radiography are the best-known examples. In neutron radiography, a beam of thermal neutrons is used. [AT]

Radioisotope or Radionuclide: unstable isotope that undergoes spontaneous transformation, emitting radiation. [DOE/EM-0466]

Radiological sabotage: Any deliberate act directed against a plant or transport in which an activity licensed pursuant to 10 CFR Part 73 of NRC's regulations is conducted, or against a component of such a plant or transport which could directly or indirectly endanger the public health and safety by exposure to radiation. [NRC]

Radiological survey: The evaluation of the radiation hazards accompanying the production, use, or existence of radioactive materials under a specific set of conditions. Such evaluation customarily includes a physical survey of the disposition of materials and equipment, measurements or estimates of the levels of radiation that may be involved, and a sufficient knowledge of processes affecting these materials to predict hazards resulting from expected or possible changes in materials or equipment. [NRC]

Radiology The branch of medicine specializing in the uses of ionizing radiation's for medical diagnosis, and in studying their effects. See Radiobiology, Radiotherapy. [AT]

Radiolysis The decomposition of material by radiation, e.g. water into hydrogen and oxygen. [AT]

Radionuclide.: A radioactive species of an atom. For example, tritium and strontium-90 are radionuclides of elements of hydrogen and strontium, respectively. [DOE/EM-0319] Any radioactive isotope. [IEER]

Radiosensitivity: The relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs, organisms, or other substances to the injurious action of radiation. [NRC]

Radiotherapy Treatment of disease by the use of ionizing radiation. [AT]

Radiotoxicity A measure of the harmfulness of a radioactive substance to the body or to a specified organ following its uptake by a given process. [AT]

Radium (Ra): A radioactive metallic element with atomic number 88. As found in nature, the most common isotope has a mass number of 226. It occurs in minute quantities associated with uranium in pitchblende, camotite, and other minerals. [NRC]

Radon: A radioactive inert gas that is formed by the decay of radium. Radium is, in turn, a link in the decay chain of uranium 238. Radon, which occurs naturally in many minerals, is the chief hazard of uranium mill tailings. Is one of the heaviest gases known. Atomic number 86. [DOE/EM-0266]

Rating: An appraisal of cost, schedule, or technical status assigned at the ADS, TTP, or project level by the Operations/Field Office Project Manager. [DOEEMGMT]

Ratemeter An instrument for detecting electrical pulses and displaying them in terms of the average number of pulses arriving per unit time. Often used in conjunction with radiation detectors. [AT]

RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Governs hazardous waste. (in contrast, "hazardous substances" are covered under either TSCA or CERCLA)

RCPB: Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary

RCRIS: Resource Conservation & Recovery Information System

RD/RA: Remedial Design/Remedial Action

(1) Of fuel, the ability to support a chain reaction.
(2) Of a reactor, a measure of the possible departure from the critical condition, where the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (reactivity zero). Added reactivity, e.g. by withdrawal of a control rod, will cause the reaction to diverge with an increase in power output; conversely, removal of reactivity will cause it to die down, e.g. as fuel burns up or as fission-product "poisons" develop. Reactivity = k-1 where k is the multiplication factor. [AT]

Reactor coolant system (RCS): The system used to remove energy from the reactor core and transfer that energy either directly or indirectly to the steam turbine. [NRC]

Reactor fuel: Synonymous with nuclear fuel. [DOE/EM-0319]

Reactor, high-temperature, gas-cooled: A nuclear reactor that uses an inert gas (helium) as the primary coolant and graphite as the moderator. [DOE-IDB97]

Reactor, nuclear: A device in which nuclear fission may be sustained and controlled in a self-supporting nuclear reaction. The varieties are many, but all incorporate certain features, including fissionable material or fuel, a moderating material (unless the reactor is operated on fast neutrons), a reflector to conserve escaping neutrons, provisions of removal of heat, measuring and controlling instruments, and protective devices. The reactor is the heart of a nuclear power plant. [NRC]

Reactor operations: Includes fuel and target loading and removal, reactor maintenance, and operation of the reactor itself. [DOE/EM-0319]

Reactor, test: A reactor associated with an engineering-scale test program conducted to develop basic design information or demonstrate safety characteristics of nuclear reactor systems. [DOE-IDB97]

Recharge: In groundwater hydraulics, the addition of water to the zone of saturation; also, the amount of water added. [WIPPEA]

Record of Decision (ROD): A public document that explains the cleanup alternatives to be used at National Priorities List sites where, under CERCLA, trust funds pay for the cleanup. In addition, a ROD under NEPA is a concise public document that records a Federal agency's decision(s) concerning a proposed action for which the agency has prepared an environmental impact statement (EIS). The ROD is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality NEPA regulations (40 CFR 1505.2). A ROD identifies the alternatives environmentally preferable alternative(s), factors balanced by the agency in making the decision, whether all practicable means to avoid or minimize environmental harm have been adopted, and if not, why they were not. [DOE/EM-0466]

Recreational Land Use: Unfenced areas where daytime use for recreational activities (e.g., hiking, biking, sports), hunting, and some overnight camping is allowed. Fishing may be limited to catch-and-release. [DOE/EM-0466]

REDOX (Reduction Oxidation): One of the three chemical separation processes used on a large scale in the United States to chemically dissolve spent nuclear fuel and irradiated targets and isolate and concentrate the plutonium, uranium, and other nuclear materials that they contain. S Plant at Hanford, also known as the REDOX plant, operated using this process from 1951 until 1967. [DOE/EM-0319]

Reference man: A person with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of an average individual which is used in calculations assessing internal dose (also may be called "Standard Man").[NRC]

Reflector : A layer of material immediately surrounding a reactor core that scatters back (or reflects) into the core many neutrons that would otherwise escape. The returned neutrons can then cause more fissions and improve the neutron economy of the reactor. Common reflector materials are graphite, beryllium, water, and natural uranium. [NRC]

Reinserted fuel: Irradiated reactor fuel that is discharged in one cycle and inserted into the same reactor during a subsequent refueling. In a few cases, fuel discharged from one reactor has been used to fuel a different reactor.[DOE-IDB97]

relative biological effectiveness (RBE): A factor that can be determined for different types of ionizing radiation, representing the relative amount of biological change caused by 1 rad. It depends upon the density of ionization along the tracks of the ionizing particles, being highest for the heavy particles: alpha rays and neutrons. [IEER]

relative risk: The ratio of disease incidence (or mortaility) in an exposed population to that in an unexposed population. [IEER]

Release site: A unique location at which a hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste release has or is suspected to have occurred. A release site is usually associated with an area where wastes or substances contaminated with wastes have been disposed of, treated, stored, or used. [DOE/EM-0319]

Rem (Roentgen Equivalent Man) : The rem is a unit used to derive a quantity called equivalent dose: radiation dose for biological absorption. This relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation. Equivalent dose is often expressed in terms of thousandths of a rem, or mrem. [EPA-MW] It is equal to the product of the absorbed dose, in rads, and a quality factor that accounts for the variation in biological effectiveness of different types of radiation. [DOE/EA-1172] The dose in rems is the dose in rads multiplied by the RBE. [IEER]. The unit dose of ionizing radiation which gives the same biological effect as that due to one roentgen of x-rays. The rem is being replaced by the SI unit, the Sievert (Sv), equal to 100 rem. [AT]

Remedial Investigation: The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process of gathering the data necessary to determine the nature and extent of contamination at a CERCLA site, establishing criteria for cleaning up the site, identifying preliminary alternatives for remedial action, and supporting the technical and cost analysis of the alternatives. The Remedial Investigation is usually done together with the Feasibility Study. Together, they are usually referred to as the "Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study." [DOE/EM-0342]

remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU):Transuranic waste with a surface dose rate of 200 millirems per hour or greater. Because of its higher level of radioactivity, remote-handled transuranic waste must be handled and transported in shielded casks. [NSCEHC] see also "transuranic waste, remote handled"

reprocessing: The mechanical and chemical separation and extracting from irradiated nuclear fuel into uranium, plutonium, and fission products. [IEER] The fission products that are left behind are high-level waste. Synonymous with chemical separation. [DOE/EM-0266, EPALLRW]

Research Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): A Federal law enacted in 1976 to address the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. [DOE/EM-0319]

Research, development, and testing (RD&T): Research and development includes the basic and applied science and technology of nuclear weapons and the engineering design of the weapons themselves. Testing includes nuclear explosions and other activities to evaluate the behavior, reliability, safety and effects of nuclear weapons. RD&T was carried out at National Laboratories, the Nevada Test Site, in the South Pacific, and at several other locations. [DOE/EM-0319]

Research reactor: A class of nuclear reactors used to do research into nuclear physics, reactor materials and design, and nuclear medicine. Some research reactors also produce isotopes for industrial and medical use. [DOE/EM-0319] Typically, it has a thermal power of 10 MW(t) or less and may include facilities for testing reactor materials. [DOE-IBD97]

Residual Contamination Standards: The amount and concentrations of contaminants in soil, water, and other media that will remain following environmental management activities. [DOELL]

Residential Land Use: Unfenced areas where permanent residential use predominates. There is no restriction on surface water use, but groundwater use may be restricted. [DOE/EM-0466]

Residual radioactive material: Defined in Title I of UMTRCA as waste, including mill tailings and other forms of waste, resulting from the processing of ores for the extraction of uranium and other valuable constituents of the ores. This includes any residual stock of unprocessed ores or low-grade materials. 11e(2) byproduct material managed under the UMTRA Project is residual radioactive material. [DOE/EM-0319]

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): Public Law 94-580. A Federal law enacted in 1976 to address the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. [DOE/EM-0466] RCRA gave EPA authority to control hazardous waste from "cradle-to-grave." This includes the minimizaion, generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes. RCRA focuses only on active and future facilities and does not address abandoned or historical sites (see CERCLA). [EPA-MW]

Resources: Mineralization that is concentrated enough, in large enough quantity, and in a physical and chemical form such that its extraction may be economical in the future. [WIPPEA]

Responsibility Assignment Matrix: A matrix that lists all control accounts on one axis and organizational elements on the other. This matrix shows, at a glance, the total number of control accounts assigned to a given organization or to its supervisor thus pinpointing the responsibility for each work element. [DOEEMGMT]

RESRAD - Residual radiation computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory that develops annual dose radiation doses from radioactivity in soil and around water based on all methods of receiving the dose (e.g. ingestion, inhalation, etc.). [CY]

RFA: RCRA Facility Assessment

RH: Remote handled. Radiation levels are so high in remote handled waste that contact handling would be fatal. See Remote Handled Transuranic Waste.

RI: Remedial Investigation

Risk: Risk requires the presence of a hazard, but adds to the hazard the probability that the potential harm or undesirable consequences will be realized. Risk is expressed (qualitatively or quantitatively) in terms of the likelihood that an adverse effect will occur as a result of the existence of a hazard. The existence of a hazard does not automatically imply the existence of a risk since risk requires a pathway (to a receptor) for an exposure to occur. Barriers and other controls can block or eliminate the pathway and related risk from the residual hazard. [DOE/EM-0466]. A factor, element, constraint, or course of action on a project that introduces an uncertainty of outcome and the possibility of technical deficiencies, inadequate performance, schedule delays, or cost overruns that could impact a Departmental mission. In the evaluation of risk, the potential impact and the probability of occurrence are determined. [DOEEMGMT]

Risk Analysis: An evaluation of the combined effect of the probability and consequences of failure expressed in qualitative or quantitative terms. [DOEEMGMT]

Risk and Uncertainty (R&U): The amount budgeted by Headquarters to cover costs that may result from changes in regulatory policy or program mission. [DOEEMGMT]

risk communication - The exchange of information about health or environmental risks between risk assessors, risk managers, the general public, news media, interest groups, etc. [CY]

Risk-informed regulation : Incorporating an assessment of safety significance or relative risk in NRC regulatory actions. Making sure that the regulatory burden imposed by individual regulations or processes is commensurate with the importance of that regulation or process to protecting public health and safety and the environment. [NRC]

Risk Level: The level of complexity or uncertainty associated with a project. [DOEEMGMT]

risk management - The process of evaluating alternative regulatory and non-regulatory responses to risk and selecting among them. The selection process necessarily requires the consideration of legal, economic and social factors. [CY] A management philosophy that matches resources and efforts to risk. Risk-based management is the application of the graded approach to management. [DOEEMGMT]

Rock Burst: A sudden and often violent breaking of a mass of rock from the walls of a tunnel, mine, or deep quarry, caused by failure of highly stressed rock and the rapid or instantaneous release of accumulated strain energy. [WIPPEA]

Rocky Flats Plant: Plutonium processing and manufacturing plant located 21 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Rocky Flats made the plutonium triggers of nuclear weapons. Started operations in 1951. Now called the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. [DOE/EM-0266]

ROD: record of decision [DOELLWRpt]

roentgen: (rent-gen) A unit of measurement of ionization produced in air by gamma or x-rays (equal to 2.58 x 10-4 Coulomb per kg air). In non-bony biological tissue 1 roentgen delivers a dose approximately equal to 1 rad. One Roentgen (R) is exposure to gamma or x-rays that will produce one electrostatic unit of charge in one cubic centimeter of dry air. Named after Wilhelm Roentgen, the German scientist who discovered x-rays in 1895. [DOE, AT, NRC]

Rosenberg Case, The: The most infamous espionage case at Los Alamos involved David Greenglass. Greenglass gave details on how to obtain the critical mass for a plutonium bomb. Also involved were his sister Ethel Rosenberg and her husband Julius, both of whom were executed in June 1953. The Rosenberg affair stimulated worldwide protest and much anti-American propaganda. The case remains controversial to this day. [ATARC]

RPV Reactor Pressure Vessel [CY]

Rubblization: A decommissioning technique involving demolition and burial of formerly operating nuclear facilities. All equipment from buildings is removed and the surfaces are decontaminated. Above-grade structures are demolished into rubble and buried in the structure's foundation below ground. The site surface is then covered, regraded and landscaped for unrestricted use. [NRC]

Runoff: The portion of rainfall, melted snow, or irrigation water that flows across the ground surface and either infiltrates or eventually returns to streams.

Russian HEU Agreement: An agreement between Russia and the United States under which USEC, as the United States Executive Agent, is purchasing LEU derived from 500 metric tons of HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. [DOE/EA-1172]

Russian Purchase EA: An EA written by USEC and DOE in January, 1994 to assess the environmental impacts associated with shipping approximately 22,500 metric tons of low enriched UF6 from Russia to the United States for sale by USEC. This material is available as a result of Russia blending down 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled nuclear weapons under the Russian HEU Agreement. [DOE/EA-1172]

Rustler Formation: The evaporite beds, including mudstones, of Permian age that immediately overlie the Salado Formation in which the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal levels are built. [WIPPEA]

RWMC: Radioactive Waste Management Complex (INEEL) [DOELLWRpt]

RWMS: Radioactive Waste Management Site (NTS) [DOELLWRpt]

RWP Radiation Work Permit [CY]

|------------------------ S ------------------------|

SA: safety analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

SA: safety assessment, service air, system administrator [NUREG-0544]

S/A: subassembly [NUREG-0544]

S&A: surveillance and accountability [NUREG-0544]

SAAEB: South African Atomic Energy Board [NUREG-0544]

SAC: Systems Automation Corp. [NUREG-0544]

SAD: safety analysis diagram, safety assurance diagram, systems, assistant director [NUREG-0544]

SADE: superheat advanced demonstration experiment [NUREG-0544]

SAE: site area emergency, Society of Automotive Engineers [NUREG-0544]

SAFDL: specified acceptable fuel design limit [NUREG-0544]

SAFE: safeguards automated facility evaluation, Society for the Advancement of Fission Energy [NUREG-0544]

SAFO: Swedish Atomic Forum [NUREG-0544]

SAFR: sodium advanced fast reactor [NUREG-0544]

SAFT: synthetic aperture focusing technique [NUREG-0544]

SAG: senior advisory group [NUREG-0544]

SAGSI: Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation [NUREG-0544]

SAI: Science Applications, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

SAIC: Science Applications International Corp. (formerly Science Applications, Inc.) [NUREG-0544]

SAID: safety analysis input data [NUREG-0544]

SAIGE: Società di Architettura Industriale per Gli Impiantidi Generazione de Energia, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SAL: service advisory letter [NUREG-0544]

SALE: safeguards analytical laboratory evaluation [NUREG-0544]

SALP: systematic assessment of licensee performance [NUREG-0544]

SAM: stabilized assay meter, substitute alloy material [NUREG-0544]

SAMA: Scientific Apparatus Makers Association [NUREG-0544]

SAMDA: severe accident mitigation design alternative [NUREG-0544]

SAMG: severe accident management guidelines [NUREG-0544]

SAMIS: structural analysis and matrix inversion system [NUREG-0544]

SAN: standard address number [NUREG-0544]

SAP: Severe Accident Program, Special Access Program, startup administrative procedure, synthetic aperture program [NUREG-0544]

SAPHIRE: Systems Analysis Program for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation [NUREG-0544]

SAPL: Seacoast Antipollution League [NUREG-0544]

SAPS: Shippingport Atomic Power Station [NUREG-0544]

SAQV: safety assessment and quality verification [NUREG-0544]

SAR: safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

SARA: severe accident risk assessment, systems analysis and risk assessment [NUREG-0544]

SAREF: safety research experiment facility [NUREG-0544]

SARP: Severe Accident Reduction Program, Severe Accident Research Plan, Severe Accident Research Program [NUREG-0544]

SARRP: Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program [NUREG-0544]

SART: site access refresher training [NUREG-0544]

SAS: safety assessment system, secondary alarm station, security agency study, service air system, station air system [NUREG-0544]

SASA: severe accident sequence analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

SAT: site access training, spray additive tank, startup auxiliary transformer, station auxiliary transformer, systems approach to training [NUREG-0544]

SATNUC: Société pour l'Applications Techniques dans le Domaine de l'Energie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

SAVC: structural assembly verification card [NUREG-0544]

SAVS: safeguards area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

SAW: steam, air, water, submerged arc weld, submerged arc welding [NUREG-0544]

SAYG: sign-as-you-go [NUREG-0544]

SBA: Small Business Administration [NUREG-0544]

SBACS: shield building air cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

SBAECS: shield building air exhaust cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

SBC: steam bypass control [NUREG-0544]

SBCC: steam bubble collapse induced [NUREG-0544]

SBCR: Small Business and Civil Rights, Office of (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

SBCS: steam bypass control system [NUREG-0544]

SBFAS: shield building air filtration actuation system [NUREG-0544]

SBFU: stuck breaker failure unit [NUREG-0544]

SBGT: standby gas treatment [NUREG-0544]

SBGTS: standby gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

SBIR: Small Business Innovative Research [NUREG-0544]

SBK: Schnell-Brüter-Kernkraftwerksgesellschaft, m.b.H. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

SBLC: standby liquid control [NUREG-0544]

SBLOCA: small-break loss-of-coolant accident [NUREG-0544]

SBO: station blackout [NUREG-0544]

SBOC: superheated blowdown outside containment [NUREG-0544]

SBR: Soviet Breeder Reactor [NUREG-0544]

SBREFA: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act [NUREG-0544]

SBVS: shield building ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

SBWR: simplified boiling-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

SC: safety class, secondary confinement, site characterization, site contingency, speed controller, surveillance compliance [NUREG-0544]

SCA: secondary control assembly, simulated core assembly, single-channel analyzer, site characterization analysis/analyses, small component autoclave, sneak circuit analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

SCAT: spray chemical addition tank [NUREG-0544]

SCBA: self-contained breathing apparatus [NUREG-0544]

SCBR: steam-cooled breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

SCC: shutdown cooling circulator, specialized common carrier, stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

SCCS: secondary chemical control system, shutdown cooling circulator subsystem, sodium chemistry control system, standby core cooling system [NUREG-0544]

SCD: severe core damage, significant construction deficiency [NUREG-0544]

SCDAP: severe core damage analysis package [NUREG-0544]

SCDWMR: steam-cooled deuteriated water-moderated reactor [NUREG-0544]

SCE: saturated calomel electrode, situation-caused error, Southern California Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

SCEAR: Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation [NUREG-0544]

SCEG: South Carolina Electric & Gas Co. [NUREG-0544]

SCE&G: South Carolina Electric & Gas Co. [NUREG-0544]

SCEL: small-component evaluation loop [NUREG-0544]

SCEW: system component evaluation worksheet [NUREG-0544]

SCF: SNAP critical facility, sodium cleaning facility [NUREG-0544]

SCFBR: steam-cooled fast breeder reactor [NUREG-0544]

scfh: standard cubic foot/feet per hour [NUREG-0544]

scfm: standard cubic foot/feet per minute [NUREG-0544]

SCFS: secondary containment fill station [NUREG-0544]

SCGA: sodium-cooled graphite assembly [NUREG-0544]

SCHE: shutdown cooling heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

SCHES: shutdown cooling heat exchanger subsystem [NUREG-0544]

SCHS: small-component handling system [NUREG-0544]

SCI: secondary containment isolation [NUREG-0544]

SCIV: secondary containment isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

SCK: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

SCM: simulated core mockup, simulated core model, steam condensing mode [NUREG-0544]

SCN: software change notice, specification change notice [NUREG-0544]

SCO: senior control (room) operator [NUREG-0544]

SCOA: sample cave operating area [NUREG-0544]

SCORE: Standing Committee on Regulatory Effectiveness [NUREG-0544]

SCOTTR: supercritical once-through tube reactor [NUREG-0544]

SCP: security control point, site characterization plan [NUREG-0544]

SCPPCS: secondary containment purge and pressure control system [NUREG-0544]

SCR: selenium control rectifier, significant condition report, silicon-controlled rectifier, site characterization report, site characterization review, sodium-cooled reactor, software change request [NUREG-0544]

SCRB: Senior Contract Review Board [NUREG-0544]

SCRD: secondary control rod driveline [NUREG-0544]

SCRDM: secondary control rod drive mechanism [NUREG-0544]

SCRE: shift control room engineer [NUREG-0544]

SCRM: secondary certified reference material [NUREG-0544]

SCRO: senior control room operator [NUREG-0544]

SCRS: secondary control rod system [NUREG-0544]

SCRWC: Sierra Club Radioactive Waste Campaign [NUREG-0544]

SCS: secondary coolant system, shutdown cooling system, sodium characterization system, Soil Conservation Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture) [NUREG-0544]

SCSHX: shutdown cooling system heat exchange, shutdown cooling system heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

SCSI: Southern Company Services, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

SCSIN: Service Central de Sûrété des Installations Nucléaires (France) [NUREG-0544]

SCSS: Sequence Coding and Search System [NUREG-0544]

SCST: spray chemical storage tank [NUREG-0544]

SCTA: secondary container transfer area [NUREG-0544]

SCTF: slab core test facility, sodium chemical technology facility [NUREG-0544]

SCTI: sodium component test installation [NUREG-0544]

SCTL: small components test loop [NUREG-0544]

SCUMRA: Société Centrale de l'Uranium et des Minéraux et Métaux Radioactifs (France) [NUREG-0544]

SCV: steel containment vessel, systems completion verification [NUREG-0544]

SCVI: special construction verification inspection [NUREG-0544]

SCWE: safety-conscious work environment [NUREG-0544]

SCWHE: shutdown cooling water heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

SCWR: supercritical water reactor [NUREG-0544]

SCWS: shutdown cooling water subsystem [NUREG-0544]

SD: scram discharge, shakedown, shutdown, standard drawing, standards development, station directive, supply duct, system description [NUREG-0544]

S/D: shutdown [NUREG-0544]

SDA: standard design approval, startup detector assembly, supplier data approval [NUREG-0544]

SDBCS: steam dump bypass control system [NUREG-0544]

SDC: shield design code, shutdown cooling, structural design criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

SDCC: small-diameter component cask [NUREG-0544]

SDCS: shutdown cooling system [NUREG-0544]

SDD: system design description [NUREG-0544]

SDEM: Société d'Enterprise de Montages (France) [NUREG-0544]

SDF: spillway design flood [NUREG-0544]

SDG: standby diesel generator [NUREG-0544]

SDGE: San Diego Gas & Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

SDH: side drill hole [NUREG-0544]

SDHR: shutdown decay heat removal [NUREG-0544]

SDHX: shutdown heat exchanger [NUREG-0544]

SDIP: surveillance dosimetry improvement program [NUREG-0544]

SDLC: synchronous data link control, system development life cycle [NUREG-0544]

SD/LP: shutdown and low power [NUREG-0544]

SDM: shutdown margin [NUREG-0544]

SDMF: surveillance dosimetry measurement facility [NUREG-0544]

SDMP: Site Decommissioning Management Plan [NUREG-0544]

SDOF: single degree of freedom [NUREG-0544]

SDP: setdown pool [NUREG-0544]

SDR: significant deficiency report, SNAP Developmental Reactor, supplier deviation request [NUREG-0544]

SDS: shutdown sequencer, steam dump system, submerged demineralizer system [NUREG-0544]

SDSP: site director standard practice [NUREG-0544]

SDV: scram discharge volume, steam dump valve [NUREG-0544]

SDVIV: scram discharge volume instrument volume [NUREG-0544]

SE: safety evaluation, shift engineer, significant event (NRC performance indicator), subcritical experiment [NUREG-0544]

SEA: Susquehanna Environmental Advocates [NUREG-0544]

SEAONC: Structural Engineers Association of Northern California [NUREG-0544]

SEAR: safety evaluation audit report [NUREG-0544]

SEAS: Strategic Environmental Assessment Systems [NUREG-0544]

SEASET: separate effects and systems effects test [NUREG-0544]

SECC: Safe Energy Communication Council [NUREG-0544]

SECHT: scoping emergency cooling heat transfer [NUREG-0544]

SECOM: Safe Energy Coalition of Michigan [NUREG-0544]

SECY: Secretary of the Commission, Office of the (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

SEDSS: Sandia Environmental Decision Support System [NUREG-0544]

SEE : INSignificant Event Evaluation and Information Network [NUREG-0544]

SEE-IN: significant event evaluation--information notice [NUREG-0544]

SEEN: Syndicat d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucléaire (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

SEFOR: Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor [NUREG-0544]

SEFR: shielding experiment facility reactor [NUREG-0544]

SELNI: Società Elettronucleare Italiana (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SELO: Società Elettronica Lombarda (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SEM: scanning electron microscope [NUREG-0544]

SEMO: Société Belgo-Française d'Energie Nucléaire Mosane (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

SEN: Significant Event Notification (INPO) [NUREG-0544]

SENA: Société d'Energie Nucléaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (France) [NUREG-0544]

SENN: Società Elettronucleare Nazionale (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SENTA: Société d'Etudes Nucléaires et de Techniques Avancées (France) [NUREG-0544]

SEO: side entry orifice [NUREG-0544]

SEP: safety enhancement program, site emergency plan, source evaluation panel, standby electric power , Systematic Evaluation Program [NUREG-0544]

SER: safety evaluation report, Sandia Engineering Reactor, self-evaluation report, significant event report, SNAP Experimental Reactor, Staff Evaluation Report [NUREG-0544]

SERB: State Environmental Review Board [NUREG-0544]

SERC: Southeastern Electric Reliability Council [NUREG-0544]

SERF: Sandia Engineering Reactor Facility, special environmental radiometallurgy facility [NUREG-0544]

SERR: semiannual effluent release report [NUREG-0544]

SERS: safety evaluation report supplement [NUREG-0544]

SES: safety evaluation supplement, Senior Executive Service, steam electric station [NUREG-0544]

SET: Special Evaluation Team, systems effects test [NUREG-0544]

SETF: SNAP Experimental Test Facility [NUREG-0544]

SETS: standard environmental technical specification, standardized environmental technical specification [NUREG-0544]

SETU: Société d'Etudes et de Travaux pour l'Uranium (France) [NUREG-0544]

SEUSSN: Southeastern United States Seismic Network [NUREG-0544]

SEWS: Screening Evaluation Work Sheet [NUREG-0544]

SF: source factor, spent fuel [NUREG-0544]

SFA: single-failure analysis/analyses, spent fuel assembly, standard fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

SFAS: safety features actuation signal [NUREG-0544]

SFBI: spent fuel building isolation [NUREG-0544]

SF&CG: standard format and content guidance [NUREG-0544]

SFCR: storage facility control room [NUREG-0544]

SFCS: secondary flow control system, spent fuel cooling system [NUREG-0544]

SFCSR: storage facility cable spreading room [NUREG-0544]

SFD: severe fuel damage [NUREG-0544]

SFDP: safety functions determination program [NUREG-0544]

SFDST: severe fuel damage scoping test [NUREG-0544]

SFEN: Société Française d'Energie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

SFP: spent fuel pit, spent fuel pool [NUREG-0544]

SFPAVS: spent fuel pool area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

SFPC: spent fuel pool cooling [NUREG-0544]

SFPCCS: spent fuel pool cooling and cleanup system [NUREG-0544]

SFPCS: spent fuel pool cooling system [NUREG-0544]

SFPO: Spent Fuel Project Office (NRC) [NUREG-0544]

SFR: startup field report [NUREG-0544]

SFRCS: steam and feedwater rupture control system [NUREG-0544]

SFRP: Société Française de Radioprotection (France) [NUREG-0544]

SFR&TA: system function review and task analysis [NUREG-0544]

SFS: steam and feedwater system [NUREG-0544]

SFSP: spent fuel storage pool [NUREG-0544]

SFTA: spent fuel transportation accident [NUREG-0544]

SFTT: spent fuel transfer tube [NUREG-0544]

SG: safety guide, steam generator [NUREG-0544]

S/G: steam generator [NUREG-0544]

SGAE: Studiengesellschaft für Atomenergie, m.b.H. (Austria) [NUREG-0544]

SGAHRS: steam generator auxiliary heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

SGAS: steam generator available signal [NUREG-0544]

SGB: steam generator blowdown, steam generator building [NUREG-0544]

SGBD: steam generator blowdown [NUREG-0544]

SGBPS: steam generator blowdown processing system [NUREG-0544]

SGBS: steam generator blowdown system [NUREG-0544]

SGCF: SNAP Generalized Critical Facility [NUREG-0544]

SGD: steam generator dryout [NUREG-0544]

SGDSM: steam generator degradation-specific management [NUREG-0544]

SGE: Société Générale d'Enterprises (France) [NUREG-0544]

SGEF: steam generator examination facility [NUREG-0544]

SGER: safeguards evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

SGFP: steam generator feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

SGGP: steam generator group project [NUREG-0544]

SGHWR: steam-generating heavy-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

SGI: Safeguards Information, Silicon Graphics International [NUREG-0544]

SGIP: Steam Generator Integrity Program [NUREG-0544]

SGIS: safeguards initiation signal [NUREG-0544]

SGLIC: steam generator level instrumentation cabinet [NUREG-0544]

SGML: standard generalized markup language [NUREG-0544]

SGMSR: steam generator maximum steam rate [NUREG-0544]

SGN: Société de Génie Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

SGOG: Steam Generators Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

SGR: self-generation reactor, sodium-graphite reactor [NUREG-0544]

SGS: Salem Generating Station, segmented gamma scanner, steam generator subsystem, steam generator system, subgrid scale [NUREG-0544]

S/GS: steam generator system [NUREG-0544]

SGSA: steam generator subassembly [NUREG-0544]

SGTF: steam generator test facility [NUREG-0544]

SGTIP: Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program [NUREG-0544]

SGTR: steam generator test rig, steam generator tube rupture [NUREG-0544]

SGTS: standby gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

SGV: steam generator vessel [NUREG-0544]

SGWLC: steam generator water level control [NUREG-0544]

SHA: sodium hydroxide addition, solid homogeneous assembly [NUREG-0544]

SHAA: sealed head access area [NUREG-0544]

SHADE: shielded hot-air drum evaporator [NUREG-0544]

SHARE: systems for heat and radiation energy [NUREG-0544]

SHE: semihomogeneous experiment, standard hydrogen electrode [NUREG-0544]

SHEAC: Safety, Health, and Environmental Appraisal Committee [NUREG-0544]

SHEEC: Shearon Harris Energy and Environmental Center [NUREG-0544]

SHF: storage-handling facility [NUREG-0544]

SHI: Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan) [NUREG-0544]

SHMED: State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development [NUREG-0544]

S/HNP: Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project [NUREG-0544]

SHNPP: Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant [NUREG-0544]

SHPO: State Historic Preservation Officer [NUREG-0544]

SHRS: shutdown heat removal system [NUREG-0544]

SHTL: small heat-transfer loop [NUREG-0544]

SI: safety injection, security inspector, special instruction, surveillance inspection, surveillance instruction, système international (d'unités) (International System of Units) [NUREG-0544]

SIAS: safety injection actuation signal [NUREG-0544]

SIC: standard industrial classification, Standard Industrial Code [NUREG-0544]

SICN: Société Industrielle de Combustible Nucléaire (France) [NUREG-0544]

SICS: safety injection control system [NUREG-0544]

SID: sodium ionization detector [NUREG-0544]

SI/EB: safety injection/emergency boration [NUREG-0544]

SIG: special inquiry group [NUREG-0544]

SIGEN: Società Impianti Generazione Energia Nucleare, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SIHP: Sargent Industries, Huntington Park [NUREG-0544]

SIL: service information letter [NUREG-0544]

SIM: service information memorandum/memoranda [NUREG-0544]

SIMEA: Società Italiana Meridionale Energia Atomica (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SIMS: safety issues management system [NUREG-0544]

SIN: Schweizerisches Institut für Nuklearforschung (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

SINB: Southern Interstate Nuclear Board [NUREG-0544]

SINET: Shared Information Network [NUREG-0544]

SIO: Società per l'Industria dell'Ossigeno e de Altri Gas (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SIPAO: simulator for postaccident operation [NUREG-0544]

SIPI: Scientists Institute for Public Information [NUREG-0544]

SIR: safeguards implementation report, safe integral reactor, safety issue resolution, self-initiated review, submarine intermediate reactor [NUREG-0544]

SIRMO: senior information resource management official [NUREG-0544]

SIRW: safety injection and refueling water [NUREG-0544]

SIRWT: safety injection and refueling water tank [NUREG-0544]

SIS: safety injection signal, safety injection system, site integrated schedule, Special Inspection Services [NUREG-0544]

SISBO: self-induced station blackout [NUREG-0544]

SISI: surveillance and inservice inspection [NUREG-0544]

SIT: safety injection tank, safety injection transmitter, social implications of technology , structural integrity test [NUREG-0544]

SITP: site inspection and test procedure [NUREG-0544]

SJAE: steam jet-air ejector [NUREG-0544]

SJWCP: skid jacket water cooling pump [NUREG-0544]

SKA: Studienkommission für Atomenergie (Switzerland) [NUREG-0544]

SKI: Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate [NUREG-0544]

SL: safety limit, section leader, stationary low [NUREG-0544]

S&L: Sargent & Lundy Engineers [NUREG-0544]

SLAC: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center [NUREG-0544]

SLB: status light box, steamline break [NUREG-0544]

SLC: standby liquid control, State liaison coordinator [NUREG-0544]

SLCRS: supplemental leakage collection and release system, supplementary leak collection and release system [NUREG-0544]

SLCS: standby liquid control system [NUREG-0544]

SLD: shutdown logic diagram [NUREG-0544]

SLF: seismic load factor [NUREG-0544]

SLI: steamline isolation [NUREG-0544]

SLIP: serial line Internet protocol [NUREG-0544]

SLIV: steamline isolation valve [NUREG-0544]

SLMCPR: safety limit for minimum critical power [NUREG-0544]

SLO: single-loop operation, State liaison officer [NUREG-0544]

SLP: St. Lucie Plant [NUREG-0544]

SLPS: State and local program support [NUREG-0544]

SLSF: sodium-loop safety facility [NUREG-0544]

SLTC: seismic loading for temporary condition [NUREG-0544]

SLSV: shutdown-loop shutoff valve [NUREG-0544]

SLUC: standard level user charge [NUREG-0544]

SLWMS: secondary liquid waste management system [NUREG-0544]

SM: shift manager, stationary medium [NUREG-0544]

SMA: shielded metal arc [NUREG-0544]

SMACNA: Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association [NUREG-0544]

SMART: senior management assessment of readiness team [NUREG-0544]

SMAW: shielded metal arc weld, shielded metal arc welding, submerged metal arc welding [NUREG-0544]

SMBDB: structural margin beyond design basis [NUREG-0544]

SMC: segmented maintenance cask, seismic methodology chain, systems, man, and cybernetics [NUREG-0544]

SMM: seismic margins method, senior management meeting, subcooling margin monitor [NUREG-0544]

SMP: simulator modification package [NUREG-0544]

SMR: shield mockup reactor, solid moderated reactor, system modification request [NUREG-0544]

SMSA: standard metropolitan statistical area [NUREG-0544]

SMTI: sodium mechanisms test installation [NUREG-0544]

SMTP: simple mail transfer protocol [NUREG-0544]

SMUD: Sacramento Municipal Utility District [NUREG-0544]

S/N: serial number [NUREG-0544]

SNAME: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers [NUREG-0544]

SNAP: safeguards network analysis procedure, shielded neutron assay probe, Struthers Nuclear and Process Co., systems for nuclear auxiliary power [NUREG-0544]

SNC: Sierra Nuclear Corp. [NUREG-0544]

SNE: Sociedad Nuclear Española (Spain) [NUREG-0544]

SNEC: Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corp., subgroup on nuclear export coordination [NUREG-0544]

SNERP: Saxton Nuclear Experimental Reactor Project [NUREG-0544]

SNG: synthetic natural gas [NUREG-0544]

SNGS: Salem Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

SNI: Società Nucleare Italiana (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SNL: Sandia National Laboratories [NUREG-0544]

SNM: Society for Nuclear Medicine, special nuclear material [NUREG-0544]

SNOC: Southern Nuclear Operating Company [NUREG-0544]

SNP: Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, Skagit Nuclear Power Project [NUREG-0544]

SNPS: Seabrook Nuclear Power Station, Shoreham Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

SNR: slow neutron reactor, supplier nonconformance report [NUREG-0544]

SNRC: Soreq Nuclear Research Center [NUREG-0544]

SNS: Seabrook Nuclear Station, spallation neutron source [NUREG-0544]

SNUPPS: standardized nuclear unit power plant system [NUREG-0544]

SO: Siemens Österreich (Austria), status officer, supervising operator [NUREG-0544]

SOA: statement of account [NUREG-0544]

SOC: Statements of Consideration [NUREG-0544]

SOCCS: summary of component control status [NUREG-0544]

SOCIA: Société pour l'Industrie Atomique (France) [NUREG-0544]

SOD: shallow outside diameter, Société d'Etudes pour l'Obtention du Deuterium (France) [NUREG-0544]

SODERN: Société d'Etudes et Réalisations Nucléaires (France) [NUREG-0544]

SOE: sequence of events [NUREG-0544]

SOER: safety operational event report, significant operating event report, significant operating experience report [NUREG-0544]

SOICS: summary of installation control status [NUREG-0544]

SOL: senior operator license [NUREG-0544]

SOM: shift operations manager [NUREG-0544]

SONGS: San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

SONOPCO: Southern Nuclear Operating Company [NUREG-0544]

SOP: standard operating procedure, stepoff pad, Supervisory Orientation Program [NUREG-0544]

SOPI: system operational performance inspection [NUREG-0544]

SOPR: Spanish Open Pool Reactor [NUREG-0544]

SOPREN: Società Progettazione Reattori Nucleari, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SOR: static O-ring, system of records [NUREG-0544]

SORC: station operations review committee [NUREG-0544]

SORIN: Società Ricerche Impianti Nucleari (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SORV: stuck-open relief valve [NUREG-0544]

SORX: Security Organization Response Exercise [NUREG-0544]

SOS: shift operations supervisor [NUREG-0544]

SOV: solenoid-operated valve [NUREG-0544]

SOW: statement of work [NUREG-0544]

SP: sampling point, security procedure, set point, special project, special purpose, suppression pool, surveillance procedure [NUREG-0544]

SPACS: sodium purification and characterization system [NUREG-0544]

SPAHR: simulation package for assessing health risks [NUREG-0544]

SPAR: simplified plant analysis risk [NUREG-0544]

SPB: Security Policy Board [NUREG-0544]

SPC: Siemens Power Corporation (formerly Exxon Nuclear), standby pressure control, stored program controller, suppression pool cooling [NUREG-0544]

SPCED: system for physical control of energy distribution [NUREG-0544]

SPCP: statistical process control program [NUREG-0544]

SPCU: suppression pool cleanup [NUREG-0544]

SPDES: State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System [NUREG-0544]

SPDS: safety parameter display system [NUREG-0544]

SPEEDI: system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information [NUREG-0544]

SPER: Security Plan Evaluation Report [NUREG-0544]

SPERT: special power excursion reactor test [NUREG-0544]

SPES: Simulatore per Esperienze di Sicurezza (Italy) [Simulator for Safety Experimental Analysis], Simuluzione PWR per Esperienze di Sicurezza (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SPF: site population factor, standard project flood [NUREG-0544]

SPGD: self-powered gamma detector [NUREG-0544]

SP/HD: spool piece head [NUREG-0544]

SPI: site population index [NUREG-0544]

SPIAM: sodium purity in-line analytical module [NUREG-0544]

SPIN: Società per Imprese Nucleare, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

SPIP: Safety and Performance Improvement Program [NUREG-0544]

SPMC: Seabrook Plan for the Massachusetts Communities [NUREG-0544]

SPMS: suppression pool makeup system [NUREG-0544]

SPND: self-powered neutron detector [NUREG-0544]

SPOC: system preoperability checklist [NUREG-0544]

SPOUT: system peripheral output utility [NUREG-0544]

SPR: Sandia Pulsed Reactor [NUREG-0544]

SPRF: Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility [NUREG-0544]

SPS: safety protection subsystem, secondary plant system, standard project storm, Summit Power Station, supplementary protection system, Surry Power Station [NUREG-0544]

SPSC: Southwestern Public Service Co. [NUREG-0544]

SP/SC: shield plug/support cylinder [NUREG-0544]

SPSS: shield plug storage station [NUREG-0544]

SPT: satellite pulse technique, special purpose test, standard penetration test [NUREG-0544]

SPTF: sodium pump test facility [NUREG-0544]

SPV: storage process vent [NUREG-0544]

SPVC: simulated pressure vessel capsule [NUREG-0544]

SPVR: storage process vent room [NUREG-0544]

SPX: superheat power experiment [NUREG-0544]

SQR: seismic qualification report, supplier quality representative [NUREG-0544]

SQRS: seismic qualification review summary [NUREG-0544]

SQRT: seismic qualification review team [NUREG-0544]

SQUG: Seismic Qualification User's Group, Seismic Qualification Utility Group [NUREG-0544]

SR: safety related, safety rod, source range, summary report, support reaction , surveillance requirement [NUREG-0544]

S/R: safety relief, shipper-receiver [NUREG-0544]

SRA: senior resident analyst [NUREG-0544]

SRB: safety review board [NUREG-0544]

SRBT: single-rod burst test [NUREG-0544]

SRC: Science Research Council (United Kingdom), shutdown reactor cooling, spares receiving checklist [NUREG-0544]

SRCAS: safety-related control air system [NUREG-0544]

SRCC: safety-related control circuit [NUREG-0544]

SRCI: safety-related control and instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

SRD: self-reading dosimeter, shipper-receiver difference [NUREG-0544]

SR&D: sodium removal and decontamination [NUREG-0544]

SRDA: sodium removal development apparatus [NUREG-0544]

SRDC: safety-related design condition [NUREG-0544]

SRDI: safety-related display instrumentation [NUREG-0544]

SRE: safety-related equipment, sodium reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

SREC: standard radiological effluent control [NUREG-0544]

SRFM: source range flux monitor, source range flux monitoring [NUREG-0544]

SRGS: St. Rosalie Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

SRH: switchyard relay house [NUREG-0544]

SRHC: shutdown reactor head cooling [NUREG-0544]

SRI: senior resident inspector, Stanford Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

SRIAER: Scientific Research Institute for Atomic Energy Reactors (U.S.S.R.) [NUREG-0544]

SRIC: senior resident inspector for construction [NUREG-0544]

SRL: Savannah River Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

SRM: source range monitor, staff requirements memorandum/memoranda, standard reference material, startup range monitor [NUREG-0544]

SRN: specification revision notice [NUREG-0544]

SRO: senior reactor operator, specification release order [NUREG-0544]

SROA: safety-related operator action [NUREG-0544]

SROS: send/receive from the opposite side [NUREG-0544]

SRP: Savannah River Plant, small radioactive particle, small rotating plug, Standard Review Plan [NUREG-0544]

SRP-LR: standard review plan--license renewal [NUREG-0544]

SRRC: Standing Results Review Committee [NUREG-0544]

SRS: sodium removal station, sodium removal system, solid radwaste system [NUREG-0544]

SRSS: send/receive from the same side, square root of the sum of the squares [NUREG-0544]

SRST: spent resin storage tank [NUREG-0544]

SRT: special review team, spent resin tank [NUREG-0544]

SRTI: Société de Recherches Techniques et Industrielles (France) [NUREG-0544]

SRU: Société de Raffinage d'Uranium (France) [NUREG-0544]

SRV: safety/relief valve [NUREG-0544]

S/RV: safety/relief valve [NUREG-0544]

SRVDL: safety/relief valve discharge line [NUREG-0544]

S/RVDL: safety/relief valve discharge line [NUREG-0544]

SRVL: safety-related vendor list [NUREG-0544]

SRVO: safety relief valve open [NUREG-0544]

SR/VO: safety relief valve open [NUREG-0544]

SRWS: solid radioactive waste system [NUREG-0544]

SS: safe shutdown, sample sink, sample station, sampling system, shift supervisor, site safety, site suitability, Southern Services, Inc. , special source, speed sensor, stainless steel, Susquehanna Station, systems specialist [NUREG-0544]

SSA: safety system actuation (NRC performance indicator) [NUREG-0544]

SSAB: site-specific advisory board [NUREG-0544]

SSAR: site safety analysis report, standard safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

SSAS: small sample assay system [NUREG-0544]

SSAT: safety significance assessment team [NUREG-0544]

SSB: Source Selection Board, Strategic Steering Board [NUREG-0544]

SSC: short segmented cask, simulated surveillance capsule, Southern Services Company, structure, system, and component, super system code [NUREG-0544]

SSCA: spray system compressed air [NUREG-0544]

SSCC: Solid-State Circuits Council [NUREG-0544]

SSCCS: solid-state component control system [NUREG-0544]

SSCR: spectral shift control reactor [NUREG-0544]

SS&D: sealed source & device [NUREG-0544]

SSDR: Sealed Source and Device Nationwide Registry [NUREG-0544]

SSE: safe-shutdown earthquake [NUREG-0544]

SSEB: Southern States Energy Board, South of Scotland Electricity Board [NUREG-0544]

SSEI: Safety System Engineering Inspection [NUREG-0544]

SSER: site safety evaluation report, supplemental safety evaluation report, supplement to safety evaluation report [NUREG-0544]

SSES: Susquehanna Steam Electric Station [NUREG-0544]

SSF: safe-shutdown facility, safety system failure (NRC performance indicator), service storage facility, standby shutdown facility [NUREG-0544]

SSFI: safety systems functional inspection [NUREG-0544]

SSI: safe-shutdown impoundment, soil-structure interaction, steady-state irradiation [NUREG-0544]

SSK: Strahlenschutzkommission (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

SSLPS: solid-state logic protection system [NUREG-0544]

SSMRP: seismic safety margins research program [NUREG-0544]

SSNM: strategic special nuclear material [NUREG-0544]

SSNPP: small-size nuclear power plant [NUREG-0544]

SSO: System Security Officer [NUREG-0544]

SSOMI: safety systems outage modification inspection [NUREG-0544]

SSORA: security system operational recording and analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

SSP: sodium sampling package, staff site position, static sodium pot [NUREG-0544]

SSPB: Swedish State Power Board [NUREG-0544]

SSPC: Steel Structure Painting Council [NUREG-0544]

SSPI: safety system performance indicator [NUREG-0544]

SSPM: safety system performance monitor [NUREG-0544]

SSPS: solid-state protection system [NUREG-0544]

SSPWR: small-size pressurized-water reactor [NUREG-0544]

SSQE: safety system quality evaluation [NUREG-0544]

SSR: seal steam regulator, secondary system relief, separate superheater reactor, site suitability report, site suitability review, specification status report [NUREG-0544]

SSRAP: Senior Seismic Review and Advisory Panel [NUREG-0544]

SSRCR: suggested State regulations for the control of radiation [NUREG-0544]

SSRM: safety system readiness monitor [NUREG-0544]

SSRT: slow strain rate test [NUREG-0544]

SSS: safe-shutdown system, secondary sampling system, sensitized stainless steel, shield and seismic support, shift support supervisor, special safeguards study, special safety safeguard, standby shutdown system [NUREG-0544]

SSST: site suitability source term [NUREG-0544]

SST: secondary surge tank, siting source term, station service transformer [NUREG-0544]

SS/T: steady-state/transient [NUREG-0544]

SSTP: Super SARA Test Program [NUREG-0544]

SSTR: solid-state track recorder [NUREG-0544]

SSW: salt service water, standby service water [NUREG-0544]

SSWP: station service water pump [NUREG-0544]

SSWS: standby service water system, station service water system [NUREG-0544]

ST: site team, source term, special test, speed transmitter [NUREG-0544]

STA: Science and Technology Agency (Japan), shift technical advisor [NUREG-0544]

STAR: Sandia National Laboratories Transient Axial Relocation, shield test air reactor, space thermionic auxiliary reactor [NUREG-0544]

STC: sound transmission coefficient [NUREG-0544]

STCL: source-term control loop [NUREG-0544]

STCP: source-term code package [NUREG-0544]

STE: shield test experiment, shift technical engineer, special test exception, system test engineer [NUREG-0544]

ST&E: security test and evaluation [NUREG-0544]

STEC: South Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

STEP: safety test engineering program, source-term experiments project [NUREG-0544]

STF: safety test facility, shield test facility, shielded test facility [NUREG-0544]

STH: simplified time history [NUREG-0544]

STI: special team inspection, surveillance test interval [NUREG-0544]

STIF: short-term irradiation facility [NUREG-0544]

STIR: shield test and irradiation reactor, special technical issue report [NUREG-0544]

STL: site team leader [NUREG-0544]

STP: short-term program, shutdown transfer panel, South Texas Project, special technical publication , staff technical position, standard temperature and pressure, surveillance test procedure, system test procedure [NUREG-0544]

STPF: shield test pool facility [NUREG-0544]

STPM: simulated thermal power monitor [NUREG-0544]

STR: submarine thermal reactor [NUREG-0544]

STRESS: structural engineering system solver [NUREG-0544]

STRIDE: standard reactor island design [NUREG-0544]

STS: Standard Technical Specification [NUREG-0544]

STV: small test vessel [NUREG-0544]

S/U: startup [NUREG-0544]

SUNY: State University of New York [NUREG-0544]

SUPO: super power [NUREG-0544]

SUPS: static uninterruptible power supply [NUREG-0544]

SUR: startup rate [NUREG-0544]

SUS: startup system [NUREG-0544]

SU/SD: startup and shutdown [NUREG-0544]

SUT: startup transformer [NUREG-0544]

SV: safety valve [NUREG-0544]

Sv: sievert [NUREG-0544]

SV: solenoid valve, stop valve [NUREG-0544]

SVA: single-valve first-actuation [NUREG-0544]

SVBC: simulated void box capsule [NUREG-0544]

SVHHC: St. Vincent Hospital and Health Center [NUREG-0544]

SW: service water, Struthers Wells Corp. [NUREG-0544]

S&W: Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. [NUREG-0544]

SWA: startup work authorization [NUREG-0544]

SWBP: sidewall bearing pressure [NUREG-0544]

SWBS: solid waste barrel storage [NUREG-0544]

SWC: solid waste cask [NUREG-0544]

SWCP: secondary water chemistry program [NUREG-0544]

SWCS: salt water cooling system [NUREG-0544]

SWDS: steam and water dump system [NUREG-0544]

SWEC: Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. [NUREG-0544]

SWESSAR: Stone and Webster Standard Safety Analysis Report [NUREG-0544]

SWET: simulated water entry test [NUREG-0544]

SWGR: switchgear [NUREG-0544]

SWGTS: steam and waste gas treatment system [NUREG-0544]

SWIS: service water intake structure [NUREG-0544]

SWISS: sustained water interactions with stainless steel [NUREG-0544]

SWM: Serber-Wilson method [NUREG-0544]

SWMS: solid waste management system [NUREG-0544]

SWO: stop-work order [NUREG-0544]

SWP: service water pump, solid waste packaging, solid waste processing, special work permit [NUREG-0544]

SWPP: Southwest Power Pool [NUREG-0544]

SWPS: solid waste processing system [NUREG-0544]

SWR: service water reservoir, sodium-water reaction, submarine water reactor [NUREG-0544]

SwRI: Southwest Research Institute [NUREG-0544]

SWRPRS: sodium-water reaction pressure relief subsystem [NUREG-0544]

SWS: service water system, solid waste system [NUREG-0544]

SWSR: solid waste shipping room [NUREG-0544]

SWTS: secondary waste treatment system [NUREG-0544]

SWU: separate work unit, separative work unit [NUREG-0544]

SX: solvent extraction [NUREG-0544]

SXF: solvent extraction feed [NUREG-0544]

SYCA: Syndicat d'Etude des Centrales Atomiques (Belgium) [NUREG-0544]

SYRFA: Société de Système Française pour les Réacteurs Avancées (France) [NUREG-0544]

SZW: Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands) [NUREG-0544]

S&H Activity Type: An indicator Of the relative importance of activities within each safety and health (S&H) functional area. S&H activities are compliance activities (COM), core activities (COR), or improvement activities (IMP). [DOEEMGMT]

S&H Functional Area: A primary area of health and safety (S&H) concern addressed by the Safety and Health Program. Functional areas include: management and oversight (MO), emergency preparedness (EP), fire protection (FP), industrial safety (IS), industrial hygiene (IH), nuclear safety (NS), occupational medical services (MS), radiation protection (RP), and transportation safety (TS). [DOEEMGMT]

S&H Narrative: A description of the safety and health activities that will be accomplished, described by funding level. [DOEEMGMT]

S&H Responsible Manager: The manager responsible for safety and health information. [DOEEMGMT]

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): The Act to protect drinking water supplies. The maximum contaminant levels permitted by this Act are used in ground water monitoring programs. [DOEEMGMT]

Safe shutdown earthquake: A design-basis earthquake.[NRC]

Safeguards: Safeguards, as used in regulation of domestic nuclear facilities and materials, refers to the use of material control and accounting programs to verify that all special nuclear material is properly controlled and accounted for, and/or the physical protection (also referred to as physical security) equipment and security force. As used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the term safeguards means to verify that the "peaceful use" commitments made in binding non-proliferation agreements, both bilateral and multilateral, are honored. [NRC]

Safestor - A method of decommissioning in which the nuclear facility is placed and maintained in such condition that the nuclear facility can be safely stored and subsequently decontaminated to levels that permit release for unrestricted use. [NRC] See Decon

Safety and Health Activity: An activity which seeks to prevent accidents by managing risks to workers and the public or to achieve compliance with applicable safety and health (S&H) laws, regulations. agreements, and DOE Orders. [DOEEMGMT]

Safety injection: The rapid insertion of a chemically soluble neutron poison (such as boric acid) into the reactor coolant system to ensure reactor shutdown. [NRC]

Safety limit: A limit placed upon important process variables which are found to be necessary to reasonably protect the integrity of the physical barriers which guard against the uncontrolled release of radioactivity. [NRC]

Safety related: The managerial controls, administrative documents, operating procedures, systems, structures, and components that have been designed to mitigate the consequences of postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to public health and safety. [NRC]

Safety rod: One of a set of additional reactor control rods used specifically for emergency shut-down and for keeping the reactor in a safe condition during maintenance etc. [AT]

Saltcake/ Salicake: A cake of dry crystals of nuclear waste found in high-level-waste tanks. [DOE/EM-0266] A salt form of high-level waste stored in tanks, which is produced from neutralizing acidic liquid waste from defense reactor fuel reprocessing with an alkaline agent (caustic soda). [DOE-IDB97]

Saltstone: A concrete-like material made with low-level radioactive waste. [DOE/EM-0266] A low-level waste by-product from the solidification of high-level waste at the Savannah River Site. Saltstone is retained in trenches at the Savannah River Site. [DOE-IDB97]

Salado Formation: The Permian Age evaporite unit within which wastes would be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. [WIPPEA]

Sanitary waste (SANT): Waste that does not contain radioactive or hazardous constituents sufficient to require special management. Sanitary waste includes municipal solid waste, construction/ demolition debris, and some waste water. [DOE/EM-0319]

SARA: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act

Savannah River Site (SRS): A plutonium and tritium production site, established in 1950, covering 300 square miles along the Savannah River in South Carolina, near Augusta, Georgia. Five production reactors and two chemical separation plants are located here. [DOE/EM-0266]

Scaler: An instrument for counting electrical pulses and displaying their total in digital form, often used in the measurement of radiation levels. [AT]

Scattered radiation: Radiation that, during its passage through a substance, has been changed in direction. It may also have been modified by a decrease in energy. It is one form of secondary radiation. [NRC]

SCAP: Superfund Comprehensive Accomplishments Plan

Schedule Baseline (SB): The time-phased plan with a logical sequence of interdependent activities, milestones, and events necessary to complete the project. The schedule baseline can be formally changed during the execution of the project, when required. [DOEEMGMT]

Schedule Contingency: The duration of time in addition to the total project duration calculated using activities and logical relationships. The schedule contingency is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and may be applied as necessary to maintain the schedule baseline. [DOEEMGMT]

Schedule Performance Index (SPI): A performance index that indicates how efficiently planned work is being performed. An SPI of 1 represents that work is on schedule. An SPI less than 1 represents a schedule delay and an SPI greater than 1 represents that work is ahead of schedule. SPI=BCWP/BCWS [DOEEMGMT]

Schedule Status Description: For a schedule variance that exceeds a threshold value, a description that identifies the cause, impact, corrective action taken, and expected outcome. [DOEEMGMT]

Schedule Variance (SV): The difference between what work has been accomplished and what work been planned. SV=BCWP-BCWS; SV%=(BCWP-BCWS)/BCWS[DOEEMGMT]

Scheduling/Transfer Unit: The basic operational unit used within the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization program to group buildings. [DOELL]

Scintillation Cocktail (or Liquid): Organic chemical solutions that produce light when bombarded with radiation. These liquids are a major component of institutional low-level waste. [DOELL]

Scintillation Counter: The combination of phosphor, photomultiplier tube and associated electronic circuits for counting light emissions produced in the phosphor by ionizing radiation. [NRC] A radiation detector in which the radiation causes individual flashes of light in a solid (or liquid) "scintillator" material. Their intensity is related to the energy of the radiation. The flashes are amplified and measured electrically and displayed or recorded digitally as individual "counts". [AT]

Scram: The term used to mean the sudden shutting down of a nuclear reactor, usually by rapid insertion of control rods, either automatically or manually by the reactor operator. May also be called a reactor trip. It is actually an acronym for "safety control rod axe man," the man assigned to insert the emergency rod on the first reactor (the Chicago pile) in the U.S. [NRC]

SDD: Stream Disposition Data (part of IPABS) [DOELLWRpt]

SDWA: Safe Drinking Water Act

Sea-bed disposal: Placement of waste packages in deep ocean sediments.

Sea dumping (disposal): The practice of periodically dumping shiploads of drummed, solidified waste into the ocean at specified locations. (No longer performed.)

Sealed source: A small package of radioactive materials used as a portable source of radiation packaged to minimize the possibility of dispersion of its radioactive contents. [DOE/EM-0319] Any special nuclear material or byproduct encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of the material. [NRC]

Secondary: The thermonuclear part of a fusion bomb. [ATARC] Provides additional explosive energy release for detonation of a nuclear weapon. Activated by the explosion from the primary assembly. Can be composed of lithium deuteride, uranium and other materials. Within the secondary, lithium is converted to tritium which undergoes fusion with deuterium to create a thermonuclear explosion. [DOE/EM-0319]

Secondary radiation: Radiation originating as the result of absorption of other radiation in matter. It may be either electromagnetic or particulate in nature. [NRC]

Secondary system: The steam generator tubes, steam turbine, condenser, and associated pipes, pumps, and heaters used to convert the heat energy of the reactor coolant system into mechanical energy for electrical generation. Most commonly used in reference to pressurized water reactors. [NRC]

Secular equilibrium: A state of parent-daughter equilibrium which is achieved when the half-life of the parent is much longer than the half-life of the daughter. In this case, if the two are not separated, the daughter will eventually be decaying at the same rate at which it is being produced. At this point, both parent and daughter will decay at the same rate until the parent is essentially exhausted.[LBNL]

SECY NRC Evaluation or Position Paper Prepared for NRC Commissioners by NRC Staff [CY]

Sedimentation and Precipitation: These processes are used to concentrate the radioactivity of liquid LLW into a small volume of wet solids. [DOELLWRpt]

Seismic category I: A term used to define structures, systems, and components that are designed and built to withstand the maximum potential earthquake stresses for the particular region where a nuclear plant is sited. [NRC]

Seismicity: All of the earthquakes that may occur in a region, regardless of magnitude. [WIPPEA]

Seismic Monitoring: Seismic monitoring offers virtually the only technique for determining occurrence and magnitude of underground tests. Seismic techniques have been extensively developed, and all treaties rely heavily on an array of detection stations. [ATARC]

Self-shielding: The shielding from external radiation's of the inner parts of a body or mass of material by the absorption, in its outer, of some of the incoming radiation. [AT]

Semi-conductor detector A radiation detector which uses the effect of radiation on the electrical properties of semi-conducting material.

Separative Work Units (SWU): A measure of the separation achieved in a uranium enrichment plant after separating uranium of a given 235 U content into two components, one having a higher percentage of 235 U than the other component. Separative work unit: The standard measure of enrichment services. [DOE/EA-1172] The separative work unit is expressed as a unit of mass. For example, 1 kilogram of separative work is expressed as 1 kg SWU. [DOE-IDB97]

SERC: State Emergency Response Committee

SETS: Superfund Enforcement Tracking System

SFP Spent Fuel Pool [CY]

Shaft: A man-made hole, either vertical or steeply inclined, that connects the surface with an underground excavation. [WIPPEA]

Shallow land burial ground: A disposal method that involves placing packaged waste in a shallow trench or pit. A closure cap made of clay or some other low-permeability cover, gravel drainage layers, and a topsoil layer is then placed on top of the con-tained waste. The layers are contoured and replanted with vegetation for drainage and erosion control. [EPALRRW]

Shielding: Material used to block or absorb radiation. Often placed between sources of radiation and people or the environment. [DOE/EM-0266]. Any material or obstruction that absorbs radiation and thus tends to protect personnel or materials from the effects of ionizing radiation. [NRC]

Shipper: The person (or his or her agent) who tenders a shipment for transportation. The term includes those who prepare packages for shipment and offer packages to a car-rier for transportation by signature on the shipping paper (DOE Order 1540.1A). [EPALLRW]

Shock Wave: A continuously propagated pressure wave in the surrounding medium which may be air, water, or earth, initiated by the expansion of hot gases produced by a nuclear explosion. [ATARC]

Short-lived: Consists of or contains radionuclides with half life shorter than about 35 years [TNRCC]

Short-lived radioisotopes/ radionuclides: For waste management purposes, radioisotopes with a half-life less than approximately 30 years. [DOE/EM-0319]

Shutdown: A decrease in the rate of fission (and heat production) in a reactor (usually by the insertion of control rods into the core). [NRC]

Shutdown margin:v The instantaneous amount of reactivity by which the reactor is subcritical or would be subcritical from its present condition assuming all full-length rod cluster assemblies (shutdown and control) are fully inserted except for the single rod cluster assembly of highest reactivity worth which is assumed to be fully withdrawn. [NRC]

SHWS: State Hazardous Waste Sites

SIC: Standard Industrial Classification

sievert: (Sv) A unit of equivalent absorbed dose equal to 100 rems; the product of absorbed dose in grays and the quality factor. 1 Sv= 100 roentgens, 10 µSv/hr = 1 milliroentgen/hr. [IEER, AT] The SI unit for dose equivalent equal to 1 Joule/kilogram. [NRC]

Significant Issues Description: A description of the major technical problems or concerns that arose during the reporting period. [DOEEMGMT]

Single pass reactors: Water-cooled nuclear reactors which discharge their cooling water after a single use rather than recirculating it. The first eight production reactors at Hanford were single pass reactors. [DOE/EM-0319]

Single-shell tank wastes: High-level wastes, generated from defense reactor fuel reprocessing at Hanford, which are stored in single-shelled tanks that contain liquid, sludge, and salt cake. See also "double-shell tank wastes." [DOE-IDB97]

Site Characterization: An onsite investigation at a known or suspected contaminated waste or release site to determine the extent ad type(s) of contamination. [DOE/EM-0342]

Site suitability requirements: Criteria a site must meet in order to develop and license a LLRW disposal facility at the site (see 10 CFR §61.50 and 30 TAC Chapter 336, Subchapter H). [TNRCC]

Site W: Hanford: To produce the needed plutonium, three reactors were constructed at Hanford, Washington. The reactors eventually produced several hundred grams of plutonium a day. The plutonium for the Trinity and Fat Man bombs were produced here. Hanford continues to produce plutonium for the United States nuclear weapons. [ATARC]

Site X: Oakridge: Oakridge was designed specifically for the separation of uranium. The separation was pursued in two methods; electromagnetic and gas diffusion. The uranium used in the Hiroshima bomb came from the Oak Ridge plant. [ATARC]

Site Y: Los Alamos: Built atop a mesa in northern New Mexico, this was where the atomic bombs were designed and tested. Los Alamos continues to develop nuclear weapons. [ATARC]

Skull Valley: A proposed private spent fuel interim storage facility on tribal land in Utah. The dry-cask storage facility would be located on 98 acres of the reservation of the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians, about 70 miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The initial lease for the site would run for 25 years, with possible renewal for another 25 years. The facility's capacity would be 40,000 metric tons, available to any U.S. nuclear utility in addition to the eight consortium members. The facility, strongly opposed by the State of Utah, would not require DOE assistance or congressional or state approval. Private Fuel Storage (PFS) company estimates that construction of the facility could start by 2002 and spent fuel shipments could begin in 2004 if an NRC license is granted by late 2001. [compiled from "CRS: Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal"]

Slag: A waste product from blast furnaces that is mixed with decontaminated filtrate, cement, and fly ash to form grout, which is a stable disposal waste form. [DOELL]

Slant Range: The distance from an explosion to an observer is called the slant range. For a burst height, h, and a distance, d, from ground zero to a given point, the slant range, D, is from the Pythagorean theorem. [ATARC]

SLBM: Submarine-launched ballistic missile. [ATARC]

SLCM: Sea Launched Cruise Missile. [ATARC]

Sludge: Slushy matter or sediment such as that precipitated by the treatment of waste. [DOELL]

Sluicing: Using low-pressure high-volume streams of water to mobilize waste. [DOELL]

Slurry: A viscous liquid with a high solids content. [DOELL]

SLW: Short Lived Waste. See short-lived radionuclides.

Small Sites Initiative: An initiative of the Environmental Restoration program to target small sites for completion. Sites with less than $150 million in estimated cleanup costs are to be completed as rapidly as possible to return land and facilities to other uses and reduce fixed infrastructure costs. Sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, and 36 other small sites are included. [DOELL]

SOF: sum-of-fractions [DOELLWRpt]

Soft radiation: Radiation having little penetrating power. [AT]

Solidification and Stabilization: These processes are used to convert LLW to a stabilized from to prevent degradation and release of radionuclides. [DOELLWRpt]

Solid Waste : As defined under RCRA, any solid, semi-solid, liquid, or contained gaseous materials discarded from industrial, commercial, mining, or agricultural operations, and from community activities. Solid waste includes garbage, construction debris, commercial refuse, sludge from water supply or waste treatment plants, or air pollution control facilities, and other discarded materials. Solid waste does not include solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under section 402 of the Clean Water Act or souce, special nuclear, or byproduct material as defined by the AEA. [EPA-MW]

solubility: The ability to dissolve in water. For instance, the less soluble a given amount of material, the more difficult it is for the body to remove it. An insoluble material inhaled into the lungs for example would have more time to do damage to the lungs. [IEER]

Solvent extraction: The separation of materials of different chemical types by exploiting the relative chelating ability of different chemicals which preferentially dissolve in one of the two phases. In spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, liquid-liquid contact of two immiscible solvents (one aqueous, one organic) permits recovery and separation of uranium and plutonium in one phase and fission products in the other phase. [DOE-IDB97]

somatic damage - A type of cellular damage that can result from exposure to ionizing radiation. Somatic damage refers to the alteration of ordinary, nonreproductive cells. Cancers, including some leukemias and bone, thyroid, breast, skin, and lung cancer, are the most common type of somatic damage resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. [NSCEHC]

somatic effects - Effects of radiation limited to the exposed individual, as distinguished from genetic effects, which also affect subsequent, unexposed generations. [NRC]

SOP: Standard Operating Procedure

Source Material : Source Material is the Uranium or Thorium ores mined from the Earth. Source material is defined in 10 CFR 20.1003 as "(1) Uranium, or thorium or any combination of uranium and thorium in any physical or chemical form; or (2) Ores that contain, by weight, one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05 percent), or more, of uranium, thorium, or any combination or uranium and thorium." Source material does not include special nuclear material or byproduct material. [EPA-MW]

TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code:
(22) "Source material" means: (A) uranium, thorium, or other material that the governor by order declares to be source material after the federal commission has determined the material to be source material; or (B) ore that contains one or more of the materials listed in Subdivision (A) to the degree of concentration that the governor by order declares to be source material after the federal commission has determined the material to be of a degree of concentration to be source material.

source term: The amount of a specific pollutant emitted or discharged to a particular medium, such as the air or water, from a particular source. [IEER] A set of qualitative and quantitative features used to describe the origin and concentration of radioactive waste. The qualitative features include a flowchart of waste streams generated by a facility or an activity. Quantitative features include (1) the number of curies of radioactivity expressed either per unit of facility production or per unit of waste volume or mass and (2) a listing of the relative concentrations of component radioisotopes per curie of waste activity.[DOE-IDB97]

SPCC: Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure System

SPDES: State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

Special-case waste: Waste that is not high-level or transuranic waste, but requires greater confinement than shallow land burial. [DOE/EM-0319] Radioactive waste that is currently stored throughout the DOE complex for which a management strategy beyond indefinite storage does not currently exist. [DOE-IDB97]

Special Nuclear Material (SNM) : Includes plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium enriched in the isotopes uranium-233 or uranium-235. [NRC] SNM is defined in 10 CFR 20.1003 as "(1) Plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in isotope 235, and any other material that the NRC, pursuant to the provisions of section 51 of the AEA, determines to be SNM, but does not include source material; (2) or any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material." SNM is important in the fabrication of weapons grade materials and as such has strict licensing and handling controls. [EPA-MW]

TAC § 401.003 - Texas Health and Safety Code:
"(24) "Special nuclear material" means: (A) plutonium, uranium 233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or the isotope 235, and any other material other than source material that the governor by order declares to be special nuclear material after the federal commission determines the material to be special nuclear material; or (B) material other than source material that is artificially enriched by any of the materials listed in Subdivision (A)." (see "Source Material" definition for Subdivision A)

specific activity: A measure of the radioactivity of a unit weight (generally one gram) of material. [IEER]

Spent (depleted) nuclear fuel: Fuel that has been withdrawn from a nuclear reactor following irradiation, that has been used to the extent that it can no longer effectively sustain a chain reaction, and the constituent elements of which have not been separated by reprocessing. Spent nuclear fuel also includes uranium/ neptunium target materials, blanket assemblies, pieces of fuel, and debris. [DOE/EM-0319] "(SNF) ... has undergone at least one year's decay since being used as a source of energy in a power reactor". SNF includes the special nuclear material, byproduct material, source material, and other radioactive materials associated with fuel assemblies. See 10 CFR 72.3 for more details. [EPA-MW] All irradiated nuclear fuel that is discharged from Department of Energy production reactors, university and government research reactors, foreign research reactors with fuel of U.S. origin, and naval nuclear propulsion reactors. [DOE/EM-0342] Typically, spent nuclear fuel is measured in terms of either the number of discharged fuel assemblies or the quantity of discharged fuel mass. The latter is measured either in metric tons of heavy metal (i.e., only the heavy-metal content of the spent nuclear fuel is considered) or in metric tons of initial heavy metal (essentially, the initial heavy-metal mass of the fuel before irradiation). The difference between these two quantities is the weight of the fission products produced during irradiation. [DOE-IDB97]

Spent fuel pool: An underwater storage and cooling facility for fuel elements that have been removed from a reactor. [NRC]

SQG: Small Quantity Generator (of hazardous waste)

SSRCR: Suggested States Regulations for Control of Radiation [TDHBRC]

STEP: Acronym for DOE's States Tribal Education Program. The program offers courses on responding to potential incidents involving shipments of waste to the WIPP. [NSCEHC]

spontaneous fission: The spontaneous splitting of the nucleus into two new nuclei, generally with the emission of one or more neutrons and the release of energy. [IEER] The natural decay of a nucleus by splitting apart (fissioning). [ATARC]

Stabilization: Conversion of chemically active or readily dispersible matter into an inert or less harmful form. Also, activities to reduce the active management required for surplus facilities (such as burial ground stabilization and closure). [DOE/EM-0319]

stable isotope - An isotope that does not undergo radioactive decay. [NRC]

Stakeholder: Anyone interested in, or affected by, Department of Energy activities. Stakeholders have varying levels of concern about the Environmental Management program and varying levels of expertise. [DOE/EM-0342] Any group or individual affected by or who can affect the future of an organization or project; such as, customers, employees, suppliers, owner, other agencies, Congress, or critics. [DOEEMGMT]

Standard Contract: A contract between DOE and each commercial owner or generator of irradiated nuclear fuel. As indicated in 10 CFR Part 961, the contract specifies the terms and methods of payment, how fees are to be calculated, and how spent nuclear fuel is to be transferred to DOE custody. [DOE-IDB-97]

Standard Review Plan: A document that provides guidance to the staff for reviewing an application to obtain an NRC license to construct or operate a nuclear facility or to possess or use nuclear materials. [NRC]

Standard Technical Specifications: NRC staff guidance on model technical specifications for an operating license. (See also Technical Specifications.) [NRC]

Startup : An increase in the rate of fission (and heat production) in a reactor (usually by the removal of control rods from the core). [NRC]

State Emergency Response Commission: A commission appointed by each state governor according to the requirements of Title III of SARA. The duties of the commis-sion include designating emergency planning districts, appointing local emergency plan-ning committees, supervising and coordinating the activities of planning committees, reviewing emergency plans, receiving chemical release notifications, and establishing procedures for receiving and processing requests from the public for information. [EPALLRW]

Stay time: The period during which personnel may remain in a restricted area in a reactor before accumulating some permissible occupational dose. [NRC]

Steam generator: The heat exchanger used in some reactor designs to transfer heat from the primary (reactor coolant) system to the secondary (steam) system. This design permits heat exchange with little or no contamination of the secondary system equipment. [NRC]

Stewardship (or long-term stewardship): Encompasses all activities required to maintain an adequate level of protection to human health and the environment posed by nuclear and/ or chemical materials, waste, and residual contamination remaining after cleanup is complete. [DOE/EM-0466]

Stochastic effects: Effects that occur by chance, generally occurring without a threshold level of dose, whose probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the dose. In the context of radiation protection, the main stochastic effects are cancer and genetic effects. [NRC]

Stockpile Stewardship: A DOE program to ensure core competencies in activities associated with the research, design, development, and testing of nuclear weapons; it also refers to the assessment and certification of their safety and reliability. [DOE/EM-0466]

Storage: Not defined in Texas statues or rule; involves possessing waste for a limited period of time; during storage LLRW can be processed in preparation for disposal, held to allow radioactive decay, or held until appropriate and adequate disposal capacity becomes available [TNRCC]

Storage-in-Decay : Radioactive elements will breakdown and yield energetic gamma rays and x-rays and particles. After enough time has elapsed (usually ten half-lives) the material has decayed to a point were a radiation survey meter cannot distinguish between it and natural background radiation levels. [EPA-MW]

Strategic Air Command: The Strategic Air Command (SAC), was formed in 1946 as the arm of the U.S. Air Force that controls its long-range nuclear strike force. SAC headquarters are at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. [ATARC]

Strategic System (formerly Major Systems Acquisition): A special type of line item project(s) that is a single, stand-alone effort within a program mission area that is a primary means to advance the Department's strategic goals. Designation of a strategic system is determined by the Secretary based on cost, risk factors, international implications, stakeholder interest, and/or national security. [DOEEMGMT]

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): Also known as "Star Wars," the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is a U.S. research and development program designed to create an effective defense against nuclear-missile attack, initiated by President Reagan in 1983. As envisioned, the system uses a "layered" defense in which enemy missiles would come under continuous attack from the time they are launched to just before they reach their targets, a total of about 30 minutes. [ATARC]

Strontium: Isotope strontium-90 has a half-life of 28 years, and is one of the most common fission products. It has a half-life of about 30 years. Strontium is chemically similar to calcium. [DOE/EM-0266] Biological organisms absorb strontium-90 in the place of calcium, which causes bone and other cancers in those exposed.

Subcriticality The condition of a nuclear reactor system when the rate of production of fission neutrons is lower than the rate of production in the previous generation due to increased neutron leakage and poisons. [NRC]

sub-critical reactor: A nuclear reactor that is configured to operate with an external source of neutrons to supplement internally generated neutrons to maintain the chain reaction. [IEER]

Sub-program: The Environmental Restoration program managing the activity. [DOEEMGMT]

Sub-project: The Environmental Restoration project that is being funded. [DOEEMGMT]

Subsidence Crater: Underground nuclear explosions too close to the earth's surface may leave a subsidence crater. [ATARC]

Summary Assessment Description: A brief statement summarizing the overall status of work covered by an ADS or a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Supercritical: A term used to describe the state of a given fission system when the quantity of fissionable material is greater than the critical mass under existing conditions. A highly supercritical system is essential for the production of energy at a very rapid rate so that an explosion may occur. [ATARC]

Superfund: A term commonly used to refer to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). [DOE/EM-0342]

Superheating: The heating of a vapor, particularly steam, to a temperature much higher than the boiling point at the existing pressure. This is done in some power plants to improve efficiency and to reduce water damage to the turbine. [NRC]

Supporting Documents Description: A listing of any significant agreements, regulatory drivers, or references that are central to the activities associated with an ADS. [DOEEMGMT]

surface water: A creek, stream, river, pond, lake, bay, sea, or other waterway that is directly exposed to the atmosphere. [WIPPEA]

Surplus facility: A building, structure, or portion of a building or structure that DOE no longer needs to fulfill its mission. [DOE/EM-0319]

Surplus Facility Inventory Assessment: A two-year assessment, beginning in October 1993, that baselined the Department of Energy's surplus inventory and characterized those assets for transfer to the Environmental Management program. [DOE/EM-0342]

Survey: A study to: 1) Find the radiation or contamination level of specific objects or locations within an area of interest; 2) Locate regions of higher-than-average intensity, i.e. hot spots. [TDHBRC]

Survey Meter: Any portable radiation detection instrument especially adapted for inspecting an area to establish the existence and amount of radioactive material present. [TDHBRC]

Suspension Agreement: The Agreement to Suspend Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation, as amended in 1994, settled an investigation into whether Russia was selling uranium in the domestic (U.S.) market at less than fair market value, and established a mechanism known as matched sales in which imports from Russia are linked with sales of newly-produced domestic uranium. As currently written, the Agreement expires in 2004. [DOE/EA-1172]

SVE: Soil Vapor Extraction

SWF: Solid Waste Facilities

Synchrotron: An accelerator in which charged particles follow a circular path in magnetic field and are accelerated by synchronised electric pulses. See also Cyclotron. [AT]

|------------------------ T ------------------------|

TA: Technical Associates, transfer aisle [NUREG-0544]

T&A: time and attendance [NUREG-0544]

TAAG: technical assessment and advisory group [NUREG-0544]

TAC: task action commitment, technical assignment control, technical assistance contract [NUREG-0544]

TACF: temporary alteration control form [NUREG-0544]

TACS: technical assignment control system, test assembly conditioning station [NUREG-0544]

TADOT: trip actuating device operational test [NUREG-0544]

TAEC: Thailand Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

TAF: top of active fuel [NUREG-0544]

TAG: technical advisory group, test assembly grapple [NUREG-0544]

TAIC: Tokyo Atomic Industrial Consortium [NUREG-0544]

TAL: transporter air lock [NUREG-0544]

TAML: Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant, technical assistance management letter [NUREG-0544]

TAP: task action plan, test analysis package, thermal analyzer program [NUREG-0544]

TAPD: test and analysis program description [NUREG-0544]

TAPM: technical assistance project manager [NUREG-0544]

TAPMG: technical assistance program management group [NUREG-0544]

TAPSS: technical assistance programs support system [NUREG-0544]

TAR: technical assistance request, test analysis report [NUREG-0544]

TARGET: thermal advanced gas-cooled reactor exploiting thorium [NUREG-0544]

TASC: Technical Activity Steering Committee [NUREG-0544]

TAUF: test assembly unloading fixture [NUREG-0544]

TAVS: turbine area ventilation system [NUREG-0544]

TAWC: Tennessee-American Water Co. [NUREG-0544]

TB: total body, turbine building [NUREG-0544]

TB&A: Theodore Barry and Associates [NUREG-0544]

TBCCW: turbine building closed cooling water [NUREG-0544]

TBD: to be determined [NUREG-0544]

TBEA: training benefits and employee assistance [NUREG-0544]

TBESI: turbine building exhaust system isolation [NUREG-0544]

TBM: tunnel-boring machine [NUREG-0544]

TBP: tributyl phosphate [NUREG-0544]

TBS: turbine bypass system [NUREG-0544]

TBSCCW: turbine building secondary closed cooling water [NUREG-0544]

TBSW: turbine building service water [NUREG-0544]

TBV: turbine block valve, turbine building ventilation [NUREG-0544]

TBYMS: Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards [NUREG-0544]

TC: temperature controller, transfer canal [NUREG-0544]

T/C: thermocouple [NUREG-0544]

TCA: thermal critical assembly [NUREG-0544]

TCC: Transducer Controls Corporation [NUREG-0544]

TCCC: time current characteristic curve [NUREG-0544]

TC/LD: thermocouple/lead detector [NUREG-0544]

TCM: technical committee meeting [NUREG-0544]

TCP/IP: transmission control protocol/Internet protocol [NUREG-0544]

TCS: telephone conference summary, temporary conditioning station, turbine control system [NUREG-0544]

TCV: temperature control valve, turbine control valve [NUREG-0544]

TD: theoretical density, time delay, transfer dolly, turbine driven [NUREG-0544]

TDAFP: turbine-driven auxiliary feed pump [NUREG-0544]

TDAFW: turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater [NUREG-0544]

TDAFWP: turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

TDC: thermal diffusion coefficient [NUREG-0544]

TDCR: test deficiency change request [NUREG-0544]

TDD: test design description [NUREG-0544]

TDEFWP: turbine-driven emergency feedwater pump [NUREG-0544]

TDF: task deletion form, thermal design flow [NUREG-0544]

TDH: Texas Department of Health, total developed head, total dynamic head [NUREG-0544]

TDI: Transamerica Delaval, Inc., turbine disk integrity [NUREG-0544]

TDIOG: Transamerica DeLaval, Inc., Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

TDM: time division multiplex [NUREG-0544]

TDMC: Technical Data Management Center (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) [NUREG-0544]

TDN: technology development need [NUREG-0544]

TDP: turbine-driven pump [NUREG-0544]

TDR: technical data report, test deficiency report, time domain reflectometry [NUREG-0544]

TDS: time delay switch, total dissolved solids [NUREG-0544]

TE: temperature element, test exception, thermal expansion, transient event [NUREG-0544]

T/E: thermoelectric [NUREG-0544]

TEAR: training evaluation audit report [NUREG-0544]

TEC: Technology for Energy Corp., total estimated cost [NUREG-0544]

TECHNICATOME: Société Technique pour l'Energie Atomique (France) [NUREG-0544]

TECO: Toledo Edison Company [NUREG-0544]

TECRO: Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (Taiwan) [NUREG-0544]

TEDE: total effective dose equivalent [NUREG-0544]

TEFC: totally enclosed fan cooled [NUREG-0544]

TEG: thermoelectric generator [NUREG-0544]

TEM: transmission electron microscope [NUREG-0544]

TEMA: Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association [NUREG-0544]

TEMAC: Top Event Matrix Analysis Code [NUREG-0544]

TENR: technologically enhanced naturally radioactive [NUREG-0544]

TENRAP: technologically enhanced naturally radioactive product [NUREG-0544]

TEP: Tyrone Energy Park [NUREG-0544]

TER: technical evaluation report, technical exchange report [NUREG-0544]

TES: Teledyne Engineering Services [NUREG-0544]

TFANP: Task Force Against Nuclear Pollution [NUREG-0544]

TFC: thermal fatigue crack [NUREG-0544]

TFE: thermionic fuel element, thin film evaporator [NUREG-0544]

TFM: Treasury Financial Manual [NUREG-0544]

TFS: turbine first stage [NUREG-0544]

TFTR: tokamak fusion test reactor [NUREG-0544]

TG: turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

T/G: turbine generator [NUREG-0544]

TGB: turbine generator building [NUREG-0544]

TGEP: turbine generator emergency power [NUREG-0544]

TGIS: toxic gas isolation system [NUREG-0544]

TGLM: task group lung model [NUREG-0544]

TGS: turbine generator system [NUREG-0544]

TGSCC: transgranular stress-corrosion cracking [NUREG-0544]

TGSS: turbine gland sealing system [NUREG-0544]

TGV: turbine governor valve [NUREG-0544]

T/H: thermal and hydraulic [NUREG-0544]

THCS: temperature of hot-channel sodium [NUREG-0544]

THERP: technique for human error rate prediction [NUREG-0544]

THL: top of heated length [NUREG-0544]

THM: time history model [NUREG-0544]

THPO: Tribal Historic Preservation Officer [NUREG-0544]

THTF: thermal hydraulic test facility [NUREG-0544]

THTR: thorium high-temperature reactor [NUREG-0544]

TI: temperature indicator, temporary instruction, test instruction, transport index [NUREG-0544]

TIA: task interface agreement [NUREG-0544]

TIBB: Tecnomasio Italiano Brown Boveri, SpA (Italy) [NUREG-0544]

TIC: Technical Information Center, temperature-indicating controller [NUREG-0544]

TID: Technical Information Document, technical report designation for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission , total integrated dose [NUREG-0544]

TIF: task initiation force, task initiation form [NUREG-0544]

TIG: tungsten inert gas [NUREG-0544]

TIP: tactical improvement package, transient in-core probe, traveling in-core probe, traversing in-core probe [NUREG-0544]

TIRGALEX: Technical Integration Review Group for Aging and Life Extension [NUREG-0544]

TIS: temperature-indicating switch [NUREG-0544]

TL: task leader, test load, truck lock [NUREG-0544]

TLA: thin layer activation [NUREG-0544]

TLAA: time-limited aging analysis [NUREG-0544]

TLD: thermoluminescence dosimeter [NUREG-0544]

TLEC: Texas-Louisiana Electric Cooperative [NUREG-0544]

TLLM: temperature and liquid level monitor [NUREG-0544]

TLO: turbine lube oil [NUREG-0544]

TLOFW: total loss of feedwater [NUREG-0544]

TLOS: turbine lube oil system [NUREG-0544]

TLOST: turbine lube oil storage tank [NUREG-0544]

TLP: top load pad, top load plane [NUREG-0544]

TLTA: two-loop test apparatus [NUREG-0544]

TLTM: third-level thermal margin [NUREG-0544]

TLV: threshhold limit value [NUREG-0544]

TM: technical manual, temperature monitor [NUREG-0544]

TMBDB: thermal margin beyond design basis [NUREG-0544]

TMD: transient mass distribution [NUREG-0544]

TMH: trolley-mounted hoist [NUREG-0544]

TMI: Three Mile Island [NUREG-0544]

TMI-1: Three Mile Island Unit 1 [NUREG-0544]

TMI-2: Three Mile Island Unit 2 [NUREG-0544]

TMIA: Three Mile Island Alert, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

TMI-AP: Three Mile Island Action Plan [NUREG-0544]

TMINS: Three Mile Island Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

TMIPO: Three Mile Island Program Office [NUREG-0544]

TM/LP: thermal margin/low pressure [NUREG-0544]

TMPA: Texas Municipal Power Agency [NUREG-0544]

TMR: Teledyne Materials Research [NUREG-0544]

TNA: thermal neutron activation [NUREG-0544]

TNE: TUEC (Texas Utilities Electric Co.) nuclear engineering [NUREG-0544]

TNP: Trojan Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

TNPG: The Nuclear Power Group (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

TNT: trinitrotoluene [NUREG-0544]

TOED: Toledo Edison Co. [NUREG-0544]

TOL: temporary operating license, thermal overload [NUREG-0544]

TOP: thermal overload protection, transient overpower [NUREG-0544]

TOPO: trioctylphosphine oxide [NUREG-0544]

TOPR: Taiwan Open-Pool Reactor [NUREG-0544]

TOS: torque overload switch [NUREG-0544]

TOSS: transient and/or steady state [NUREG-0544]

TP: technical position, test pressure, test procedure, test program [NUREG-0544]

TPA: total-system performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

TP-BAR: tritium-producing burnable absorber rod [NUREG-0544]

TPC: Taiwan Power Company [NUREG-0544]

TPCDF: total plant core damage frequency [NUREG-0544]

TPD: test procedure deviation [NUREG-0544]

TPF: total peaking factor [NUREG-0544]

TPFL: two-phase flow loop [NUREG-0544]

TPM: thermal power monitor [NUREG-0544]

TPPEP: Turkey Point Performance Enforcement Program [NUREG-0544]

TPS: Turkey Point Station [NUREG-0544]

TPSS: turbine plant sampling system [NUREG-0544]

TPTF: two-phase test facility [NUREG-0544]

TQM: total quality management [NUREG-0544]

T&QP: Training and Qualification Plan [NUREG-0544]

TR: technical review, temperature recorder, topical report, tritium recovery, Turkish Reactor [NUREG-0544]

TRA: tubular reactor assembly [NUREG-0544]

TRAP: trip reduction and assessment program (WOG) [NUREG-0544]

TRB: test review board [NUREG-0544]

TRC: technical review committee, The Radiochemical Centre (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

TRE: total rare earths [NUREG-0544]

TREAT: transient reactor test [NUREG-0544]

TRIA: temperature-removable instrument assembly [NUREG-0544]

TRIGA: training reactor and isotopes production, General Atomics [NUREG-0544]

TRIM: targeted regulatory improvement [NUREG-0544]

TRIP: transient response implementing procedure [NUREG-0544]

TRM: Technical Requirements Manual [NUREG-0544]

TRR: test and research reactor, Thailand Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

TRRT: test results review team [NUREG-0544]

TRS: thermal reactor safety [NUREG-0544]

TRT: technical review team [NUREG-0544]

TRTR: training, research, and test reactor [NUREG-0544]

TRU: transuranic, transuranium [NUREG-0544]

TRUWIP: Transuranic Waste Immobilization Program [NUREG-0544]

TRX: two-region physics critical experiment [NUREG-0544]

TS: technical specification, test specification, treatment system [NUREG-0544]

TSA: tube support assembly [NUREG-0544]

TSABC: technical services as-built coordinator [NUREG-0544]

TSAR: topical safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

TSC: technical support center, test shipping cask [NUREG-0544]

TSCA: Toxic Substances Control Act [NUREG-0544]

TSCC: Technical Support Coordinating Committee [NUREG-0544]

TSCF: task schedule change form [NUREG-0544]

TSDR: technical services design review [NUREG-0544]

TSF: tower shield facility, tower shielding facility [NUREG-0544]

TSG: technical support guidelines [NUREG-0544]

TSH: temperature switch, high [NUREG-0544]

TSI: Thermal Sciences Inc. [NUREG-0544]

TSIP: Technical Specifications Improvement Program [NUREG-0544]

TSIR: technical specifications interpretation report [NUREG-0544]

TSM: temporary station modification [NUREG-0544]

TSMD: technical services mechanical drafting [NUREG-0544]

TSMDA: test section meltdown accident [NUREG-0544]

TSO: time-sharing option [NUREG-0544]

TSOP: Technical Specifications Optimization Program [NUREG-0544]

TSP: Telecommunications Service Priority, trisodium phosphate, tube support plate [NUREG-0544]

TSPA-VA: total system performance assessment-viability assessment [NUREG-0544]

TSPM: technical surveillance countermeasure [NUREG-0544]

TSPS: tube support plate sleeve [NUREG-0544]

TSR: thermal shock rig, total stress range, tower shielding reactor [NUREG-0544]

TSRG: Technical Specifications Review Group [NUREG-0544]

TSSC: Toxic Substances Strategy Committee [NUREG-0544]

TSV: turbine stop valve [NUREG-0544]

TSW: turbine service water [NUREG-0544]

TT: temperature transmitter, test temperature, turbine trip [NUREG-0544]

TTA: thenyltrifluoroacetone [NUREG-0544]

TTBT: Threshold Test Ban Treaty [NUREG-0544]

TTC: Technical Training Center, test transfer cask, Transportation Technology Center [NUREG-0544]

TTE: thermal transient equipment [NUREG-0544]

TTF: transient time flowmeter [NUREG-0544]

TTFM: transit time flowmeter [NUREG-0544]

TTHE: thermal transient histogram equivalent [NUREG-0544]

TTP: technology transfer program, test transfer port [NUREG-0544]

TTQAP: teletherapy treatment quality assurance program [NUREG-0544]

TTR: thermal test reactor, time to repair [NUREG-0544]

TTS: telecommunications tracking system, time-temperature sensitization [NUREG-0544]

TTV: tenth thickness value [NUREG-0544]

TTWB: turbine trip with bypass [NUREG-0544]

TTY: teletypewriter [NUREG-0544]

TU: Texas Utilities Co. [NUREG-0544]

TUEC: Texas Utilities Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

TUFCDF: Thorium-Uranium Fuel Cycle Development Facility [NUREG-0544]

TUS: Texas Utilities Services Inc. [NUREG-0544]

TUSI: Texas Utilities Services Inc. [NUREG-0544]

TUV: Technischer Überwachungsverein, e.V. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority [NUREG-0544]

TVG: time-variable gain [NUREG-0544]

TVO: Teollisuuden Voima Osakeyhtio (Finland) [NUREG-0544]

TVR: Tennessee Valley region [NUREG-0544]

TWC: Texas Water Commission [NUREG-0544]

TWCA: Teledyne Wah Chang Albany [NUREG-0544]

TWFN: Two White Flint North [NUREG-0544]

TWG: test working group [NUREG-0544]

TWRS: tank waste remediation system [NUREG-0544]

TWX: teletypewriter exchange service [NUREG-0544]

TZM: tantalum, zirconium, molybdenum [NUREG-0544]

TA-54: Technical Area 54 (LANL) [DOELLWRpt]

TAC: Texas Administrative Code

TADS : A Department of Energy (DOE) report that summarizes the baseline for a Technology Development program. [DOEEMGMT]

Target: Material placed in a nuclear reactor to be bombarded with neutrons. This is done to produce new, manmade radioactive materials. Most important, targets of uranium 238 are used to make plutonium, and targets of lithium are used to make tritium. [DOE/EM-0266]

Target Level Funding: One of three funding levels used in the development of the ADS by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). Funding at the target level is designed to meet all legal requirements and high priority activities. It also includes common support and indirect costs. [DOEEMGMT]

TCLP: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure

TDH: Texas Department of Health

Technical Baseline (TB): A document formally establishing the technical scope of a project that has been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Conceptual Design Report (CDR), or its equivalent, is the initial project technical baseline. The initial technical baseline, plus DOE-approved changes to that baseline, constitutes the current technical baseline. [DOEEMGMT]

Technical Performance Parameters: A listing of key project technical performance criteria. The purpose is to draw attention to items requiring Headquarters action, such as scheduling of milestone decisions, allocation of funds, and major commitments of resources. [DOEEMGMT]

Technical Program Manager (TPM): The individual responsible for the technical and program management of work covered by a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Technical Program Officer (TPO): The individual responsible for the review and approval of work covered by a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Technical Specifications: Part of an NRC license authorizing the operation of a nuclear production or utilization facility. A Technical Specification establishes requirements for items such as safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting control settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. (See also Standard Technical Specifications.) [NRC]

TEDE Total Effective Dose Equivalent [CY]

TTP : A unit of work funded by the Office of Technology Development. A TTP is a contract between the principal investigator, the corporate management, a Department of Energy (DOE) Operations/Field Office, and a Headquarters Program Manager. The TTP defines the scope of work, the schedule for delivery of products under that scope of work, and the amount of funding to be applied to that scope of work. [DOEEMGMT]

Technology: (1) The application of science, through the use of methods and materials, to industrial or commercial objectives. (2) A demonstration by experiment of the technical feasibility of alternative inventive concepts. [DOEEMGMT]

Technology Area: The type of research and development work that is covered by a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Technology Development Program (TD): The Environmental Management (EM) program that establishes and maintains an aggressive national program for applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation, to resolve major deficiencies in environmental restoration and waste management technology by rapidly advancing technology beyond current capabilities. [DOEEMGMT]

Technology Problem: The problem that a proposed technology is to solve. [DOEEMGMT]

Terrestrial radiation: Radiation that is emitted by naturally occurring radioactive materials, such as uranium, thorium, and radon. [EPALLRW]

Texas Compact: The Texas Compact is an agreement between the states of Maine, Texas and Vermont regarding the disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste. As a compact, these States require only one disposal facility for the compact region (rather than one in each State) and have the authority to deny out-of-compact wastes access to regional disposal facilities. (However, a 1993 Alabama Supreme Court ruling found that radioactive waste legally counts as resource in interstate commerce. In the case a disposal site is privately owned, the site may not deny recieving waste from any party under the commerce and supremacy clauses of the US Constitution, nullifying an guarantee the compact makes in this instance). The formation of each Compact requires the approval of the federal government through Congressional consent legislation. Thus far ten Compacts have received the approval of Congress. The Texas Compact has been approved by all three party states and has received Congressional approval. States of Maine and Vermont each contribute $25 million to the State of Texas, in exchange for 50 years of access to the proposed Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Maine and Vermont benefit under this arrangement by being ensured access to a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, avoiding a far more expensive in-state siting process.

Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Commission: Oversight commission mandated by language in Article III of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact.

Thallium: A sparsely but widely distributed poisonous metallic element with an atomic number of 81 and atomic weight of 204.383. [DOELL]

Thermal breeder reactor: A breeder reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by thermal neutrons. [NRC]

Thermal diffusion: A process used to enrich uranium based on the faster diffusion rate of uranium-235 than uranium-238 in presence of a temperature difference. Employed on a production scale at the S-50 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in 1945. [DOE/EM-0319]

Thermal Energy: The energy emitted from the fireball as thermal radiation. The total amount of thermal energy received per unit area at a specified distance from a nuclear explosion is generally expressed in terms of calories per square centimeter. [ATARC]

Thermal fission Fission induced by thermal neutrons. [AT]

Thermalization: The process undergone by high-energy (fast) neutrons as they lose energy by collision. [NRC]

Thermal neutrons Neutrons in thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e. moving with the same mean kinetic energy) with their surroundings. At room temperature their mean energy is about 0.025 eV and their speed about 2.2 km/sec. See also Fast neutrons. [AT]

Thermal power: The total core heat transfer rate to the reactor coolant. A measure of the rate of heat-energy emission that results from the radioactive decay of a material. A unit of thermal power commonly used is the watt (W). [DOE-IDB97]

Thermal Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation emitted (in two pulses from an air burst) from the fireball as a consequence of its very high temperature; it consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiations. In the early stages (first pulse of an air burst), when the temperature of the fireball is very high, the ultraviolet predominates; in the second pulse, the temperatures are lower and most of it is in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. [ATARC]

Thermal reactor A reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained primarily by thermal neutrons and which therefore contains a moderator. Most current reactors are thermal reactors. [NRC]

Thermal shield: A layer, or layers, of high-density material located within a reactor pressure vessel or between the vessel and the biological shield to reduce radiation heating in the vessel and the biological shield. [NRC]

Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD): A small device used to measure radiation by measuring the amount of visible light emitted from a crystal in the detector when exposed to ionizing radiation. [NRC] A type of personal dosimeter in which the radiation energy is stored and from which it can be released by heating, in the form of light. The amount of light emitted gives a measure of the radiation absorbed. See also Film Badge. [AT]

Thermonuclear (weapon/ reaction): Referring to the process in which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei, such as those of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, with the accompanying liberation of energy. [NRC] A nuclear weapon that uses fission to start a fusion reaction is commonly called hydrogen bomb or "H-bomb". [DOE/EM-0319] Either tritium or deteurium is used in such weaponry. For a net energy gain from a deuterium-tritium plasma the temperature of the reacting plasma must be about 100 million degrees C. [AT]

Thetatron: In fusion research a device for producing hot dense plasma. A large object current is rapidly developed round a single turn of coil wound on a cylinder and its magnetic field compresses the plasma towards the axis. [AT]

Thorium: A naturally occurring radioactive element. Thorium is a byproduct of the decay of uranium. [DOE/EM-0266]

THOREX process: A solvent extraction process developed to reprocess thorium-based nuclear fuels.

Threatened species: any species that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. [DOE/EA-1172]

threshold dose - The minimum dose of radiation that will produce a detectable effect. [CY]

TLLRWDA: Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

TNRCC: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission

TNT equivalent: The weight of TNT which would release the same amount of energy as a particular nuclear explosion. One ton of TNT releases approximately 1.2 billion calories (that is, 5.1 kiloJoules per gram). Nuclear explosions are usually measured in kilotons (KT) or megatons (MT). [IEER]

To Complete Performance Index (TCPI): An indication of the efficiency level at which work must be performed to complete the remaining work on schedule. [DOEEMGMT]

Total Allocated Budget (TAB): The sum of all budgeted funds allocated to the contract or project, as applicable. Total Allocated Budget consists of the performance measurement baseline plus management reserve. [DOEEMGMT]

Total Authority: Sum of the prior-year unobligated balance and new obligational authority (NOA). [DOEEMGMT]

Total Available Funds: See Total Program Plan. [DOEEMGMT]

Total Available to Cost: Sum of prior year unobligated balance, prior year uncosted carryover, and new obligational authority (NOA). [DOEEMGMT]

Total Estimated Cost (TEC): The budgeted costs for land, design, construction, equipment, escalation, and contingency for a given project. [DOEEMGMT]

Total Program Plan: Sum of prior-year unobligated balance, prior year uncosted carryover. new obligational authority (NOA), and funds held in reserve by Headquarters, the Department of Energy (DOE), or the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). [DOEEMGMT]

Total Project Cost (TPC): All generic research and development, operating costs associated with testing and evaluation, and plant and capital equipment costs specifically associated with a project. It is the sum of the total estimated cost (TEC) plus all other costs identifiable to the protect. [DOEEMGMT]

ton: A metric ton is 1,000 kilograms. This is approximately 2,200 pounds, and very nearly equal to a British ton (2,240 pounds). The U.S. tone is 2,000 pounds. [IEER]

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Public Law 94-469. A Federal law enacted in 1976 to protect human health and the environment from unreasonable risk caused by manufacturing, distribution, use, disposal of, or exposure to, substances containing toxic chemicals. PCBs are regulated under TSCA. [DOE/EM-0466]

TRAB: Texas Radiation Advisory Board

Tracking: A process that monitors a program's progress through reporting cost, schedule, and technical data at the unit of work level. [DOEEMGMT]

TRANSCOM: Abbreviation for the Transportation Tracking and Communication System developed by DOE. TRANSCOM is used to track and communicate with vehicles transporting radioactive and certain other types of hazardous waste. All shipments to WIPP are to be tracked through TRANSCOM, which has a 24-hour control center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and uses satellite communications and computer networks to track shipments from beginning to end. [NSCEHC]

Transfer to Commercial Facility for Disposal: The Environmental Management program plans to transfer some of its LLW and MLLW to commercial facilities for disposal (the Department currently transfers waste to the Envirocare facility in Utah; other commercial disposal facilities will be considered as they become available). [DOELLWRpt]

Transient: A change in the reactor coolant system temperature and/or pressure due to a change in power output of the reactor. Transients can be caused by adding or removing neutron poisons, by increasing or decreasing electrical load on the turbine generator, or by accident conditions. [NRC]

Transportation Management Program (TR): An Environmental Management (EM) program that manages the safe and efficient transportation of materials used in Department of Energy (DOE) activities, including the shipment of radioactive materials. [DOEEMGMT]

Transportation Safety (TS): A safety and health (S&H) functional area that includes all those activities that are intended to ensure safe packaging and transportation. [DOEEMGMT]

Transport cask: A container used to transport spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Its purpose is to shield people from radiation while it is transported. [DOE/EM-0266]

Transport index: The dimensionless number (rounded up to the next tenth) placed on the label of a package, to designate the degree of control to be exercised by the carri-er during transportation. It is equal to the maximum radiation level in mrem per hour at 1m (3.3 ft) (for nonfissile materials packages). [EPALLRW]

Transuranic Elements: An artificially made, radioactive element that has an atomic number higher than uranium on in the periodic table; that is, all elements with an atomic number greater than 92. All transuranic elements are man made. They include neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. [DOE/EM-0466]

Transuranic Radioactive Waste (TRU) : TRU waste contains more than 100 nanocuries (3700 becquerels) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes, with half-lives greater than twenty years, per gram of waste, except for (1) high-level radioactive waste; (2) wastes that the Secretary of Energy has determined, with the concurrence of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, do not need the degree of isolation required by EPA's high level waste rule (40 CFR 191); or (3) has approved for disposal on a case-by-case basis in accordance with NRC's radioactive land disposal regulation (10 CFR Part 61). TRU is not generally found outside the DOE complex and is mainly produced from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, reactor fuel assembly, and the use of plutonium to fabricate nuclear weapons. TRU wastes mainly emit alpha particles as they break-down. DOE is currently proceeding with plans for TRU waste disposal at a geologic repository called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. DOE categorizes TRU as either Contact Handled (CH) or Remote Handled (RH) with RH being the more radioactive of the two. [EPA-MW, DOE/EM-0466]

As defined and used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE Order 5820.2A), transuranic waste, at the time of assay, contains more than 100 nCi/g of alpha-emitting isotopes with atomic numbers greater than 92 and half-lives greater than 20 years. [DOE-IDB97]

Transuranic waste acceptance criteria: A set of requirements/criteria that must be satisfied prior to transport to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. [DOE-IDB97]

Transuranic waste certification: The process for verifying that waste meets the applicable requirements/criteria for transport to and emplacement in a repository for disposal. [DOE-IDB97]

Transuranic waste, contact-handled: Transuranic waste with a surface dose rate of less than 200 mrem/h. [DOE-IDB97]

Transuranic waste nondestructive assay/ nondestructive examination: Nondestructive test procedures performed on suspect transuranic wastes to determine their transuranic isotope concentration. From these tests such wastes can be properly classified (certified) as transuranic or low-level. [DOE-IDB97]

Transuranic waste, remote-handled: Transuranic waste with a surface dose rate of greater than 200 mrem/h. [DOE-IDB97]

TRCR: Texas Regulations for Control of Radiation

Treasury Warrants: The official document issued by the Secretary of the Treasury that establishes the amount of money authorized to be withdrawn from the Department of the Treasury for payment of obligations. [DOEEMGMT]

Treatability group: A grouping of waste on the basis of its radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics, content, and form. Used to group waste for future management activities. [DOE/EM-0319]

Treatment: Any method, technique, or process designed to change the physical or chemical character of the waste to render it less hazardous; safer to transport, store, or dispose of; or smaller in volume. [EPALLRW]

Trend: A rating of a program direction assigned at the ADS, TTP, or project level by the Operations/Field Office Project Manager. [DOEEMGMT]

Triad: The traditional nomenclature for the three components of U.S. and Soviet strategic nuclear forces-land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles; submarines-launched ballistic missiles; and strategic bombers. [ATARC]

Trinity Test, The: In July of 1945, a test was needed of the implosion design. The test was located in an area known as the Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) in southern New Mexico. At 5:29:45 am mountain war time, a light described as "brighter than a thousand suns" filled the valley. [ATARC]

Tri-Party Agreement (TRI): A compliance agreement among the Department of Energy, the host state, and the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the actions to be taken to remediate a site. [DOELL]

Trip, reactor: A term that is used by pressurized water reactors for a reactor scram.[NRC]

Tritium: The heaviest isotope of the element hydrogen, Tritium is three times heavier than ordinary hydrogen with a nucleus containing one proton and two neutrons. Tritium gas is used to boost the explosive power of most modern nuclear weapons, inspiring the term, "hydrogen bomb." It is produced in production reactors by the action of neutrons on lithium nuclei. [DOE/EM-0266, ATARC] Because it is chemically identical to natural hydrogen, tritium can easily be taken into the body by any ingestion path. It decays by beta emission. It has a radioactive halflife of about 12.5 years. [NRC] See coproduct.

Tritium Facility: A plant at the Savannah River Site where tritium is separated from lithium targets and placed in capsules that are part of nuclear weapons. [DOE/EM-0266]

Triple Dip: First process used to clad reactor fuel at Hanford. Process involves successive baths of molten bronze, tin, and aluminum-silicon mixture. [DOE/EM-0319]

TRIS: Toxic Release Inventory System (SARA 313 Notifiers)

TRUPACT and TRUPACT II: Transuranic Packaging Transporter. Contact-handled transuranic waste will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant via trucks in Transuranic Packaging Transporters (TRUPACTs), containers designed to hold 14 55-gallon drums. [DOE/EM-0319] TRUPACTs are claimed to be designed to prevent radioactive releases, even in the event of an accident or other emergency, although strong criticism of the NRC's tests reveal the containers to be weaker than claimed, and less than sufficient to withstand reasonable duress without breaching.

TSDF: Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility

TTP Number: A unique identifier for a TTP. It consists of a Department of Energy (DOE) Operations/Field Office code, site code, fiscal year the TTP was initiated, focus area code, and a data sheet identification number. [DOEEMGMT]

TTP Title: The descriptive title of a TTP. [DOEEMGMT]

Turbine: A rotary engine made with a series of curved vanes on a rotating shaft, usually turned by water or steam. Turbines are considered the most economical means to turn large electrical generators. A turbine generator is a steam (or water) turbine directly coupled to an electrical generator. The two devices are often referred to as one unit. [NRC]

|------------------------ U ------------------------|

UAP: uranyl ammonium phosphate [NUREG-0544]

UAT: unit auxiliary transformer [NUREG-0544]

UBAEC: Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre [NUREG-0544]

UBC: Uniform Building Code [NUREG-0544]

UCL: upper control limit [NUREG-0544]

UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles [NUREG-0544]

UCLR: University of California, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

UCNI: unclassified controlled nuclear information [NUREG-0544]

UCO: uranium oxicarbide fuel [NUREG-0544]

UCS: Union of Concerned Scientists [NUREG-0544]

UDI: Utility Data Institute [NUREG-0544]

UDRPS: ultrasonic data recording and processing system [NUREG-0544]

UDS: ultimate damage state [NUREG-0544]

UDT: underwater demolition team [NUREG-0544]

UE: Union Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

UEC: United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

UE&C: United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

UEF: upper end fitting [NUREG-0544]

UEL: upper electrical limit [NUREG-0544]

UF: urea-formaldehyde [NUREG-0544]

UFCS: uranium hexafluoride chemical feed station [NUREG-0544]

UFFC: ultrasonic ferroelectrics and frequency control [NUREG-0544]

UFL: upper flammability limit [NUREG-0544]

UFM: unified fracture mechanics [NUREG-0544]

UFR: uranium hexafluoride recovery room [NUREG-0544]

UFSAR: updated final safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

UFTR: University of Florida Teaching Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UGS: upper group stop, upper guide structure [NUREG-0544]

UHF: ultrahigh frequency [NUREG-0544]

UHI: upper-head injection [NUREG-0544]

UHN: uranyl hexahydrate nitrate [NUREG-0544]

UHS: ultimate heat sink, ultrahigh speed [NUREG-0544]

UHTREX: ultrahigh temperature reactor experiment [NUREG-0544]

UHV: ultrahigh voltage [NUREG-0544]

UI: United Illuminating Co. [NUREG-0544]

UIS: upper internals structure [NUREG-0544]

UISJM: upper internals structure jacking mechanism [NUREG-0544]

U.K.: United Kingdom [NUREG-0544]

UKAEA: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority [NUREG-0544]

UKNR: University of Kansas Nuclear Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UL: Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., upper level [NUREG-0544]

ULD: unit load demand [NUREG-0544]

UMRR: University of Missouri Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UMTR: University of Maryland Teaching Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UMTRA: uranium mill tailings remedial action [NUREG-0544]

UMTRAP: Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program [NUREG-0544]

UMTRCA: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act [NUREG-0544]

UN: uranyl nitrate [NUREG-0544]

UNC: United Nuclear Corp. [NUREG-0544]

UND: uranyl nitrate distillate [NUREG-0544]

UNE: Union Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

UNH: uranyl nitrate hexahydrate [NUREG-0544]

UNHC: uranyl nitrate hexahydrate cell [NUREG-0544]

UNI: United Nuclear Industries, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

UNIPEDE: International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy [NUREG-0544]

UNIT: United Illuminating Co. [NUREG-0544]

UNPOC: Utility Nuclear Power Oversight Committee [NUREG-0544]

UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation [NUREG-0544]

UNWMG: Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group [NUREG-0544]

UO: unit operator [NUREG-0544]

UOGF: uranium off-gas filter [NUREG-0544]

UOP: unit operating procedure [NUREG-0544]

UOR: upper oil reservoir [NUREG-0544]

UPI: upper plenum injection [NUREG-0544]

UPL: uranium product loadout, Utah Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

UPM: universal permissive module [NUREG-0544]

UPPS: ultimate plant protection system [NUREG-0544]

UPR: uranium production reactor [NUREG-0544]

UPS: uninterrupted power supply, uninterruptible power supply, uninterruptible power system [NUREG-0544]

UPTF: Upper Plenum Test Facility (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

UPTPS: upper plenum thermal protection structure [NUREG-0544]

UR: user requirement [NUREG-0544]

URA: Universities Research Association, uranium recycle acid [NUREG-0544]

URAEP: University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project [NUREG-0544]

URC: ultrasonic resin cleaner [NUREG-0544]

URD: underground residential distribution, Utility Requirements Document [NUREG-0544]

URFO: uranium recovery field office, uranium recovery field officer [NUREG-0544]

URG: unit review group [NUREG-0544]

URI: unresolved item [NUREG-0544]

URL: Uniform Resource Locator [NUREG-0544]

URTC: Ukrainian Radiation Training Center [NUREG-0544]

USA: upper-shelf analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

USAEC: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission [NUREG-0544]

USAR: updated safety analysis report [NUREG-0544]

USAS: United States of America Standards [NUREG-0544]

USASI: United States of America Standards Institute [NUREG-0544]

USBR: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation [NUREG-0544]

U.S.C.: U.S. Code [NUREG-0544]

USCEA: U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (now NEI) [NUREG-0544]

USCG: U.S. Coast Guard, Utility Safety Classification Group [NUREG-0544]

USC&GS: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey [NUREG-0544]

USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture [NUREG-0544]

USE: upper-shelf energy [NUREG-0544]

USEC: U.S. Enrichment Corporation [NUREG-0544]

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey [NUREG-0544]

USI: unresolved safety issue [NUREG-0544]

USNDC: U.S. Nuclear Data Committee [NUREG-0544]

USNRC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NUREG-0544]

USP: upper sequential permissive [NUREG-0544]

USPHS: U.S. Public Health Service [NUREG-0544]

USQ: unreviewed safety question [NUREG-0544]

USQD: unresolved safety question determination [NUREG-0544]

USRP: updated standard review plan [NUREG-0544]

UST: United States Testing Co. [NUREG-0544]

USWB: U.S. Weather Bureau [NUREG-0544]

UT: ultrasonic test, ultrasonic testing, universal time [NUREG-0544]

U/Th: uranium-to-thorium ratio [NUREG-0544]

UT/ISI: ultrasonic inservice inspection [NUREG-0544]

UTM: universal transverse Mercator [NUREG-0544]

UTP: upper tie plate [NUREG-0544]

UTR: university training reactor [NUREG-0544]

UTRR: University of Teheran Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UTS: upper tube sheet [NUREG-0544]

UU: ultimate user [NUREG-0544]

UUCP: Unix-to-Unix copy program [NUREG-0544]

UV: undervoltage [NUREG-0544]

UVAR: University of Virginia Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UVR: undervoltage relay, University of Virginia Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UVSC: uranium ventilation scrubber cell [NUREG-0544]

UVTA: undervoltage trip attachment [NUREG-0544]

UWRR: University of Wyoming Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UWTR: University of Washington Training Reactor [NUREG-0544]

UXO: unexploded ordnance [NUREG-0544]

UZ: unsaturated zone [NUREG-0544]

Ultraviolet: Electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength between the shortest visible violet and low energy x-rays. [NRC]

Unadjusted Total Life-Cycle Costs: Total life-cycle costs without productivity savings. [DOELL]

Uncosted Obligations Carryover: The dollar amount of goods and services on order (obligated) for which costs have not yet been incurred. See Betty Smedley's November 8, 1996 memo. [DOEEMGMT]

Underground testing: Testing of a nuclear device or its effects by exploding it underground. [DOE/EM-0319]

Undistributed Budget (UB): Budget within the performance measurement baseline applicable to the work effort that has not yet been identified to both a responsible organization and a WBS (WBS) element. [DOEEMGMT]

Unencumbered Funds: The balance of funds after subtracting contractor encumbrances, approved work scope, and pre-financing. Unencumbered funds represent potential excess funding, resulting from project and program underruns and program withdrawals and reallocations, which can be used to support current or future Departmental funding requirements. [DOEEMGMT]

Unified Budget System (UBS): A Windows based EM Budget System to provide EM-23 Budget Analysts with a tool to prepare the budget during the Budget Formulation and Budget Execution lifecycles. [DOEEMGMT]

Unobligated Balance: The amount of budget authority previously granted to DOE in an appropriation that has not yet been committed to a project and continues to be available for future spending. [DOEEMGMT]

Unrestricted area: The area outside the owner-controlled portion of a nuclear facility (usually the site boundary). An area in which a person could not be exposed to radiation levels in excess of 2 millirems in any one hour from external sources (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Unrestricted Land Use: Unfenced areas where there is no restriction on the types of activities that may occur, including permanent residential use. [DOE/EM-0466]

Unsealed source: Radioactive material that is not encapsulated or otherwise sealed, and which forms a source of radiation. For example, radioactive material in use as a "tracer". [AT]

Unstable isotope: A radioactive isotope. [NRC]

Uranium: A radioactive, silvery-white metallic element with the atomic number 92; the heaviest naturally occurring element. The basic material for nuclear technology. This element is naturally slightly radioactive and can be refined to a heavy metal more dense than lead. Uranium is 40 times more common than silver. Uranium has 14 known isotopes, of which uranium-238 is the most abundant in nature. Uranium-235 is commonly used as a fuel for nuclear fission. Mined uranium has three naturally occurring radioactive isotopes: uranium-234, which is less than .01 percent of natural uranium; fissile uranium-235, which is about 0.7 percent of natural uranium; and fertile uranium-238, which comprises about 99.3 percent which is only fissionable by fast neutrons. [DOE/EM-0319, DOE/EM-0466, DOE/EA-1172, NRC]

Uranium 233: A manmade fissile isotope of uranium. [DOE/EM-0266]

Uranium 235: The lighter of the two main isotopes of uranium. Uranium 235 makes up approximately 0.7 percent of the uranium that is mined from the ground. It has a half-life of 714 million years. Uranium 235 is the only naturally occurring fissile element. [DOE/EM-0266]

Uranium-238: Depleted Uranium. The heavier of the two main isotopes of uranium. Uranium-238 makes up over 99 percent of uranium that is mined from the ground. It has a halflife of 4.5 billion years and is not easily split by neutrons. [DOE/EM-0319]

Uranium Dioxide: UO2. A black insoluble crystalline substance used in fuel rods for nuclear reactors.

Uranium fuel fabrication facility: A facility that (1) manufactures reactor fuel containing uranium for any of the following (i) preparation of fuel materials; (ii) formation of fuel materials into desired shapes; (iii) application of protective cladding; (iv) recovery of scrap material; and (v) storage associated with such operations; or (2) conducts research and development activities. [NRC]

Uranium hexafluoride (UF6): a white solid compound of uranium and fluorine obtained by chemical treatment of U3O8 and which forms a gas vapor at temperatures above 56 degrees Centigrade. UF6 is the form of uranium required for the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. [DOE/EA-1172]

Uranium hexafluoride production facility A facility that receives natural uranium in the form of ore concentrate; enriches it, either by gaseous diffusion or gas centrifuge methods; and converts it into uranium hexafluoride (UF6). [NRC]

Uranium mill: A plant where uranium is separated from ore taken from mines. [DOE/EM-0319]

Uranium mill tailings: Tailings or waste produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content. More than 99 percent of the ore becomes tailings. [DOE/EM-0266, DOE/EM-0466]. Made up of decay products of uranium, tailings are much more hazardous than the natural uranium which they reside with.

Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978: Public Law 95-604. The act that directed DOE to provide for stabilization and control of the uranium mill tailings from inactive uranium milling sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. It authorized the Department to undertake remedial actions at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and at an estimated 5,048 vicinity properties. [DOE/EM-0466]

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA): A DOE program to reduce the hazards posed to the public by uranium mill tailings; to plan, implement, and complete environmental restoration (e.g. cleanup of contaminated surface water and groundwater) at inactive uranium-processing sites and their vicinity sites, as directed and authorized by the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. [DOE/EM-0466] The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for implementing the UMTRA Project. [DOE/EM-0319]

Uranium mining, milling, and refining: Mining and milling involves extracting uranium ore from the earth's crust and chemically milling (processing) it to prepare uranium concentrate (U3O8), sometimes called uranium octaoxide or "yellowcake". Uranium concentrate is refined, or chemically converted, to purify it into the form suitable as feed material suitable for further use. [DOE/EM-0319]

Uranium Oxide (U3O8): Uranium concentrate or yellowcake. See also Pitcheblende, MOx. [DOE/EA-1172]

Uranium reserves: Estimated quantities of uranium in known mineral deposits of such size, grade, and configuration that the uranium could be recovered at or below a specific production cost with currently proven mining and processing technology and under current law and regulations. [DOE/EA-1172]

Uranium Trioxide: UO3. Uranic Acid, Uranyl Oxide. A red insoluble powder. See also MOx.

USACE: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [TNRCC]

U.S.C.: United States Code [TNRCC]

U.S. Enrichment Corporation (USEC): A wholly-owned government corporation created by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to take over DOE's uranium enrichment functions and eventually to be privatized; USEC is currently the only domestic provider of uranium enrichment services. [DOE/EA-1172]

USEC Privatization Act: Public Law 104-134, enacted in 1996, set the groundwork for privatization of USEC. In addition, it authorized DOE to sell its surplus uranium as long as certain conditions are met. [DOE/EA-1172]

USGS: United States Geological Survey

UST: Underground Storage Tank

|------------------------ V ------------------------|

v%: volume percent [NUREG-0544]

VA: viability assessment, vital area [NUREG-0544]

Vac: volts alternating current [NUREG-0544]

VAK: Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

VAN: value-added network [NUREG-0544]

VANS: vehicular alert and notification system [NUREG-0544]

VAR: volt amperes reactive [NUREG-0544]

VAT: Vulnerability Assessment Team [NUREG-0544]

VBMR: ventilation barrier machine room [NUREG-0544]

VBWR: Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor [NUREG-0544]

VC: vaporizer concentrate [NUREG-0544]

VCC: ventilated concrete cask [NUREG-0544]

VCD: vendor-certified drawing [NUREG-0544]

VCLF: vertical cask-lifting fixture [NUREG-0544]

VCM: vinyl chloride monomer [NUREG-0544]

VCT: volume control tank [NUREG-0544]

VDA: video graphics adapter [NUREG-0544]

VDC: ventilation duct chase [NUREG-0544]

Vdc: volts direct current [NUREG-0544]

VDEW: Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitätswerke (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

VD/OS: vacuum distillation/overflow sampler [NUREG-0544]

VDS: vacuum defueling system [NUREG-0544]

VDTUV: Vereinigung der Technischen Überwachungs-Vereine, e.V. (Germany) [NUREG-0544]

VE: Vitro Engineering [NUREG-0544]

VEC: vertical electrical chase [NUREG-0544]

VEPCO: Virginia Electric and Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

VESIAC: Vela Seismic Information and Analysis Center [NUREG-0544]

VESR: Vallecitos Experimental Superheat Reactor [NUREG-0544]

VF: vaporizer feed [NUREG-0544]

VFTP: ventilation filter testing program [NUREG-0544]

VGCH: vent gas collection header [NUREG-0544]

VGES: variable geometry experimental system [NUREG-0544]

VHES: Vitro Hanford Engineering Service [NUREG-0544]

VHF: very high frequency [NUREG-0544]

VHP: vessel head penetration [NUREG-0544]

VHPT: variable high-power trip [NUREG-0544]

VHTR: very high temperature reactor [NUREG-0544]

VI: vent isolation [NUREG-0544]

VIA: value-impact analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

VIMS: Virginia Institute of Marine Science [NUREG-0544]

VIRG: Vessel Integrity Review Group [NUREG-0544]

VISA: vessel integrity simulation analysis [NUREG-0544]

VIV: variable inlet vane [NUREG-0544]

VNSP: vacant nozzle shield plug [NUREG-0544]

VOG: vessel off-gas [NUREG-0544]

VOT: valve opening time [NUREG-0544]

VOTA: vibration open test assembly [NUREG-0544]

VOTES: valve operation test and evaluation system [NUREG-0544]

VP: Alvin W. Vogtle, Jr., Plant - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, vent-clearing pressure [NUREG-0544]

VPI: vapor phase inhibitor [NUREG-0544]

VQAR: vendor quality assurance representative [NUREG-0544]

VR: volume reduction [NUREG-0544]

VRS: vacuum relief system, volume reduction system [NUREG-0544]

VS: vapor suppression, vendor specific, vessel system, virtual storage [NUREG-0544]

VSC: ventilated storage cask [NUREG-0544]

VSE: vessel steam explosion [NUREG-0544]

VSLO: valve stem leakoff [NUREG-0544]

VSNS: Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

VSR: Vallecitos Superheat Reactor, vertical slice review [NUREG-0544]

VSS: vessel support subsystem [NUREG-0544]

VST: valve set point tolerance [NUREG-0544]

VT: vehicular technology [NUREG-0544]

VTEC: Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. [NUREG-0544]

VTEP: Vermont Electric Power Co., Inc. [NUREG-0544]

VTO: vital to operations [NUREG-0544]

VTT: Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus (Finland) [NUREG-0544]

V&V: verification and validation [NUREG-0544]

VWAC: visual weld acceptance criterion/criteria [NUREG-0544]

VWE: vanadium wire equilibration [NUREG-0544]

VWED: vanadium wire equilibration device [NUREG-0544]

VWI: visual weld inspection, visual weld inspector [NUREG-0544]

VWO: valve wide open [NUREG-0544]

VYGS: Vermont Yankee Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

VYNP: Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. [NUREG-0544]

Valid List: A compilation of a ADS/TTP numbers, with their associated titles, Budget and Reporting Codes, WBS numbers, and status types. The valid list is used to support the planning, budgeting, accounting, and project management disciplines. The valid list incorporates all ADS/TTP numbers, regardless of how or when these are used in the EM Program. [DOEEMGMT]

Van de Graff generator: An electrostatic generator in which a high electrical potential is produced by the accumulation of electric charge conveyed to an insulated conductor by a continuously moving belt. The potential may be used for accelerating charged particles. [AT]

Variance: The difference between planned and actual performance. [DOEEMGMT]

Variance Threshold (VT): A value, specified as a percentage or a dollar value, that is used as a control for evaluating cost or schedule variance. Variances that exceed the variance threshold (either positively or negatively) are analyzed to determine actions to correct the variance. [DOEEMGMT]

Vela Satellites: Vela was a series of 12 satellites developed for the U.S. Defense Advanced Projects Agency to detect nuclear detonations in the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites were launched (1963-70) in pairs from a single vehicle and placed 180 degrees apart, in circular orbits of about 111,000 km (69,000 mi) altitude. On Sept. 22, 1979, a Vela reported a brilliant flash between Africa and Antarctica. Some analysts have suggested the possibility of a clandestine nuclear test by South Africa or some other country; the satellite may have been hit by a micrometeoroid, however. [ATARC]

Very high radiation area: An area in which radiation levels exceed 500 rad (5 gray) in one hour at 1 meter from the source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Viability assessment: A Department of Energy decision making process to judge the prospects for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes at Yucca Mountain based on (1) specific design work on the critical elements of the repository and waste package, (2) a total system performance assessment that will describe the probable behavior of the repository, (3) a plan and cost estimate for the work required to complete a license application, and (4) an estimate of the costs to construct and operate the repository (see 10 CFR Part 60). [NRC]

Vicinity properties: Locations away from inactive mill sites where uranium mill tailings were used for construction or were transported by wind or water erosion. [DOE/EM-0319]

Vitrification: A process that stabilizes nuclear waste by mixing it with molten glass. This process does not reduce radioactivity. Waste is transformed from a liquid or sludge into an immobile solid that traps radionuclides and prevents waste from contaminating soil, groundwater, and surface water. The glass mixture is poured into cylindrical metal canisters, where it hardens into logs. The DOE will use borosilicate glass to immobilize its high level radioactive waste. Plants for vitrifying high-level waste have been built in the United States at West Valley, New York, and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. [DOE/EM-0319, DOE/EM-0466] The conversion of high-level waste materials into a glassy or noncrystalline solid for subsequent disposal. [DOE-IDB97]

The process of converting materials into a glass-like substance, typically through a thermal process. Radionuclides and other inorganics are chemically bonded in the glass matrix. Consequently vitrified materials generally perform very well in leach tests. EPA has specified, under the land disposal restrictions, vitrification to be the treatment technology for high-level waste (55 FR 22627, June 1, 1990). [EPA-MW]

VOC: Volatile Organic Compound

Void: An area of lower density in a moderating system (such as steam bubbles in water) that allows more neutron leakage than does the more dense material around it.[NRC]

Void coefficient of reactivity: The change in reactivity per percent change in void content due to an increase in the neutron leakage as the density of the moderator decreases with an increasing void content. [NRC]

Volume reduction: A variety of techniques that reduce the overall disposal volume of low-level waste. Volume reduction uses technologies, including incineration, com-paction or supercompaction, size reduction, and evaporation or concentration. [EPALLRW]

|------------------------ W ------------------------|

W: Westinghouse Electric Corp. [NUREG-0544]

w%: weight percent [NUREG-0544]

WAGR: Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

W-AL: Westinghouse-Astronuclear Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

WAMS: Work Action Management System [NUREG-0544]

WAN: wide-area network [NUREG-0544]

WANO: World Association of Nuclear Operators [NUREG-0544]

WAPA: wet annular poison assembly [NUREG-0544]

WAPD: Westinghouse Atomic Power Division [NUREG-0544]

WAPPA: waste package performance assessment [NUREG-0544]

W-ARD: Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division [NUREG-0544]

WASI: workforce analysis, systems, and information [NUREG-0544]

WB: whole body [NUREG-0544]

WBEP: Watts Bar Engineering Project [NUREG-0544]

WBNP: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

WBNPP: Watts Bar Nuclear Performance Plan [NUREG-0544]

WBNS: water-boiler neutron source [NUREG-0544]

WBPP: Watts Bar Program Plan [NUREG-0544]

WBPT: Watts Bar Program Team [NUREG-0544]

WBS: work breakdown structure [NUREG-0544]

WC: weather condition [NUREG-0544]

WCA: whole-core accident [NUREG-0544]

WCAP: Westinghouse commercial atomic power [NUREG-0544]

WCF: waste-calcinating facility [NUREG-0544]

WCFO: Walnut Creek Field Office [NUREG-0544]

WCGS: Wolf Creek Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

WCL: Westinghouse Canada Limited [NUREG-0544]

WCNOC: Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corp. [NUREG-0544]

WCS: waste compaction station [NUREG-0544]

WD: waste disposal, withdrawn [NUREG-0544]

WDC: waste disposal cask, weld data card [NUREG-0544]

WDS: waste disposal system [NUREG-0544]

WDTRS: Westinghouse development test requirement specification [NUREG-0544]

WEC: Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Wolverine Electric Cooperative [NUREG-0544]

WECAN: Westinghouse Electric computer analysis/analyses [NUREG-0544]

WECST: waste evaporator condensate storage tank [NUREG-0544]

WECT: waste evaporator condensate tank [NUREG-0544]

WEP: water-extended polyester, weld evaluation project [NUREG-0544]

WEPC: Wisconsin Electric Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

WEPCO: Wisconsin Electric Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

WESF: waste encapsulation storage facility [NUREG-0544]

WESI: Westinghouse Energy Systems International (formerly WNI Nuclear) [NUREG-0544]

WESPAC: Westchester People's Action Coalition [NUREG-0544]

WFMC: welding filler material control [NUREG-0544]

WFML: weld filler metal log [NUREG-0544]

WG: waste gas, water gauge [NUREG-0544]

WGC: waste gas compressor [NUREG-0544]

WGDS: waste gas disposal system [NUREG-0544]

WGDT: waste gas decay tank [NUREG-0544]

WGIS: waste containment and isolation strategy [NUREG-0544]

WGS: waste gas system, Waterford Generating Station [NUREG-0544]

WHC: Westinghouse Hanford Company [NUREG-0544]

WHEDL: Westinghouse-Hanford Environmental Development Laboratory [NUREG-0544]

WHO: World Health Organization [NUREG-0544]

WHT: waste holdup tank [NUREG-0544]

WIEB: Western Interstate Energy Board [NUREG-0544]

WIEP: Wisconsin Electric Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

WINB: Western Interstate Nuclear Board [NUREG-0544]

WIPP: waste isolation pilot plant [NUREG-0544]

WIR: weekly information report [NUREG-0544]

WISE: World Information Service on Energy [NUREG-0544]

WISHA: Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act [NUREG-0544]

WISP: workload information and scheduling program [NUREG-0544]

WITS: work item tracking system [NUREG-0544]

WLM: working-level month [NUREG-0544]

WMEC: Western Massachusetts Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

WMM: wall-mounted manipulator [NUREG-0544]

WMNS: William B. McGuire Nuclear Station [NUREG-0544]

WMO: World Meteorological Organization [NUREG-0544]

WMPC: Wisconsin Michigan Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

WMS: waste management system, work management system [NUREG-0544]

WMT: waste management tank [NUREG-0544]

WNES: Westinghouse nuclear energy system [NUREG-0544]

WNFM: World Nuclear Fuel Market [NUREG-0544]

WNP: Washington Nuclear Project [NUREG-0544]

WNT: waste neutralization tank, waste neutralizing tank [NUREG-0544]

WNYNRC: Western New York Nuclear Research Center [NUREG-0544]

WO: work order [NUREG-0544]

WOFA: Westinghouse optimized fuel assembly [NUREG-0544]

WOG: Westinghouse Owners Group [NUREG-0544]

WOR: weld overlay repair [NUREG-0544]

WP: warm pipe, welding procedure, welding project, work package, work procedure [NUREG-0544]

WPB: waste processing building [NUREG-0544]

WPBCWS: waste processing building chilled water system [NUREG-0544]

WPC: Werner and Pfleiderer Corp. [NUREG-0544]

WPCB: Waste Processing Control Board [NUREG-0544]

WPLC: Wisconsin Power & Light Co. [NUREG-0544]

WPPSS: Washington Public Power Supply System [NUREG-0544]

WPQR: welding procedure qualification record [NUREG-0544]

WPS: warm prestressing, waste processing system, welding procedure specification [NUREG-0544]

WPSC: Wisconsin Public Service Corp. [NUREG-0544]

WQC: water quality certification [NUREG-0544]

WR: Whiteshell Reactor (Canada), wide range, work request [NUREG-0544]

WRAP: water reactor analysis program [NUREG-0544]

WRC: Welding Research Council [NUREG-0544]

WRGM: wide-range gas monitor [NUREG-0544]

WRM: wide-range monitor, working reference material [NUREG-0544]

W-RM: Westinghouse--Reactor Manufacturer [NUREG-0544]

WRNMS: wide-range neutron monitoring system [NUREG-0544]

WRRR: Walter Reed Research Reactor [NUREG-0544]

WRSR: water reactor safety research [NUREG-0544]

WRT: with respect to [NUREG-0544]

WS: warm shop [NUREG-0544]

WSA: work situation approach [NUREG-0544]

WSCC: Western Systems Coordinating Council [NUREG-0544]

WSCS: waste solidification and compaction station [NUREG-0544]

WSD: working stress design [NUREG-0544]

WSF: waste shipping facility [NUREG-0544]

WSMF: welded-steel moment-resisting frame [NUREG-0544]

WSUOPR: Washington State University Open-Pool Reactor [NUREG-0544]

WT: wall thickness [NUREG-0544]

WTF: waste treatment facility [NUREG-0544]

WTP: water treatment plant [NUREG-0544]

WTR: Westinghouse Test Reactor [NUREG-0544]

WVN: water vapor nitrogen [NUREG-0544]

WVOG: wet vessel off-gas [NUREG-0544]

WW: well water [NUREG-0544]

WWPC: Washington Water Power Co. [NUREG-0544]

WWS: well water system [NUREG-0544]

WWTF: waste water treatment facility [NUREG-0544]

WAC: waste acceptance criteria [DOELLWRpt]

Waste: Includes high-level, transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level and 11e(2) byproduct material. [DOE/EM-0319]

Waste acceptance criteria: The requirements specifying the characteristics of waste and waste packaging acceptable to a waste-receiving facility and the documents and processes the generator needs to certify that the waste meets applicable requirements.

Waste Area Group (WAG): A grouping of facilities and release sites with area-wide soil and ground-water contamination that is not readily traceable to individual facilities or sites. Generally, a WAG is a geographically contiguous and hydrologically defined area. [DOEEMGMT]

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): A DOE geologic disposal facility designed and authorized to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste in a mined underground facility located 2,150 feet below the surface in an excavated geologic salt bed. The facility is in southeastern New Mexico, 26 miles (42 km) east of the city of Carlsbad. [DOE/EM-0266, DOE/EM-0466] The facility is "to be used for demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic wastes from DOE defense-related activities." [DOE-IDB97]

Waste Management: Activities that include treating, storing, and disposing of high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, hazardous chemical waste, and sanitary waste. [DOE/EM-0342]

Waste Management Program (WM): The Environmental Management (EM) program that manages the treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary waste generated by DOE activities. This program's efforts are dedicated to addressing the backlog of stored and new waste generated by EM's cleanup efforts. [DOEEMGMT]

Waste minimization: An action that economically avoids or reduces the generation of waste by reducing the source, by reducing the toxicity of hazardous waste, by improving energy usage, or by recycling. [EPALLRW]

Waste, radioactive: Solid, liquid, and gaseous materials from nuclear operations that are radioactive or become radioactive and for which there is no further use. Wastes are generally classified as high-level (having radioactivity concentrations of hundreds of thousands of curies per gallon or foot), low-level (in the range of 1 microcurie per gallon or foot), or intermediate level (between these extremes) (see 10 CFR Parts 60 and 61). [NRC]

Waste stream: LLRW possessing similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics and behaving similarly in a LLRW management facility [TNRCC]

Waste Type: A classification of unwanted materials known as waste. Some waste types are high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), hazardous waste (HAZ), mixed waste, sanitary waste (SAN), or spent nuclear fuel (SNF). [DOEEMGMT]

Waste Type Funding: The percentage of an ADS funding that is applicable to the management of a type of waste. [DOEEMGMT]

Watt: An electrical unit of power. 1 watt = 1 Joule/second. [NRC]

WBS Element Description: A brief description of the scope of work covered by the WBS element. [DOEEMGMT]

WBS Element Narrative: A narrative description of the monthly status of the WBS (WBS) element. This is a summary description pertaining to all the ADS or TTP contained in the WBS element. [DOEEMGMT]

WBS Number: A number that designates the location of an element in the WBS (WBS). [DOEEMGMT]

WBS Title: The descriptive title of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) element. [DOEEMGMT]

Weapons-grade plutonium: Plutonium that contains at least 93% plutonium-239 isotope by mass. [DOE/EM-0319]

Weapons-grade uranium: Uranium made up of over 90 percent of thefissile uranium-235 isotope. [DOE/EM-0319]

Weapons operations: Includes the assembly, modification, maintenance, and dismantlement of nuclear weapons. Assembly is the final process of joining together separately manufactured components and major parts into complete, functional, and certified nuclear weapon warheads for delivery to the Department of Defense. [DOE/EM-0319]

WM PEIS: Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement [DOELLWRpt]

Weighting factor (Weighting factor, WT): Multipliers of the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue used for radiation protection purposes to account for different sensitivities of different organs and tissues to the induction of stochastic effects of radiation (see 10 CFR 20.1003). [NRC]

Weldon Spring: Named for a town near St. Louis, Missouri, the Weldon Spring plant first performed many of the same uranium processing operations as the Fernald plant. The Weldon Spring plant operated from 1957 to 1966. [DOE/EM-0266]

Well-logging: A technique used in oil and gas exploration to help predict the commercial viability of new or existing wells. It involves lowering a well-logging tool, including a sealed source of radioactive material, into a well on a wire. This device sends data on the well's underground characteristics to the surface, where it is plotted on a chart. [NRC]

West Valley Demonstration Project: A plant near Buffalo, New York, used to demonstrate the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. West Valley operated from 1966 to 1972. A vitrification plant for high-level waste has been built at the site. [DOE/EM-0266]

Whatif Description: A user defined description of a what-if scenario. [DOEEMGMT]

Whatif Identification: An identifier of a what-if scenario. [DOEEMGMT]

Wheeling Service: The movement of electricity from one system to another over transmission facilities of intervening systems. Wheeling service contracts can be established between two or more systems. [NRC]

Whole-Body Counter: A device used to identify and measure the radioactive material in the body (body burden) of human beings and animals. It uses heavy shielding to keep out background radiation and ultrasensitive radiation detectors and electronic counting equipment.

Whole-body exposure: An exposure of the body to radiation, in which the entire body, rather than an isolated part, is irradiated. Where a radioisotope is uniformly distributed throughout the body tissues, rather than being concentrated in certain parts, the irradiation can be considered as whole-body exposure. [NRC]

Whole body monitors An assembly of large scintillation detectors or proportional counters, heavily shielded against background radiation, used to identify and measure the total gamma-radiation emitted by the human body. This will include radiation form normal constituents of the body, such as potassium and other minerals (including fall-out from weapons tests) taken in with foodstuffs. All this forms the back-ground against which the desired measurements must be made of the gamma activity and/or X-rays, e.g. to radioactive materials inhaled or ingested accidentally or as a result of working conditions. [AT]

Wipe sample: A sample made for the purpose of determining the presence of removable radioactive contamination on a surface. It is done by wiping, with slight pressure, a piece of soft filter paper over a representative type of surface area. It is also known as a "swipe or smear" sample. [NRC]

WIPP: see Waste Isolation Pilot Project.

WIPP Land Withdrawal Act: A law, passed by Congress in October 1992 and amended in September 1996. The act transferred the land occupied by the WIPP to DOE and gave EPA, among other things, regulatory responsibility for determining whether the facility complies with radioactive waste disposal standards. [NSCEHC]

WQA: Water Quality Act of 1987

Work Area Grouping (WAG): A basic organizational unit of sites used to manage areas that are similarly contaminated. [DOE/EM-0342]

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): A product-oriented family tree division of hardware, software, facilities, and other items, which organizes, defines, and displays all of the work to be performed in accomplishing the project objectives. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) organizes the products of the work efforts into a hierarchy of elements, starting from the overall objectives or end products in the statement of work. This establishes framework for assigning responsibilities, delineating sub-objectives, and monitoring progress. [DOEEMGMT]

Work Package: Subdivisions of the lowest level WBS element accorded detailed scope, schedule (start and completion points), budget, a description of scope (including activities), and responsible manager. [DOEEMGMT]

Work Scope: Translation of the technical objective in the project baseline to specific, quantitative, and qualitative elements of work to be accomplished. The work scope includes steps, methods, and activities to accomplish the technical objectives.

WVDP: West Valley Demonstration Plant, the name of the vitrification plant for high-level radioactive wastes at West Valley, New York. [IEER]

|------------------------ X ------------------------|

XLPE: cross-linked polyethylene [NUREG-0544]

XR: export reactor [NUREG-0544]

XRF: explosion release factor, x-ray fluorescence [NUREG-0544]

Xenon effect The rapid but temporary "poisoning" of a reactor by the build-up of Xenon-135 from the radioactive decay of the fission product Iodine-135. Xenon-135 is a strong absorber of neutrons and until it (and its parent) have largely decayed away, reactor start-up can be difficult. [AT]

X-rays Electromagnetic radiation's having wavelengths much shorter (i.e. energy much higher) than those of visible light. X-rays with clearly defined energies are produced by atomic orbital electron transitions, and are akin to gamma-rays but usually of lower energy. X-rays produced by the interaction of high energy electrons with matter have a continuous energy spectrum, and it is these that are generally used in medical X-ray machines. In nuclear reactions, it is customary to refer to photons originating in the nucleus as x-rays. [AT] Penetrating electromagnetic radiation (photon) having a wavelength that is much shorter than that of visible light. These rays are usually produced by excitation of the electron field around certain nuclei. In nuclear reactions, it is customary to refer to photons originating in the nucleus as gamma rays, and to those originating in the electron field of the atom as X-rays. These rays are sometimes called roentgen rays after their discoverer, W.K. Roentgen. [TDHBRC]

X-ray Fluorescence An element may be identified and measured by the characteristic discrete X-rays emitted when it is irradiated by radiation of a slightly higher energy. The effect, due to transitions in the energy status of the orbital electrons, forms the basis of a useful analytical technique. [AT]

|------------------------ Y ------------------------|

YAE: Yankee Atomic Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

YAEC: Yankee Atomic Electric Co. [NUREG-0544]

YATA: York Area Transportation Authority [NUREG-0544]

YCNP: Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

YNHH: Yale-New Haven Hospital [NUREG-0544]

YNPS: Yankee Nuclear Power Station [NUREG-0544]

Y-12: A plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, built for the Manhattan Project to enrich uranium using calutrons. Today, this plant produces and stores components made of enriched and depleted [DOE/EM-0266]

Yellowcake: Uranium is sent from the uranium mill to the refinery in this form. Yellowcake is the product of the uranium extraction (milling) process; early production methods resulted in a bright yellow compound, hence the name yellowcake. The material is a mixture of uranium oxides that can vary in proportion and in color from yellow to orange to dark green (blackish) depending at which temperature the material was dried (level of hydration and impurities). The higher drying temperatures produce a darker, less soluble material. Yellowcake is commonly referred to as U3O8 and is assayed as pounds U3O8 equivalent. This fine powder is packaged in drums and sent to a conversion plant that produces uranium hexafluoride (UF6) as the next step in the manufacture of nuclear fuel. This uranium oxide concentrate results from milling (concentrating) uranium ore and typically contains 80 to 90 wt % U3O8.

yield: Measurement of the energy released by a nuclear explosion. [IEER] The total effective energy released, usually expressed in terms of the equivalent tonnage of TNT required to produce the same energy release.[ATARC]

Yucca Mountain : A site on, and adjacent to, the Nevada Test Site that is being examined to determine whether it is suitable for use as a geologic repository for the DOE's High Level Waste, Spent Nuclear Fuel, and possibly for waste that is defined as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC). A key element of permanent disposal is that it must be able to isolate highly radioactive waste for thousands of years because its radioactivity can harm people and the environment. According to the 1992 Energy Policy Act, EPA is to set generally applicable standards based upon public health and safety standards and be consistent with the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences for the protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in the repository at the Yucca Mountain site. [EPA-MW]

|------------------------ X ------------------------|

ZEA: zero energy assembly [NUREG-0544]

ZEEP: Zero Energy Experimental Pile (Canada) [NUREG-0544]

ZEPHYR: zero energy fast reactor [NUREG-0544]

ZES: zero energy system [NUREG-0544]

ZETA: Zero Energy Thermonuclear Apparatus (United Kingdom), zero energy thermonuclear assembly [NUREG-0544]

ZETR: Zero Energy Thermal Reactor (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

ZEUS: Zero Energy Uranium System (United Kingdom) [NUREG-0544]

ZGS: zero gradient synchrotron [NUREG-0544]

ZIP: zone improvement plan [NUREG-0544]

ZNP: Zion Nuclear Plant [NUREG-0544]

ZPA: zero period acceleration [NUREG-0544]

ZPMB: zero power mode bypass [NUREG-0544]

ZPPR: zero power plutonium reactor [NUREG-0544]

ZPR: zero power reactor [NUREG-0544]

ZPRF: zero power reactor facility [NUREG-0544]

ZPSS: Zion Probabilistic Safety Study [NUREG-0544]

ZTO: zero time outage [NUREG-0544]

ZWOK: zirconium-water oxidation kinetics [NUREG-0544]